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Full text of "The Humming bird"

^ 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




i 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 

Bequest of 
WILLIAM BREWSTER 



à-Jukuu 



obi I93C. 



WILLIAM BREWSTER 1 


f 1 



FEB 21 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/hummingbird41894bouc 



THE 



HUMMING BIRD. 



A QUARTERLY 



SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, and INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



EDITED BY 



A. BOUCARD. 



VOLUME IV. 



lEontion, 189^. 
Entered at Stationers' Hall. 

All Rights Reserved. 

s 



ffiournemoutb : 

Pardy & Son, General Printers. 



NEW GENERA and SPECIES OF BIRDS and SHELL. 

Described in Volume IV. of the Humming Bird. 



Thalurania bolivania, 
gmelinius, n.g., 
Chlorostilbon wiedi, 
Chlorostilbon panamensis, 
lawrencius, n.g., 



AVES.— Trochili. 

Boucard, Gen. H. Bird 



Type, Gmel. Bicolor 
Type, L. ctipreiceps 



SHELLS. 



Arca boucardi, Joussaume, H. Bird 



PAGE 

107 
108 
120 
124 
173 

4i 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV. 

Wonderful Discovery in Colorado (Mexico) 

Recent Scientific and other Publications, with notes by the Editor 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 
The Hawks and Owls of the United States in their relation to 

Agriculture, by A. K. Fisher 
Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, Vol. XXL, Columbae or 

Pigeons, by T. Salvadori 
Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, Vol. XXII., The Game 

Birds, by Ogilvie Grant 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, Part IV., 1892, and 

Parts L, IL, and III., 1893 
Zoological Record, Vol. XXIX., edited by Doctor Sharp 
The Ibis, Sixth Series, Vol. V., edited by Philip Lutley Sclater 
The Ibis, Vol. VI., No. 21, edited by Philip Lutley Sclater 
Bulletin of the British Ornithologist's Club, 1892-1893 
Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France, Tome V., 5èm partie, et 

Tome VI., 1893 
Congrès International des Amêricanistes. Compte Rendu de la 

Huilième Session tenue à Paris en i8go 
Sociedade de Geographiade Lisboa; Indices e Catalogos,A Bibliotheca,i8g3 
Revista mensual de la Sociedad Guatemalteca de Ciencias, 1893 
The Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, 1893 

Ornithologische Monatsberichte, edited by Dr. Ant. Reichenow, Berlin, 1893 
The Canadian Entomologist, edited by Rev. C. T. S. Bethune, Ontario, 1893 
Twenty-third Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 1893 
Bulletin of the United States National Museum, Washington, 1892 
North American Fauna, No. 7, Part IL, Washington, 1893 
Anales del Instituto fisico-geografico del Museode Costa Rica,Tome III., 1892 
Die Vogel der Insel Curacao, by Hans von Berlepsch, 1892 
The Flying Man, by the Editor 
Visits to the Zoological Society Gardens, London, by W. H. Rosenberg 
A Nursery of Insects 
Description d'une nouvelle espèce de Coquille du Japon du genre Arca 

par le Docteur Félix Joussaume 
The Use of Salt for Agricultural Purposes, by the Editor 
Are Ants of Aid to Fruit Growers ?.. 
Banana Culture 

Strange Phenomenon in California, Formation of an Inland Sea 
Waste Products made Useful — How to Preserve Animals 
The English Snake, by W. Rosenberg 
The Great Lakes, by G. A. . . 
Inhabited Worlds (The World) 
ElCoco 

Many Eyed Monster 
The Telescope and the Microscope 
Mistakes about Alcohol — Cotton Seed Oil 
Genera Avium 



PAGE 
I 
2 
2 



6 

7 

8 

11 

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41 

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62 
64 

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66 
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68 



TRAVELS OF A NATURALIST, 
By A. Boucard. 



Interoceanic Canals 
Maritime Canal Company 

of Nicaragua 
Granada 
Garapatas 
Danta or Tapir 
San Juan del Norte 
New York 

Principal Buildings of New York 
Central Park 
The 4th of July and Presidential 

Elections 
Theatres, Commerce and Industry 
Emigrants 

International Exhibition of 1854 
English Sparrows 
First Discoveries of America 
European Expeditions in North 

America 
First Settlement of the Dutch in 

New York 
Old description of New York . . 
Description of the Natives of 

New York, at the time of the 

first expeditions to that country 
Customs of the Natives 



PAGE 

127 

133 

138 

139 
141 

143 
144 

H7 
149 

Ï5 1 
153 
155 
I 57 
159 
162 

166 

169 
171 



174 
175 



Treaty of Peace, between 

and America 
Washington . . 
John Adams . . 
Thomas Jefferson 
James Madison 
James Monroe 
John Quincy Adams 
Andrew Jackson 
Martin Van Buren 
William Henry Harrison 
John Tyler . . 
James K. Polk 
Zachary Taylor 
Millard Fillmore 
Franklin Pierce 
James Buchanan 
Abraham Lincoln 
Andrew Johnson 
Ulysses S. Grant 
Rutherford Hayes 
James Garfield 
Chester Arthur 
Grover Cleveland 
Benjamin Harrison 
Grover Cleveland 



England 

. 177 

• 179 

. 182 

. 183 

. 185 

. 186 

. 188 

. 189 

. 190 

. 191 

. 192 

• 193 

• 193 

• 194 

• 194 

• 195 

• 195 

• 197 
. 198 
, 199 

199 

. 200 

, 202 

203 

203 



GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, 



THALURANIDAE PAGE 

Gmelinius, n.g. Boucard . . 108 

Phaeoptila, Gould . . . . iog 

Iache, Elliot . . . . . . no 

CHLOROLAMPIDAE. 

Chlorolampis, Cab. .. . . 113 

Sporadinus, Bon. .. ..116 

Chlorostilbon, Gould .. ..119 

Smaragdochrysis, Gould .. 125 

Ptochoptera, Elliot .. .. 126 

Prasitis, Cab. and Heine . . 127 

Panychlora Cab. and Heine . . 126 

AMAZILIIDAE. 

Damophila, ReicH. . . . . 133 

Cyanophaia, Reich. .. .. 134 

Arinia Muls. .. .. .. 136 

Chrysuronia, Bp. . . . . 137 

Polyerata, Heine . . . . 142 



Hylocharis, Boié 
Agyrtria, Reich. 
Uranomitra, Reich. 
Cyanomyia, Bp. 
Leucippus, Bp. 
Leucochloris, Reich. . . 
Aithurus, Cab. and Heine 
Eupherusa, Gould 
Callipharus, Elliot 
Elvira Muls. and Verr. 
Lawrencius, n.g. Boucard 
Polytmus, Briss 
Doleromyia, Bp. 
Basilinna, Boié 
Timolia, Muls. 
Eucephala, Reich. 
Chlorestes, Reich. 
Saucerottia, Bp. 
Amazilia, Reich. 



PAGE 

*43 

146 

156 
162 
165 
167 
168 
169 
171 
172 

J 73 

J 74 
176 

*77 

179 

180 
181 
186 
192 






Vol. IV. Part I.] 



MARCH, 1894. 



[Price 2/6. 



Ube Ibumming JBir6 

zJSX A QUARTERLY xë^ 
SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



EDITED BY 



-A... boucard 




Oi/XA^vUxs dbsO*A<couuK> 



Annual Subscription : United Kingdom, Europe, N. America and Canada, 

10/- All other Countries, 12/- 

Vol. I. and II., complete, 10/- each. 



SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: 

Whole Page, 20/- . Half Page, i5/-_ Quarter Page, 10/- 

Lowest charge, 2/6 up to five lines, and 6d. per line extra. 

Repeated or Continuous Advertisement per contract. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 






BOUCARD, A., Works by:— 

Guide pour récolter préparer et expédier 
des Objets d'Histoire Naturelle, Brochure 
in Svo., 32 pages, Rennes, 1871 ... 1/- 

The same in Spanish ... ... ... ij- 

Notes sur quelques Trochilidés, Brochure 
grand, in 8vo., 16 pages, Lyon, 1873 ... ... 1/6 

Hand-book of Natural History, 2nd Edition, 
Vol. in 8vo., 234 pages, profusely illustrated 
' with Woodcuts, .London, 1874 ... ... ... 4/- 

Coloured Diagrams of Natural History, 2nd 
Edition, 20 sheets, i8in. by 24m., comprising 166 
Diagrams of typical animals and plants, natural 
size, and 37 natural typical specimens of woods, 
and minerals, all neatly mounted on strong card- 
board ... 40/- 

The same, varnished ... ... ... ..". ... 45/- 

Notes sur les Trochilidés du Mexique, 
Brochure grand in 8vo., 16 pages, Lyon, 1875 ... 1/6 

Monographic List of the Coleoptera of the 
genus PLUSIOTIS, with descriptions of 
several new species. Pamphlet, in 8vo, with 
coloured plate, illustrating five new species ... 4/- 

The same, with black plate ... ... .. 2/6 

Catalogues Avium hucusqi/e descriptorum, i 
Vol. in Svo., cloth, 352 pages, 2546 genera, and 
11,031 species recorded. London, 1876. A useful 
book for Museums and Ornithologists. Price 
reduced to ... ... .. ... .. 10/- 

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French or English preface ... ... ... 12/- 

Notes on Pharomacrus costaricensis. Pamphlet 
4to, 8 pages. Brighton, 1877 ... ... ... . 4/- 

On Birds collected in Costa Rica, by Mr. 
Adolphe Boucard. Pamphlet in 8vo, 72 pages, 
with coloured plate of Zonotrichia Volcani. 
Boucard, London, 1878 ... ... .. 4/- 

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Notes on some Coleoptera of the genus 
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RODRIGUEZI, BADENI, BOUCARDI, MNISZECKI, 

and prasina ... ... .. ... .. 4/- 

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Notes sur les objets exposés par la Ré- 
publique de Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1878, Brochure in 8vo, 32 pages." Paris, 1878 1/- 

LlSTE DES OlREAUX RÉCOTTÉS AU GUATEMALA EN 

1877, par M. Adolphb Boucard, Brochure 
grand, in 8vo, 48 pages.--. Lyon, 1878 ... ... 2/6 

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of South American Birds. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 
with coloured plate, figuring Chiromachacris 
coronata. Boucard, London, 1879 ... ... 2/- 

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Description d'une espèce nouvelle de Pseu- 
doeolaptes de Costa Rica. Paris, 1880 ... 6d. 

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CicindéliDes de Panama. Paris, 1880 ... 6d. 

On a Collection of Birds from Yucatan 
(Mexico), with notes by Mr. Osbert Salvin, 
f.r.s. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 30 pages. London, 1883 2/6 

Notice biographique sur Francois Sumichrast, 
Naturaliste Voyageur, Brochure in 8vo., avec 
portrait. Paris, 1884 ... ... ... ... 2/- 

VlSITE AUX RUINES DE XOCHICALCO (MEXIQUE). 

Paris. 1887 ... ... ... 1/- 

Catalogue des Objets exposes par la Rè- 
puplique de Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1889 .. ... ... ... .. 1/- 

Catalogue des Oiseaux de la Collection 
Riocour. Paris, 18S9 ... .. ... 1/- 

THE HUMMING BIRD. A Monthly Scien- 
tific, Artistic, and Industrial Review. 
Vol.1. London, 1891 ... ... ... .. 10/- 

Contents of Vol. I. 
Preface — What is to be seen everywhere in London — ■ 
The McKinley Bill—The Panama Canal— Notes on the 
Genus Pharomacrus — An easy way of making £100 a 
a year — Reports on Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 
Skins — Rapport sur la Vente publique, de plumes et 
d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décembre, 1890 — The Museum 
of la Plata, and my idea of a typical and practical 
Museum of Natural History — Reports on Public Sales 
of Postage Stamps — Notes on rare species of Humming 
Birds, and Descriptions of several supposed new species I 



— Second International Ornithological Congress — 
Answers to Correspondents — Description of a supposed 
new species of Parrot in Boucard's Museum — Notes on 
the Crowned Superb Warbler ( Malurits coronaUts (Gould) 
— A Visit to the Gardens of Zoological Society of Lon- 
don — British Museum (Zoological Department) — Royal 
Aquarium — Books and Journals received — Obituary — 
Description of a supposed new species of Paradise bird 
in Boucard's Museum— The Pilgrim Locust — Descrip- 
tion of a supposed new species of Tanager — Notes on 
the great Bower Bird (Chlamydodera nuchalis, Jard) — 
Collections made in Thibet andC-ntral Asia — A Visit to 
the British Museum (Natural History Department) — 
The Plantain or Banana Plant — Inauguration of the 
statue of Pierre Belon, the Naturalist — A Giant 
Land Crab— Review of new Scientific Books — Report 
on the Public Sale of the celebrated Collection of Shells, 
formed by the late Sir David Barclay, and sold at 
Steven's on Monday, the 6th of July, and following days 

— Recommendations for the prevention of damage by 
some common Insects of the Farm, the Orchard, and 
the Garden — La Vie champêtre. La Destruction de la 
Larve du Hanneton (Melolontha vulgaris) — Crocodile, 
Snake, and Fish skins for industrial purposes — World's 
Columbian Exposition, Bâtiment de PAdministation. 
The same, Vol. II. London, 1892 ... ... 10/- 

Contents of Vol. II. 
Description of a supposed new Species of Humming Birds, 
in Boucard's Museum — The World's Fair, Inter- 
national Exposition of Chicago — Review of New 
Scientific Books — Notes on the Rare Pheasant, 
Rheinardius ocellatus — Books received — Celebrated 
Gallery of Old Masters, of the late General Marquess 
de Garbarino — Customs Tariff of Great Britain and 
Ireland — Obituary — Biographical Notes on Henry 
Walter Bates, F.R.S., etc. (with portrait) — American 
Pearls — Fish from Volcanoes — A very large Tree — A 
Curious Rat Catcher— List of Birds collected, by Mr. 
Hardy at Porto- Real, Brazil, with description of one 
supposed New Species — Descrii tion of a supposed New 
Species of the genus Manticora, " Cicindelidas," from 
Damara Land, South Africa — Description d'une espèce 
nouvelle de Diptère parasite de Costa Rica, Ornithom- 
yia geniculata — The Completion of the Panama Canal 
— A complete list, up to date, of the Humming Birds 
found in Columbia, with descriptions of several supposed 
New Species— Christopher Columbus — Festivities and 
Exhibitions, held in honour of Christopher Columbus in 
America, Spain, Italy and France — America — Le Canal 
de Panama — International Exhibition in Monaco — A 
new Emission of Postage Stamps. 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS, comprising:— 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, 1890-1891 — Catalogue of Birds in the 
British Museum, Vol. XX., 1891, Vol. XVI., 1802, 
Vol. XXII., 1892— Zoological Record, Vol. XXVIÏL, 
1892 — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
1S92 — The Ibis, Vol. IV., Sixth Series, 1892 — Mémoires 
de la Société Zoologique de France, Vol. V., 1892 — 
Memorias y Revista de là Sociedad cientifica, Antonio 
Alzate, 1892— Actes de la Société scientifique du Chili. 
Vol. L, 1892— The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 
1892, etc. 
OBITUARY:— 
August von Pelzen— Dom Pedro d'Alcantara — M. 
Alphand — Monseigneur Freppel— Armand de Quatre- 
fages de Breau — Duke of Clarence — Henry Walter 
Bates — Etienne Arago — Hermann Charles Burmeister 
— Carl August Dohrn — Marshal da Fonseca— Ernest 
Renan — Alfred Tennyson — Xavier Marmier. 
GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, by A. Boucard, 
pages 1 to 56. 

Sauvetage du Panama, 4éme edition, Brochure 
in 8vo., 32 pages. Tours, 1892.. .. .. 6d. 

Catalogue des Collections d'historie 
naturelle récoltées au mexique par m. 
Adolphe Boucard ... ... .. .. 1/- 

Catalogue de Mammifères, Oiseaux Reptiles, 
Poissons et Coquilles de la Californie, 
Louisiane, Mexique et Uruguay ... ... 1/- 

Catalogue de Carabiques et Colcoptères 
divers, 1477 espèces ... .. .. ... 1/- 

Catalogue d'Héteromères et de Curculio 
nides, 2242 espèces ... .. .. 1/- 

Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles et Poissons, 
1157 espèces .. .. .. .. 1/- 

Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2636 espèces 1/6 
Liste des Coléoptères en vente chez M. 
Adolphe Boucard, 7956 espèces ... ... 4/- 

Listk di;s Oiseaux en vente chez M. Adolphe 
Boucard, 4584 espèces ... .. .. 4/- 

La série complète des huit Catalogues et Listes ... 12/- 



®he gumming JSiïd 



WONDERFUL DISCOVERY IN COLORADO 

(MEXICO.) 

SBJjlUINS of most colossal dimensions have been lately dis- 
§K|j| covered in the plains of Colorado (Mexico). By what 
remains, it is easy to make out that a very large city existed 
there, some hundred, or perhaps thousand years ago. Some 
wide avenues of MOLONITHS, as large, and as high as the 
gigantic columns of the celebrated THEBES, of one hundred 
gates ; some remains of pyramids, whose steps are 80 yards 
wide, and of corresponding length, are still to be seen. Of 
what a fabulous size must have been the temples or palaces 
to which these steps conducted can hardly be imagined. 
Detailed news of this wonderful discovery are expected with 
eagerness by all Americanists, and meanwhile, I shall suggest 
that these magnificent ruins are probably the remains of the 
wonderful city of TuLLAN or TuLLA, founded by the great 
QuETZACOATL, whom the Mexicans adored as a God after 
his death. All the ancient Mexican manuscripts and Spanish 
works published during the last four centuries mention this 
great City, from which Quetzacoatl started for the South ; 
but either from not understanding fully the meaning of the 
Mexican hieroglyphs, or better say, language of their manu- 
scripts, or because it is not mentioned at all in them, no 
one has ever been able to say with certainty, where was the 
site of the said Tullan, although many of them agree that 
it was somewhere in Colorado. 

I hope that the Mexican Government will take immediate 
steps for the exploration of these ruins, by sending on the 
spot, at once, a scientific Commission, well supplied with money, 
and all the necessary requisites. If that exploration is done 
properly and scientifically, I am certain that the archaeological 
treasures, and others existing there, will repay a hundred fold 
the money spent, and who knows, perhaps may be found 



2 The Humming Bird. 

there the key of the Mexican hieroglyphs, illustrating their 
manuscripts ? This is a matter of great importance not only 
to Mexico, but to all America, because there are some 
probabilities that TuLLAN can be considered as the place 
from which the old civilizations of the ASTECS, and INCAS 
spread from. 

A.B. 



RECENT SCIENTIFIC AND OTHER 
PUBLICATIONS. 

With Notes by the Editor. 

1891. — Annual Report of the Board of Regents 
of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. One large 
Volume, 765 pages and Index, with a great number of illus- 
trations. Its contents are :— VARIOUS REPORTS OF THE 
Departments of the National Museum, among which 
the HUMMING Birds, by Robert Ridgway. This part is 
excessively good, and most interesting. It treats extensively 
of the early history of these charming birds, their origin, 
names, geographical distribution, migrations, habits, abun- 
dance of individuals, actions and attitudes, manner of flight, 
disposition, intelligence, nests and eggs, all beautifully illus- 
trated with good woodcuts, figuring the most striking struc- 
tures, food, characters, and relationships, also woodcuts 
showing the skeleton of Trochilus colubris, and the dorsal 
and ventral aspects of the pterylosis, the shoulder girdle, of 
Selasphorus platycercus, the head of Eulampis holosericeus, 
and the details of structure of the tongue of these birds. 
Then follows two very interesting, and well-made black 
plates, figuring the largest species, Patagona gigcis, and the 
smallest, Mellisuga minima, after which, are figured a good 
series of the variations of the bill, the wing, and tail, orna- 
ments of the head, the legpuff of Panoplites flavescens, and 
the short tarsal feathers of Heliodoxa jacula. Nine beauti- 
ful black plates, chiefly copied from Gould, represent, life 
size, Steganura underwoodi, Oxypogon guerini } Ram- 
phomicron herraniy Cephallepis delalandei, Gouldia conversi, 
and popelairei, Lophornis helenae, adorabilis, reginae, re- 
gulus, delattrei, ornatus,a.x\d magnificus, Acestrura heliodori, 
Eriocnemis alinae and Microchera albocoronata, ending 



The Humming Bird. 3 

with full descriptions and remarks on all the species found in 
the United States, with beautiful life size black plates of 
nearly all the species. 

The following species are mentioned as occurring in the 
States. Eugenes fulgens, Coeligena clemenciae, Trochilus 
colubris, violajugulum, and alexandri, Calypte annae, and 
costae, Selasphorus rufus, alleni, and platycercus, Stellula 
calliope, Calothorax lucifer, Amazilia cerviniventris, and 
fuscicaudata, Basilinna xantusi, and Iache latirostris, 
which ends the series of species found in the United States. 

He concludes by saying that the following three species, 
Lampornis nigricollis, Atthis heloisae, and Agyrtria tobaci, 
which have been mentioned in several works as American 
birds, are not entitled to a place in that fauna, although he 
thinks that Atthis heloisae may be found in Southern Texas. 
I am exactly of the same opinion as Mr. Ridgway, whom I 
congratulate heartily for his excellent work. 

Page 286, I read a passage copied from Wallace's 
Tropical Nature, which says, in speaking of the Erjnit 
Humming-birds : — 

" But there are many such, as PHAETHORINS EREMITA, 
and some larger allied species which I have never seen at 
flowers." 

This is quite wrong ! Phaethornis adolphi, and 
P. longirostris, two species of which I have collected a large 
number of specimens, were always shot by me, when feeding 
on flowers. P. longirostris was always seen feeding on 
flowers of CANNA and FOURCROYA, and P. adolphi was seen 
early in the morning, and before sun-set, feeding chiefly on 
flowers of CONVOLVULUS. 

The other memoirs contained in the Report are : — 
White line engraving for relief printing, by S. R. 
Koehler ; The Methods of Fire Making, by Walter 
Hough; The Ulu, or Woman's knife of the Eskimo, by 
Otis. T. Mason, with a profusion of wood-cuts ; The 
Ancient Pit-Dwellers of Yezo, by Romyn Hitchcook, 
with eight beautiful plates ; The AiNOS OF YEZO, Japan, by 
the same author, with a large number of fine plates and wood- 
cuts ; Handbook for the Department of Geology, by 
George P. Merrill ; The Catlin COLLECTION OF INDIAN 
PAINTINGS, by Washington Matthews, with many interesting 



4 The Humming Bird. 

illustrations; The LOG OF THE Savannah, by G. Elfreth 
Watkins; AUTHROPOLOGV AT THE Paris Enposition OF 1SS9, 
by Thomas Wilson, ending with the BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE 
United States National Museum and List of Acces- 
sions 

1893. — The Hawks and Owls of the United States 
in their relation to Agriculture, by A. K. Fisher, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington. One Volume, 
containing 201 pages of text and 25 beautifully coloured plates. 
This is a most interesting and useful work, showing that the 
birds of prey are more useful to agriculture than otherwise. 
X'o less than 2690 stomachs have been examined by Mr. 
Fisher, and the contents are enumerated in the tables accom- 
panying the species. Of these, 169 contained the remains 
of poultry and game birds, 463 of other birds, 397 of 
mammals, and 623 of insects. If the stomachs of the six 
species which feed largely upon game and poultry are 
eliminated, we have a total of 2212 stomachs. Of these 
78, or 3 J per cent., contained the remains of poultry or 
game; 257. or 11 percent., of other birds ; 945, or 41^ per 
cent., of mice; 309, or 1 1 per cent., of other mammals; 
and 599, or 27 per cent., of insects. 

With the help of this excellent book, the farmer will be 
able to know which birds he may call his friends or his foes. 
It is very desirable that similar publications should be made 
in Europe and elsewhere, not only on the Birds of Prey, but 
on all birds in general. I am certain that in doing so 
many new facts will be discovered, and show that many of the 
species of birds, which are considered now as injurious, will 
turn out to be some of the best auxiliaries to Agriculture. 

During my expeditions in North, Central, and South 
America, I have examined several thousands of stomachs of 
birds, killed and skinned by me ; but unfortunately, I have 
not made notes of their contents, excepting those of Humming- 
birds, which always consisted of minute insects and honey. 

1893. — Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, 
Vol. XXI., Columbae, OR Pigeons, by T. Salvadori. This 
Volume contains 676 pages of text, and 15 line coloured 
plates illustrating the following species : — 

SPHENOCERUS forynosae, OSMOTRERON griseicauda, 
wallacei, aromatica and axillaris, PTILOPUS eugeniae, 
CARPOPHAGA oenothorax, COLUMBA grisea, albipennis, 



The Humming Bird. 5 

TURTUROENA delegorguei and sharpei, OXYPELIA cyanopis, 
CHAMAEPELIA buckleyi, Phlegoenas beccarii, gra?tti, al- 
bicollis, and erythroptera, LEPTOTILA 7negalura, OSCULATIA 
purpurea, and OTIDIPHAPS insularis. 

Seven new generic names are proposed. They are : — 
NESOEXAS, Type N. mayeri, OXYPELIA, Type O. cyanopis, 
Calopelia, Type C. puella, HlSTRlOPHAPS, Type H. histrio- 
nica, ZOXOPHAPS, Type Carp, forsteri CRYTOPHAPS, Type 
Carp, poecilorhoa, HOMOPELIA, Type Turtur picturatus. 

Osmotreron wallacei, from Celebes, Phabotreron occipit- 
alis from Basilan. Ptilopus smithsojiianus from Paumotu, 
Columba crissalis from Central America, Turturaena sharpei 
from Central Africa, Macroypgia goldiei, from New Guinea, 
Zenaida yucatanensis, from Yucatan, Turtur shelleyi from 
Upper White Nile, Geotrygon venezuelensis from Merida, 
Venezuela, Phlogaenas granti from Guadalcanar, and 
Phlogaenas albicollis from Bow Island, are described as new, 
or have new names assigned to them. 

This volume is as excellent as the preceding ones, and 
the descriptions are very good. 

1893. — Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, 
Vol. XXII., the Game Birds (Orders Pterocletes, 
Gallixae, Opisthocomi, and HemipodI, by W. R. Ogilvie 
Grant. 

This Volume contains 562 pages of text, and eight 
beautifully coloured plates. The species figured are : — 
FRAXCOLIXUS, streptophorus, albogularis, spilolaemus, 
uluensis, elgonensis, shelleyi, and adspersus, Pterntstes, 
leucoscepus and infuscatus. 

Two new sub-orders are proposed for Gallinae as fol- 
lows : — Alectoropodes for Tetraoxidae, and Phasiaxidae, 
and Peristeropodes, for MEGAPODIDAE, and Cracidae, and 
the new Order, Hemipodi, for Turxicidae. 

The following generic names are proposed as new : — 
DACTYLORTYX, Type Ortyx thoracieus, RHYXCHORTYX, 
Type Odontophorus spodiostethus, and Eulipoa, Tvpe 
Megapodius wallacei : — Francolinus streptophorus, from 
Central Africa ; uluensis, from East Africa ; shelleyi, from 
South Africa; elgonensis, from Mount Elgon ; griseostriatus, 
from West Africa; gedgii, from Central East Africa; sharpii, 
from Abyssinia ; jacksoni, from South Africa ; Arboricola 



The Humming Bird 



s 



sumatrana, and CALOPERDIX sumatrana, both from 
Sumatra ; borneensis, from Sarawak, are all fully re- 
described ; GENNAEUS davisoni, from Yunnan ; oatesi, from 
Arrakan Hills ; Ortyx atriceps, from Putla, Mexico ; CRAX, 
panamensis , from Central America, and grayi, from South 
America, are described as new species, or have new names 
assigned to them. 

I cannot see why the generic name of Rheinardius 
ocellatus has been written Rheinhardtius, which is wrong, 
the correct spelling of the gentleman to whom it has been 
dedicated being Reinhard, not Reinhardt. 

I don't quite agree with Mr. Ogilvie Grant about the 
position assigned to the sub-order Peristeropodes, and the 
order Hemipodi. I consider this order as useless, because 
the family of TuRNICIDAE is more naturally placed after the 
genus RHYNCHORTYX, family PHASIANIDAE. I am of opinion 
also that the family Cracidse is not placed at its proper 
place. Otherwise this volume, as the preceding ones, will be 
of much use to the Scientists, and the Trustees of the British 
Museum can be justly proud that this most important publica- 
cation will soon be concluded. In my opinion it is the most 
valuable Ornithological work published for many years, and 
it has given a new impetus for work, to all Ornithologists. 

1892-1893. — Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London. Part IV. 1892. Parts I., II. and III. 

1893. 

Part IV., 1892, contains 168 pages of text, Appendix, 
Index, and List of Contributors, and 13 black and coloured 
plates, illustrating new Reptiles from Nyassaland, 
Lygodactylus angularis, Chameleon isabellinus, 
Rampholeon platyceps, Rampholeon brachyurus, and 
PSAMMOPHYLAX variabilis ; Cetacean remains from the 
Caucasus , New Phytophagous Coleoptera from Madagascar, 
Three new species of Monkeys : — CERCOPITHECUS STAIRSI, 
Semnopithecus everetti, and Thomasi. New Asiatic 
butterflies. New species of Earthworms — MOLINIGASTER. 
New spiecies of Earthworms — BENHAMIA, ACANTHODRILUS, 
MlCRODRlLUS, and EUDRILOIDES. Structure of Myrine 
GLUTINOSA. 

Part I., T893, contains 236 pages of text, and 15 black and 
coloured plates ; illustrating the structure of HESPERIDAE, 



The Humming Bird. 7 

New Dipterous Insects, New Copepoda from Zanzibar, 
XENOPSARIS ALBINUCHA, a new species of Cotingidae, Miocene 
and recent Sciuridae, and Structure of MESOPLODON. 

Part II., 1893, contains 200 pages of text, and 18 black 
and coloured plates, representing CERCOPITHECUS SCHMIDTI, 
and CERCOPITHECUS MELONEYI, a new species of monkey, 
from British Central Africa. Lentungula algivorans, a new 
genus and species of Acari, found in Cornwall. New South 
American Heterocera. Brain of African Elephant. Genital 
glands of Allolobophora longa. Structure of SlPUNCULUS. 
ICHTHYOMYS STOLZMANNI, a new genus and species of 
Rat, from Central Peru. NYCTINOMUS KALINOWSKII, and 
ARTIBEUS GLAUCUS, two new species of Rats, from Central 
Peru, and Chanchamayo, and New Moths of the Family 
Geometridae. 

Part III., 1893, contains 159 pages of text, and 19 black 
and coloured plates, representing: — CERCOPITHECUS BRAZZAE, 
Miln. Edvv., from French Congo. CERVUS THORALDI. a new 
species from Thibet. The dentition of the Macropodidae. 
New species of PleuroTOMIDAE. Female Water-buck and 
Young. Syringes of Psittaci. Bird-bones from Grive 
St. Alban. DRACO MAXIMUS, and MICROLEPIS, RANA 
CAVITYMPANUM, LATOPALMATA, vvhiteheadi, and Rhaco- 
PHORUS OTILOPHUS, six new species from Borneo. Butterflies 
of the genus THYSONOTIS. Mesozoic Ganoid Fishes, and 
VlPORA URSINII, Bonaparte, from Austria. 

In this part, page 507, is a very interesting article on the 
Anato?ny of Parrots, by Frank E. Beddard ; and page 529,. 
the description of a new parrot, CYANORAMPHUS FORBESI, 
by the Hon. Walter de Rotschild. 

[893. — Zoological Record, Vol. XXIX., London, 1892. 
Edited by Doctor Sharp. GENERAL SUBJECTS, by T. 
Arthur Thomson, 54 pages. MAMMALIA, by R. Lydeker, 55 
pages. AvES, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, 63 pages. REPTILIA 
AND BATRACHIA, by G. A. Boulenger, 41 pages. PISCES, 
by G. A. Boulenger, 38 pages. TUNICATA, by Prof. W. A. 
Herdman, 7 pages. MOLLUSCA, by B. B. Woodward, 96 
pages. Brachiopoda, by B. B. Woodward, 8 pages. 
BRYOZOA (POLYZOA), by B. B. Woodward, 5 pages. 
Crustacea, by R. I. Pocock, 34 pages. Arachnida, by 
R. I. Pocock, 39 pages. Myriopoda and Prototracheata, 
by R. I. Pocock, 7 pages. ÏNSECTA, by D. Sharp, 332 



8 The Humming Bird. 

pages. MANTICORA gruti, Boucard, and Ornithomya 
GENICULATA, Bigot, described in the Humming-bird^ 1892, 
pp. 45 and 49, have been omitted. ECHINODERMATA, by 
F. A. Bather, 22 pages. VERMES, by Florence Buchanan, 88 
pages. COELENTERATA, by Sidney T. Hickson, 13 pages. 
SPONGIAE, by R. Hanitsch, 24 pages. PROTOZOA, by R. 
Hanitsch, 32 pages. 

1893.— The Ibis. Sixth Series, Vol. V. edited by Philip 
Lutley Sclater. No. 17 contains: — List of Birds collected 
by Mr. Alexander White in Nyassaland ; by Captain G. E. 
Shelley. Melanobucco zombae, Smilorhis whytii, 

TURDUS MILANJENSIS, XENOCICHLA FUSCICEPS, CALLENE 
ANOMALA, APALIS FLAVIGULARIS, BRADYPTERUS NYASSAE, 
POGONOCICHLA JOHNSTONI, PACHYPRORA DIMORPHA, 
HlRUNDO ASTIGMA, HYPHANTORNIS BERTRANDI, and HAPLO- 
PELIA JOHNSTONI, are described as new species. Beautiful 
coloured plates are given of: — SMILORHIS WHYTII, 
HYPHANTORNIS BERTRANDI, and HaPLOPELIA JOHNSTONI. 
On the Osteology, Pterylosis and Muscular Anatomy of 
the American Fin-foot (HELIORNIS SURINAMENSIS) by 
Frank E. Beddard. On the Extinct Giant Birds of 
Argentine, by R. Lydekker. Notes on the Birds of the 
Loo-Choo Islands, by Henry Seebohm. On five apparently 
new species of Birds from Hainau, by F. W. Styan. 

Graminicola STRIATA, PlNAROCICHLA SCHMACKERI, 

Cryptolopha bicolor, Crypsirhina nigra, and Arbori- 
COLA ARDENS, are described as new species. On the Birds 
of Aden, by Lieut. H. E. Barnes. Fourteen species, amongst 
the 63 mentioned in this first list, are undetermined. Probably 
some may be new. 

Comparative Notes on the Swifts and Humming-birds, 
by R. W. Shufeldt. I am glad to see that Mr. Shufeldt is of 
my opinion about the Humming-birds, and that he has 
adopted my Order TrOCHILI for these birds, and that he is 
also of my opinion about the Swifts, which have more 
affinities with the Swallows . than with any other birds, 
although he proposes to create the new Order of Cypseli for 
them. I say Order, instead of Sub-Order, as he proposes, 
because I do not recognise Sub anywhere. They are Orders 
Families, Genera, or Species, or they are nothing at all. 

To be Continued. 



1ST OF HUMMING BIRDS FOR SALE— at 225, High Holborn, London, W.G. 



Trochilus colubris, L. 

alexandri, Bourc. 

Calypte costae, Bourc. 

annae, Less. 

Selasphorus rufus, Sw. 

scintilla, Gould 

platycercus, Sw. 

rlammula, Salv. 

Atthis heloisae, Les. and Del. 

ellioti, Ridgw. 

Stellula calliope, Gould . 
Calothorax lucifer, Sw. 
Acestrura mulsanti, Bour. 

heliodori, Bour. . 

decorata, Gould . 

Chaetocercus rosae, Bour. 
Tdmatura duponti, Less.. 
Myrtis fanny, Less. 
Rhodopis vesper, Less. . 
Thaumastura cora, Less. 
Heliactin cornuta. Max. . 
Doricha enicura, Vieil. 

bryanthae, Lawr. . 

Calliphlox amethystina, Gm. 

roraimae, Boucard 

Lophornis ornatus, Bodd. 

magnificus, Vieill. 

helenae, Del. 

pavoninus, Salv. . . 

stictolophus, Salv. 

delattrei, Less. 

Gouldia langsdorfn, Bou. 

melanosternum, Gould 

■ popelairei, Dubus 

conversi, Bourc. . . 

Discura longicauda, Rei... 
Cephalolepis delalandei, Vieil. 
Klais Guimeti, Bourc. 
Bellona cristata, L. 

— — superba, Boucard. 

exilis, Gm. . . 

emigrans, Lawr. . 

Abeillia typica, Bou.; 
Chrysolampis moschitus, L. 
Eustephanus galeritus, Mol. 

fernandensis, King 

Patagona gigas, Vieil. 
Oxypogon guerini, Boiss. 

cyanolaemus, Salv. 

lindeni, Parz. 

Eupogonus herrani, Del. . . 
Lampropogon ruficeps, Bou. 
Chalcostigma heteropogon, B. 

stanleyi, Bourc. . . 

Metallura thyrianthina, L. 

quitensis, Gould . . 

aeneicauda, Gould 

Avocettimus eurypterus, L. 
Adelomyia melanogenys, F. 

inornata, Gould . . 

Urosticte benjamini, Bour. 
Augastes superbus, Vieil. 

lumachellus, Less. 

Ramphomicron microrhynchum, 
Sappho sparganura, Sh. 

phaon, Gould 

Lesbia nuna, Less. 

gouldi, Lodd. 

gracilis, Gould 

victoriae, Bour. 

7° aequatorialis, Boucard 

7oa Cyanolesbia gorgo, Reich. 



Boiss, 






4 

20 
4 



5 

40 

5 
40 
20 
20 
20 

6 

4 
2 
10 
20 
16 
10 
30 
20 

25 
6 

16 

5 

20 

5 

10 
10 
50 
20 
10 
20 
20 
16 

5 
15 

5 



10 
8 

20 
6 
3 
5 

30 

10 

4 
40 
20 
10 
5o 

3 

10 
2 

4 
40 
10 

2 
30 
12 
40 
40 

3 

50 
40 
30 

4 
6 

5 
6 
6 



70b Cyanolesbia coelestis, Gould 

70c mocoa, Del. 

7od bolivJana, Gould . . 

71 Thalurania glaucopis, Gm. 

72 columbica, Bourc. 

73 fanniae, Bourc. 

74 furcata, Gmel. 

75 refulgens, Gould . . 

76 nigrofasciata, Gould 

77 Chlorolampis caniveti, Less. 

78 osberti, Gould 

79 Chlorostilbon pucherani, Bou. 
bo splendidus, Vieill. 

81 chrysogaster, Bourc. 

82 angustipennis, Gray 

83 melanorhynchus, Gould 

84 assimilis, Lawr. . . 

85 atala, Less. 

86 Prasitis prasina, Less. 

87 " daphne, Bou. 

88 Panychlora aliciae, Bourc. 

89 euchloris, Reich. . . 

90 poortmani, Bour. . . 

91 stenura, Cab. 

92 Basilinna leucotis, Vieill. 

93 Eucephala grayi, Del. 

94 Chlorestes coerulea, Vieil. 

95 Chrysuronia aenone, Less. 

96 longirostris, Berl.. . 

97 neera, Less. 

98 eliciae, Bourc. 

99 Hylocharis sapphirina, Gm. 

100 cyanea, Vieill. 

101 brasiliensis, Boucard 

102 viridiventris, Berl. 

103 Cyanophaia caerululeigularis, Gould 

104 goudoti, Bourc. . 

105 Polyerata amabilis, Gould 

106 Damophiia typica, Bou. . 

107 Agyrtria leucogaster, Gm. 
108 
iog 
no 
in 
112 

113 
114 

"5 
116 
117 
1 1.8 
119 



tephrracephala, Vieil. 

• tobaci, Gmel. 

nigricauda, Elliott 

fluviatilis, Gould . . 

Uranomitra franciae, Bour. 

viridiceps, Gould . . 

columbiana, Boucard 

milled, Bourc. 

whitelyi, Boucard 

- — - niveipectus, Cab. . . 

Candida, Bourc. . . 

brevirostris, Less. 

120 Leucochloris albicollis, Rei. 

121 Polytmus thaumantias, L. 

122 viridissimus, Vieil. 

123 Aithurus polytmus, L. 

124 Eupherusa eximia, Del. . . 

125 ■ egregia, Selat. 

126 Callipharus nigriventris, Lawr. 

127 Elvira chionura, Gould .. . 

128 Hemistephania ludoviciae, Bourc 

129 johannae, Bourc. 

130 Schistes geoffroyi, Bourc. 

131 Heliothrix auritus, Gmel. 
3"3 2 auriculatus, Licht. 

133 barroti, Bourc. 

134 Petasophora serrirostris, Vieil. 

!35 ■ 
136 

137 
136 
139 



cyanotis, Bourc. 
cabanisi, Lawr. 
thalassina, Sw. 
anais, Less, 
delphinae, Less. 



LIST OF HUMMING BIRDS FOR SALE— at 225, High Holborn, London, W.G. 



140 Eulampis jugularis, L. 

141 Sericotes holosericeus, L. 

142 chlorolaemus, Gould 

143 Lampornis mango, L. 

144 dominicus, L. 

145 gramineus, Gmel. 

146 nigricollis, Vieil. . . 

147 prevosti, Less. 

148 veraguensis, Gould 

149 Hypuroptila buftoni, Less. 

150 caeruleiventris, Reich. 

151 isaurae, Gould 

152 Glaucis hirsuta, Gmel. 
153 mazeppa, Less. . . 

154 aenea, Lawr. 

155 Ramphodon naevius, Dum. 

156 Anisoterus pretrei, Less. . . 

157 augusti,- Bourc. 

158 Milornis squalidus, T. 

15g - rupununii, Boucard 

160 longuemarei, Less. 

161 Eremita pygmaea, Spix . . 

162 griseigularis, Gould 

163 ■ adolphi, Gould . . 

164 strugularis, Gould . 

165 Phaethornis superciliosus, L. 
166 
167 
168 
i6g 
170 
171 
172 
173 



— largipennis, Bodd. 

— obscurus, Gould - . . 

-•— ejisipennis, Siv. .. 
hemileucurus,Licht 



eurynome, Less. 

longirostris, Less. 

— — panamensis, Boucard 

consobrinus, Bourc. 

guianensis, Boucard 

syrmatophorus, Gould 

antophilus, Bourc. 

hispidus, Gould .. 

174 Ametrornis bourcieri, Reich. 

175 Toxateuches guyi, Cab. . . 

176 — — - emiliae, Bourc. ... 

177 Eutoxeres aquila, Bourc. . . 

178 condaminei, Bourc. 

179 Threnetes cervinicauda, Gould 
180 ruckeri, Bourc. . . 

181 Aphantochroa cirrochloris, V. 

182 Campylopterus cuvieri, Del. 
183 
184 

185 
186 
187 Saepiopterus lazulus, Vieil. 

188 phainopeplus, Salv. 

18g rufus, Less. 

igo hyperythrus, Cab. . . 

igi Sphenoproctus pampa, Less. 
ig2 Eupetomena macroura, Gmel. . ; 
ig3 Hylonympha macrocerca, Gould 
194 Leadbeatera grata, Bou. 
ig4aXanthogenyx salvini, d'H'am 
ig5 Heliodoxa jacula, Gould 

196 jamesoni, Bourc. 

197 henrici, Lawr. 

198 Iolaema schreibersi, Bour. 

igg Sternoclyta cyanipectus, Gould 

200 Eugenes fulgens, Sw. 

201 Docimastes ensiferus, Boiss. 

202 Caeligena clemenciae, Less. 

203 Lamprolaema rha s mi, Less. 

204 Oreopyra leucaspis, Gould 

205 calolaema, Salv. 

206 pectoralis, Salv. . . 

207 Delattria henrici, Less. . . 

208 viridipallens, Bourc. 

20g Panterpe insignis, Cab. . . 
210 Heliangelus clarissae, Long. 



s. 
5 

4 
20 
10 
20 

4 

2 
10 
10 

2 

5 
30 

3 

4 

4 
16 

5 
10 

.5 
5o 
10 

4 
4 
5 
5 
10 

5 
4 

12 
8 

10 

16 
3 
5 

16 

4 
, 8 
, 10 
, 40 
. 10 
. 12 

• 5 
. 12 
. 10 
. 10 
. 8 

• 5 

■ 3 

• 5o 

• 25 

• 5o 
. 8 

■ 4 
. 40 

• 4 
. 60 
. 10 
. 16 
. 20 
. 20 
. 40 

• 5 
. 6 
. 8 
. 6 
. 20 
. 20 

• 3o 
. 12 

• 5 
. 40 

• 3 



211 Heliangelus strophianus, Gould 
212 spencei, Bourc. 

213 Heliotrypha exortis, Fras. 

214 simoni, Boucard .. 

215 — ■ — viola, Gould 

216 Erebenna derbiana, Del. .. 

217 Engyete alinae, Bourc. .. 

218 Steganura underwoodi, Less. 
21g melananthera, Jard. 

220 Threptria aureliae, Bourc. 

221 russata, Gould . . 

222 assimilis, Elliot . . 

223 Panoplites flavescens, Lod. 

224 matthewsi, Bour. . . 

225 — — jardinei, Bourc. .. 

226 Eriocnemis vestita, Long. 
227 
228 



nigrivestis, Bourc. 

cupreiventris, Fras. 

22g luciani, Bourc. 

230 mosquerae, Bourc. 

231 Amazilia amazili, Less. .. 

232 : cinnamomea, Less. 

233 fuscicaudata, Fras. 

234 viridigaster, Bourc. 

235 edwardi, Del. 

236 niveiventris, Gould 

237 cupreicauda, Salv. 

238 beryllina, Licht. . . 

2 39 mariae, Bourc. 

240 Saucerottia erythronota, Less. 



— feliciae, Less. 
— -— wellsi, Boucard . 

hoffmanni, Cab. . 

sophiae, Bourc. . 

saucerottei, Del.„ . 

cyanifrons, Bourc. 



241 
242 

2 43 

244 

245 
246 

247 Topaza pella, L. 

248 pyra, Gould 

24g Margarochrysis aurescens, Gould 

250 Clytolaema rubinea, Gmel. 

251 rubinoides, Bourc. 

252 — — aequatorialis, Gould 

253 Lafresnaya flavicaudata, Fras. . . 
254 g a yii Bourc. 

255 Aglaeactis cupripennis, Bourc. . . 

256 caumatonata, Gould 

257 pamela, Dorb. 

258 Florisuga mellivora, L. . . 

25g fusca, Vieil. 

260 Oreotrochilus leucopleurus, Gould 

261 chimborazo, Del. 

262 pichincha, Bourc. 

263 Floricola longirostris, V. . . 

264 ■ pallidiceps, Gould 

265 constanti, Del. 

266 Lepidolarynx mesoleucus. T. 

267 Diphlogaena hesperus, Gould . . 

268 Helianthea eos, Gould 

26g bonapartei, Boiss. 

270 typica, Gould 

271 Homophania torquata, Boiss. 

272 fulgidigula, Gould 

273 conradi, Bourc. 

274 Bourcieria prunellii, Bourc. 

275 wilsoni, Del. 

276 Lampropygia coeligena, Less. . . 

277 columbiana, Elliot 

278 Calligenia lutetiae, Del. . . 

27g Pterophanes temminckii, Boiss... 



This List cancels all previous ones. 



■m 



Vol. IV. Part IL] JUNE, 1894. 



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Contents of Vol. I. 
Preface— 'What is to be seen everywhere in London — 
The McKinley Bill— The Panama Canal— Notes on the 
Genus Pharomacrus — An easy way of making £100 a 
a year — Reports on Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 
Skins — Rapport sur la Vente publique, de plumes et 
d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décembre, 1890 — The Museum 
of la Plata, and my idea of a typical and practical 
Museum of Natural History— Reports on Public Sales 
of Postage Stamps — Notes on rare species of Humming 
Birds, and Descriptions of several supposed new species 



— Second International Ornithological Congress — 
Answers to Correspondents — Description of a supposed 
new species of Parrot in Boucard's Museum — Notes on 
the Crowned Superb Warbler (Mahtrttscoronat-us (Gould) 
— A Visit to the Gardens of Zoological Society of Lon- 
don — British Museum (Zoological Department) — Royal 
Aquarium — Books and Journals received — Obituary — 
Description of a supposed new species of Paradise bird 
in Boucard's Museum — The Pilgrim Locust — Descrip- 
tion of a supposed new species of Tanager — Notes on 
the great Bower Bird (Chlamydodera nuchalis, Jard) — 
Collections made in Thibet and Central Asia — A Visit to 
the British Museum (Natural History Department) — 
The Plantain or Banana Plant — Inauguration of the 
statue of Pierre Belon, the Naturalist — A Giant 
Land Crab — Review of new Scientific Books — Report 
on the Public Sale of the celebrated Collection of Shells, 
formed by the late Sir David Barclay, and sold at 
Steven's on Monday, the 6th of July, and- following days 
— Recommendations for the prevention of damage by 
some common Insects of the Farm, the Orchard, and 
the Garden — La Vie champêtre. La Destruction de la 
Larve du Hanneton (Melolontha vulgaris) — Crocodile, 
Snake, and Fish skins for industrial purposes— World's 
Columbian Exposition, Bâtiment de l'Administation. 

The same, Vol. II. London, 1892 ... ... 10/- 

ContentsofVol.il. 
Description of a supposed new Species of Humming Birds, 
in Boucard's Museum— The World's Fair, Inter- 
national Exposition of Chicago — Review of New 
Scientific Books — Notes on the Rare Pheasant, 
Rheinardius ocellatus — Books received- — Celebrated 
Gallery of Old Masters, of the late General Marquess 
de Garbarino — Customs Tariff of Great Britain and 
Ireland— Obituary — Biographical Notes on Henry 
Walter Bates, F.R.S., etc. (with portrait) — American 
Pearls — Fish from Volcanoes — A very large Tree — A 
Curious Rat Catcher — List of Birds collected, by Mr. 
Hardy at Porto-Real, Brazil, with description of one 
supposed New Species — Description of a supposed New 
Species of the genus Manticora, " Cicindelidae," from 
Damara Land, South Africa — Description d'une espèce 
nouvelle de Diptère parasite de Costa Rica, Ornithom- 
yia geniculata — The Completion of the Panama Canal 
— A complete list, up to date, of the Humming Birds 
found in Columbia, with descriptions of several supposed 
New Species — Christopher Columbus — Festivities and 
Exhibitions, held in honour of Christopher Columbus in 
America, Spain, Italy and France — America — Le Canal 
de Panama— International Exhibition in Monaco — A 
new Emission of Postage Stamps. 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS, «emprising :— 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, 1890-1891 — Catalogue of Birds in the 
British Museum, Vol. XX., 1891, Vol. XVI., 1892, 
Vol. XXII., 1892— Zoological Record, Vol. XXVIII., 
1892— Proceedings of the- Zoological Society of London, 
1892 — The Ibis, Vol. IV., Sixth Series, 1892 — Mémoires 
de la Société Zoologique de France, Vol. V., 1892 — 
Memorias y Revista de la S°ciedad cientifica, Antonio 
Alzate^ 1892— Actes de la Société scientifique du Chili. 
Vol. I., 1892 — The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 
1892, etc. 
OBITUARY:— 
August von Pelzén— Dom Pedro d' Alcantara— M. 
Alphand — Monseigneur Freppel — Armand de Quatre- 
fages de Breau — Duke of Clarencï— Henry Walter 
Bates — Etienne Arago — Hermann Charles Burmeister 
— Carl August Dohrn— Marshal da Fonseca — Ernest 
Renan — Alfred Tennyson — Xavier Marmier. 
GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, by A. Boucard, 
pages 1 to 56. 
Sauvetage du Panama, 4éme edition, Brochure 

in 8vo., 32 pages. Tours, 1892.. .. .. 6d. 

Catalogue des Collections d'historie 

naturelle récoltées au Mexique par M. 

Adolphe Boucard ... ... .. .. 1/- 

Catalogue de Mammifères, Oiseaux Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles de la Californie, 

Louisiane, Mexique et Uruguay ... ... 1/- 

Catalogue de Carabiques et Colcoptères 
divers, 1477 espèces ... .. .. ... 1/- 

Catalogue d'Héteromères et de Curculio 

nides, 2242 espèces ... .. .. . . 1/- 

Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles et Poissons, 

1157 espèces .. .. .. .. . . 1/- 

Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2636 espèces 1/6 
Liste des Coléoptères en vente chez M. 

Adolphe Boucard, 7956 espèces ... ... 4/- 

Liste des Oiseaux en vente chez M. Adolphe 

Boucard, 4584 espèces ... .. .. 4/- 

La série complète des huit Catalogues et Listes ... 12/- 



The Humming Bird. g 

Continued from page 8. 

He mentions 61 important structural differences existing" 
between CYPSELI and TrOCHILI. To these structural differ- 
ences he could have added many other differences in their 
external appearances and habits. 

I think it is quite wrong to rely on anatomy only, as it is 
usually done now by the majority of authors of systematic 
classification. I am of opinion that the external characters 
have as much importance as the internal ones. 

Notes on Collecting in Koua, Hawai,hy A. C. L. Perkins. 
Descriptions of three new Birds from the Sandwich Islands, 
by the Hon. Walter de Rothschild. HEMIGNATHUS ÀFFINIS, 
LOXOPS OCHRACEA, and PALMERIA MIRABILIS, a new genus 
of the family MELIPHAGIDAE, are described as new species. 

No. 1 8 contains : — On the Birds of Aden, by Lieut. H. 
E. Barnes. In this second and last part, sixty-three species 
are recorded, six of which are undetermined. On the Ocurr- 
,ence of the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper (Tringa acuminata) in 
Norfolk, by Henry Seebohm. A beautiful coloured plate of 
this species is given. List of Birds observed in the Canary 
Islands, by E. C. Meade- Waldo. Many native names are 
given. On a remarkable new Finch from the Island of 
Bolivia, by Hans. Graf von Berlepsch. The generic name of 
COMPROSPIZA is proposed for this new form of Fringillidae, 
on which Mr. Berlepsch has bestowed the name of GARLEPPI, 
the discoverer of this fine bird. A beautiful coloured plate 
accompanies the description. Remarks on the Birds of the 
Gilbert Islands, by L. W. Winglesworth. On the Bird 
indicated by the Greek, /Jxkviov, by H. B. Tristram. On the 
Species of ZoSTEROPS found in the Island of Java, by 
Henry Seebohm. On the Species of Merula found in the 
Island of Java, by Henry Seebohm. Notes on Birds observed 
during a Collecting Expedition to Eastern Africa, by Frank 
Finn. Forty. eight species are mentioned. On some Genera 
of Oriental Barbets, by W. T. Blandford. On ACREDULA 
CAUDATA, and its allied forms , by H. E. Dresser. Notes on 
Paramythia montium and Amalocichla sclateriana, by 
Dr. Philip Lutley Sclater. Mr. Sclater is of opinion that this 
remarkable bird must come into the Fringilliform OSCINES, 
but does not fit well with any of the groups of this section, 
and proposes for it the new family name of Paramythiidae, 
coming perhaps nearest to the Ampelidae and some of the 
Dicaeidae. As to AMALOCICHLA SCLATERIANA, he thinks 



io The Humming Bird. 

that this form rather belongs to the Turdidae than to the 
Timeliidae, as suggested by Mr. de Vis. These two birds 
are from British New Guinea. A fine coloured plate of 
PARAMYTHIA MONTIUM is given. Note on the proper use of 
the Generic terms CERTHIOLA and CAEREBA, by Dr. Philip 
Lutley Sclater. 

No. 19 contains : — On the Birds of the Islands of 
Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire , by Ernst Hartert, 40 species 
are mentioned from Aruba, 39 from Curacao, and 38 from 
Bonaire. A beautiful coloured plate of Chrysotis OCHROP- 
TERA, and CHRYSOTIS ROTSCHILDï is given. On the Collection 
of Raptorial Birds in the Norwich Museu?n, by j. H. Gurney. 
Notes on the Nestling of some Shetland Birds, by Ernest W. 
H. Blagg. On the Cause of Variation, in the shape of the 
Eggs of Birds, by Henry Seebohm. On a point in the 
mechanism of the Bill in Birds, by W. P. Pycraft. Swifts 
and Humming Birds, by Frederic A. Lucas. On the Occurence 
of White's Thrush in European Russia, by Dr. M. Menzbier. 
On the Nest and Eggs 0/GERYGONE MAGNIROSTRIS, Gould, 
by Alfred J. North. Notes on the Synonymy of some Palaeartic 
Birds, by H. E. Dresser. On the avifauna of Mount Duli, 
and the Baram district in the territory of Sarawak, by 
Charles Hose. Two hundred and sixty-six species are enum- 
erated, and beautiful coloured plates of ORIOLUS HOSEI, 
and SCOPS brookii, are given. On the Birds of Hainan, 
by F. W. Styan. One hundred and fifty nine species are 
mentioned. CRYPTOPHA BICOLOR, Styan, is the same as 
HERPORNIS TYRANNULUS, Swinhoe. PlNAROCICKLA SCHM- 
ACKERI, Styan, is the same as CRINIGER PALLIDUS, Swinhoe. 
CRYPSIRHINA NIGRA, Styan, is TEMNURUS NIGER. A fine 
coloured plate of Aboricola ardens is given. 

Part XX. contains : — On the Egg of the Empress 
Augusta Victoria's Paradise Bird, by Dr. A. B. Meyer. A 
coloured plate is given. Eield Notes on the Birds of Estancia, 
Sta Ele?ta, Argentine Republic, by A. H. Holland, with 
remarks by P. L. Sclater. Fifteen species are mentioned. A 
Review of the Species of the family PlTTIDAE, by John 
Whitehead. Forty-eight of these fine birds are recognised as 
distinct species, and very interesting notes are given on many 
of them. Notes on certain species of New Zealand Birds, by 
W. W. Smith. A list of the Birds inhabiting the Chatham 
Islands, by H. O. Forbes. PHALACROCORAX ONSLOWI, and 
Phalacrocorax ROTSCHILDï, are prososed for two new 



The Humming Bird. 1 1 

species of Cormorants. Eggs of GALLINAGO PUSILLA, Gar- 
RODIA NEREIS, CABALUS MODESTUS, THINORNIS NOVOE- 
ZELA'NDIAE, and Young of GALLINAGO PUSILLA and 
THINORNIS NOVOE-ZELANDIAE are figured. Bornean Notes, 
by R. Bowdler Sharpe. They are divided as follows : — 
I. — First List of Birds from Mount Kalulong, Sarawak. 
II. — A List of the Birds collected by Mr. A. H. Everett on 
Mount Penriseu and Mount Poeh, in Sarawak. III. — Des- 
cription of a new Spilornis from Borneo. SPILORNIS RAJA 
is the name proposed for it. IV. — A Note on the BAZA of 
Borneo. V. — Notes on Mr. A. H. Everett's Collection of 
Birds from Northern Borneo and Sarawak. VI. — Additions 
to the Avifauna of Mount Kina Balu. The name of Arach- 
NOPHARIS EVERETT! is proposed for a new species of Spider- 
hunter. VII. — Description of the Nest and Eggs of Staphidia 
EVERETTI. On the Mechanism of the upper mandible in the 
Scolopacidae, by R. W, Shufeldt. On the validity of 
CHRYSOTIS CANIFRONS, by George Lawrence. 

1894. THE IBIS, Vol. XL, No. 21, January 1894 con- 
tains: — Second List of Birds collected by Mr. Alexander 
Why te in Nyassaland, by Captain G. E. Shelley, Pro- 
DOSTICUS ZAMBESIAE, XENOCICKLA MILANYENSIS, PHYLLOS- 
TREPHUS CERVIN1VENTRIS, ANDROPADUS ZOMBENSIS, SYLVI- 
ELLA WHYTli, LANIARIUS BERTRANDI, HyPHANTORNIS 
NYASSAE, PYRENESTES MINOR, and FRANCOLINUS JOHNSTONI, 
are described as new species. XENOCICKLA MILANJENSIS, 
and FUSCICEPS, Phyllostrophus cerviniventris, and 
LANIARIUS BERTRANDI, are figured. On some Birds from 
Bugotu, Solomon Islands, and Santa Cruz, by H. B. 
Tristram, ZOSTEROPS METCALFii, and MACROCORAX VEGETUS, 
from Bugotu, and ZOSTEROPS SANCTAE-CRUCIS, from Santa 
Cruz are described as new species. ZOSTEROPS METCALFii, 
and RENDOVAE are figured. On the Taxonomy of the 
Swifts and Humming- Birds, by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt. This 
is a rejoinder to the paper entitled, Swifts and Humming- 
Birds, by F. A. Lucas, which appeared in Part 19 of the 
Ibis, Mr. Shufeldt maintains his opinion about the great 
differences existing between these birds. On the Birds of 
the Calcutta District, by Philip W. Munn, 152 species are 
mentioned, and English names are given for all of them. 
Notes on some Tunisian Birds, by T. T. S. Whitaker, 62 
species are mentioned. On the interbreeding of RHIPIDURA 
FULIGINOSA with R. FLABELLIFERA, by T. C. McLean. On 
the Chrysotis canifrons of Lawrence, by Ernst Hartert. A 



12 The Humming Bird. 

rejoinder to the paper entitled, On the validity of CHRYSOTIS 
CANIFRONS, by George Lawrence, Ibis, 1893, Part 20. 
Ornithology at Munich, Stullgart, Darmstadt, Frankfort 
and Cassell, by Philip Lutley Sclater. Description of a new 
species of Grebe from Central Peru, by Von Berlepsch and 
Jean Stolzmann. PODICEPS TACZANOWSKii, is the name pro- 
posed for it. A beautiful coloured illustration of the species 
is given. 

1892-1893. — Bulletin of the British Ornitholo- 
gists' Club. — At the first meeting held on the 19th of 
October, 1892, Dr. Bowdler Sharpe proposed the following new 
names for several birds forwarded by Mr. Everett, from the 
Island of Mantanani, and by Mr. Charles Hose, from Mount 
Dulit, in Sarawak : — SCOPS MANTANANENSIS, SCOPS CROOKri, 
Oriolus ROSii, and Batrachostomus MIXTUS. 

Mr.Ogilvie Grant sent the description of a new Caloperdix 
from Borneo, which he proposes to name Caloperdix 
BORNEENSIS, and another species from Sumatra, which he 
calls Caloperdix Sumatrana. 

Captain Shelley sent the descriptions of several new 
species from Africa as follows : — Cynniris NESOPHlLUS r 
Zosterops anderssoni, Parus xanthostomus, and Parus 

ROVUMAE. 

Dr. Sharpe proposed the name of STACHYRIS DAVISONI 
for a new species, collected by Mr. Davison at Pahang. 

At the second meeting, held on the 1st December 1892,, 
Count Salvadori proposed the names of PHLOGAENAS 
BIMACULATA, for a new Pigeon from Macassar and PHLO- 
GAENAS ALBICOLLIS, for another new species from Bow Island. 

The Hon. Walter de Rotschild proposed the name of 
PTILOPUS SALVADORii, for a new Pigeon from the Island of 
Jobi. 

Mr. Ernst Hartert proposed the names of MyarCHUS 
BREVIPENNIS, for a new Fly-catcher from the Islands of Aruba, 
Curacao and Bonaire, CHRYSOTIS ROTSCHILDI for a new 
species of Parrot, from Bonaire, and Strix BARGEI, for anew 
species of Owl from Curacao. 

At the third meeting of the Club, held the 31st December, 
1892, Mr. Dresser proposed the name of ACREDULA 
MACEDONICA, for a new species of that genus, from Monte 
Olympo. 



The Hum?ning Bird. 13 

Mr. Hartert proposed the name of CONURUS ARURENSIS, 
for a new Parrot from Aruba, West Indies. 

The Hon. Walter de Rotschild proposed the name of 
ANAS LAYSANENSIS, for a new species of Duck from the 
Island of Laysan, North Pacific. 

Dr. Bowdler Sharpe proposed the name of RHIPIDURA 
BUETTIKOFERI, for a new species of Rhipidura from the 
Island of Dammar in the Banda Sea. 

At the fourth meeting of the British Orinthologists' Club, 
held on the 26th of January, 1893, The Hon. Walter de 
Rotschild proposed the name of HEMIGNATHUS LANAIENSIS, 
for a new species of Hemignathus from the Island of Lanai, 
Sandwich. 

Mr. Henry Seebohm proposed the name of MERULA 
WHITEHEADI, for a new species obtained near Tozari in East 
Java, by Mr. Whitehead. He also proposed the name of 
ZOSTEROPS NEGLECTA, for a new species found in Java by 
Mr. Whitehead. 

Dr. Bowdler Sharpe proposed new generic names for 
some species of Rallidae, as under : — 

TRICHOLIMNAS, Type T. lafresnayanus, Verr. 
Dryolymnas, Type D. cuvieri, Pucher. 
Cartahg-LIMNAS, Type C. canningi, Blyth. 
CRECOPSIS, Type C. egregia, Peters. 
OENOLYMNAS, Type Œ. isabellinus, Schl. 
AMAUROLYMNAS, Type A. concolor, Gosse. 
Anurolymnas, Type A. castaneiceps, Scl and Salv. 
POLIOLYMNAS, Type P. cinereus, V. 
MiCROTRiBONYX, Type M. ventralis, Gould. 

At the fifth meeting of the Club, held the 1st of March, 
1893, Mr. H. E. Dresser proposed on behalf of Mr. John 
Whitehead the name of CRYPTOLOPHA XANTHOPYGIA, for a 
new species from Palawan Islands. 

Mr. Osbert Salvin proposed the names of Cyphorinus 
RICHARDSONI, for a new species collected by Mr. Richardson 
in Nicaragua ; and Rhopoterpe STICTOPTERA, for a new 
species also discovered by Mr. Richardson in Nicaragua. 
He also proposed the name of OESTRELATA AXILLARIS, for 
a new species of Petrel from Chatham Islands. 

At the sixth meeting of the Club, held on the 15th of 
March, 1893, the Hon. Walter de Rothschild proposed the 
name of PSEUDONESTOR for a new genus and a new species 



14 The Humming Bird. 

of Fringilline bird, allied to PsiTTACiROSTRA from Sand- 
wich Islands, which he proposes to call PSEUDONESTOR 
XANTOPHRYS. 

Dr. Bowdler Sharpe proposed the new generic names of 
HELIOPAIS, Type PODICA PERSONATA, Gray, for the Burmese 
Fin-Feet. He also proposed the names of LiMNOGERANUS, 
Type Limnogeranus americanus, L. SARCOGERANUS, Type 
Sarcorgeranus leucogeranus Pall. PSEUDOGERANUS, Type 
Pseudogeranus loucauchen, T. lor some new Genera of Cranes. 

Mr. Hartert proposed the name of EUETHEIA SHARPEI, 
for a new Finch collected by him at Bonaire, Curaçao, and 
Aruba. 

At the seventh meeting held on the 19th of April 1893, 
Mr. Ernst Hartert proposed the name of PlSORHlNA SOLO- 
KENSIS, for a new Scops-Owl, from Sumatra. 

The Hon. Walter de Rotschild proposed the name of 
RALLUS MUELLERI, for a new species of Rail from Auckland 
Island, south of New Zealand. He also proposed the names 
of ACRULOCERCUS BISHOPI, HlMATIONE NEWTONI, and 
HlMATlONE WILSONI, for three new birds from Sandwich 
Islands. 

At the eighth meeting of the Club, held on the 17th of 
May, 1893, Canon Tristram proposed the name of 
GALLINAGO HUEGUELI for a new Snipe from Snares Islands. 

The Hon. Walter de Rotschild proposed the name of 
DiOMEDEA IMMUTABIILIS, for a new species of Albatross 
from Laysan Island, North Pacific. 

Mr. Osbert Salvin proposed the names of Metallura 
ATRIGULARIS and Metallura BARONI for two new species of 
Humming-Birds from Ecuador, collected by Mr. 0. T. Baron. 

Dr. Bowdler Sharpe proposed the new generic names 
HETEROTIS, Type Heterotis vigorsi, Smith. NEOTIS, Type 
Neotis ludivigi, Rupp. HOUBAROPSIS, Type Houbaropsis 
bengalensis, Gm., for new genera of Otides. 

At the ninth meeting of the Club, held on the 21st of 
June, 1893, Dr. Bowdler Sharpe proposed the generic name 
Aramidopsis for Rallus plateni, Blasius. He also proposed 
the names TURDINUS KALULONGAE, GLAUCIDIUM BORNEENSE 
and SPILORNIS RAJA for three new birds from Sarawak. 

The Hon. Walter de Rotschild proposed the names 
LOXOPS WOLSTENHOLMEI, VlRIDONIA MACULATA, ANOUS 



The Humming Bird. 15 

HAWAÎENSIS, OESTRELATA NIGRIPENNIS, THALASSOGERON 
SALVINI, and DiOMEDEA BULLERI, for six new species from the 
Island of Oahu, Hawai, Kermadec Island and New Zealand. 

At the tenth meeting of the Club, held on the 18th of 
October, 1893, Mr. Jackson proposed the name DRYOSCAPUS 
PRlNGLii, for a new species of Bush-Shrike, collected by him 
in Eastern Africa. 

Mr. E. Hargitt proposed the name PlCUMNUS SALVINI, 
for a new species allied to P. UNDULATA, from Giuana. No 
locality is given. 

Dr. Bowdler Sharpe proposed the name ARDEIRALLUS 
PRAETERMISSUS for a new species from Ceram and Bourou. 

At the eleventh meeting of the Club, held on the 15th of 
November, 1893, Mr. Osbert Salvin' proposed the name 
ANTHOCEPHALA BERLEPSCHI, for a new species of Humming- 
Bird from Columbia. 

The Hon. Walter de Rothschild stated that the bird 
described by him as PaLMERIA MIRABILIS, is the same as 
HlMATlONE DOLE1, Wils., but as it is a genus very distinct of 
HlMATlONE, the name of this peculiar bird must stand hence- 
forth as PALMERIA DOLEI, Wils. 

Dr. Bowdler Sharpe. proposed the names SCOPS 
SIBUTUENSIS, Prionuturus verticalis, Dicaeum sibu- 
TUENSE, and Edolisoma EVERETTI, for four new birds from 
Sibutu and Bongao Islands. 

1892. — Mémoires de la Société ZoologIque de 
France, Tome V., 5 ème partie. 

Diptères nouveaux, bv T. M. Bigot, continued. Rapport 
sur le Congrès Ornithologique international de Budapest, 
by E. Oustalet. Etudes sur la faune macalogique des Iles 
Sandwich, by C. Felix Ancey. Pupa ACANTHINULA, LYON- 
siana, and magdalenae,Caecilianella baldwini, Amastra 
FROSTI, and CARELIA SINCLA1RI, are described as new species. 
Etudes sur l'écrivain ou Gribouri (ADOXUS VITIS) Kirby, by 
H. Jolicoe'ur and E. Topsent. — Echinides nouveaux ou peu 
connus, by G. Cotteau. ClDARlS FELICIAE, and REJAUDRYI, 
CAELOPLEURUS, ISABELLE, HEMIPNEUSTES ARNAUDI, STRICTE- 
CHINUS POUECHI, are described as new species. STRICTE- 
CHINUS is the name of a new genus, proposed by Mr. Cotteau 
for the last species. 

1893. — Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de 
France, Tome VI. 



1 6 The Humming Bird. 

PART Land II. contains: — Etude zoologique et anatomique 
du TROGLYPHUS MALUS, et de sa nymphe hypopiale, by J. 
Lignières. Etude zoologique et anatomique de l'Hemisar- 
COPTES COCCISUGUS, by the same author. Les Oiseaux 
hybrides reucontrês à l'état sauvage, par André Suchetet, 
fourth contribution. ACCIPITRES, Voyage de Mr. Ch. Alluaud 
aux Iles Canaries: — ISOPODES TERRESTRES, by Adrien Dolfus. 
Armadillo canariensis and ausseli, Porcellio ovalis, 

CANARIENSIS, ALLUAUDI, and SPINIPES, and METOPONOR- 
THRUS STRICTICAUDA, are described as new species. 
Monographie des MiLiOLiDÉES, du golfe de Marseille, by 
C. Schumberger. MASSILINA is proposed as a new genus 
for M. secans, d'Orb. SPIROLOCULINA INAEQUILATERALIS, 
SlGMOILINA COSTATA, TRILOCULINA MARIONI, QuiNQUELO- 
CULINA STELLIGERA, MASSILINA ANNECTENS, are described 
as new species. Cinqiuème note sur les Nematodes libres de 
la Mer du Nord et de la Manche, by Dr. T. G. de Man. 
Thalassoalaimus, Trefusia, Siphonolaimus, Triodonto- 
LAIMUS, ENOPLOLAIMUS, are proposed for five new genera. 
Thalassoalaimus tardus, Monohystera leptosoma, 
Trefusia longicauda, Ar^fxolaimus microphthalmus, 
spilaphora parva, gracilicauda and dolichura, chro- 
madora poecilosoma, Siphonolaimus niger, Enoplo- 
LAIMUS VULGARIS, are described as new species. Deuxième 
Rapport sur la Nomenclature des Etres organisés, by Dr. 
Raphael Blanchard. Contribution à l'histoire naturelle du 
Hanneton (MELOLONTHA VULGARIS), by Xavier Raspail. 
Seven black plates, illustrating some species of MiLOLlDAE 
and Nematodes, are given at the end of these parts. 

Part III. contains : — Voyages de la goélette Melita, sur 
les côtes orientales de l'Océan Atlantique et dans la Méditer- 
ranée, Céphalopodes, by Dr. Louis Joubin. Nouvelles 
Recherches sur V existence de l' Epervier majeur, ACCIPITER 
MAJOR, Degl. by Xavier Raspail. CANTHOCAMPTUS GRAN- 
didieri, Alona cambouei, «0kz/£0«.#Entomostracés d'eau 
douce de Madagascar, by Jules de Guerne and Jules Richard. 
La Graphitose et la Septicémie chez les Insectes, by I. 
Krasilshtshik. Notes pour servir à la connaissance des 
Mutilles palêarctiques et Description de quelques espèces 
nouvelles, by Ernest André. Mutilla DALMATICA, INNESI, 
SEMIRUFA, PECTINIFERA and SCHULTHESSI are described as new 
species. De la Nomenclature zoologique, by Dr. Charles Girard. 

1893. — Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de 
France. 



The Humming Bird. 17 

Part I. contains : — Courtes Notices sur les Hirudinêes, 
VIL, VIII., IX., by Dr. Raphael Blanchard. Sur quelques 
Oiseaux de V Inde, du Tibet, et de la Chine, by E. Oustalet. 
The names oiLophophorus Mantoui, and obscurus are proposed 
for two varieties of L. impeyanus. I am of opinion that the 
distinct coloration of these birds arises from natural or acci- 
dental causes, and that they cannot be considered as distinct 
species. (Edit.) Palaeornis Salvadorii is proposed for a 
new species of Parrot discovered by Mr. Armand David in 
Tibet. Les Zoologistes actuels, by L. H. Herrera. Remarques 
sur quelques espèces du genre BULIMINUS, avec les descriptions 
de plusieurs espèces nouvelles de ce genre, by C. F. Ancey. 
BULIMINUS SEMENOVI, ANNENKOVI, are described as new 
species. Faunes malacologiques de V Afghanistan et Bélout- 
chistan, by C. F. Ancey. BULIMINUS SINDICUS, Bens, var 
OROBIA, KAYBERENSIS, COELOCENTRUM, var SUBOVATA and 
AUSTENIANA are described. Note Préliminaire sur une Plan- 
aire sp., by Xavier Raspail. Note sur deux espèces nouvelles 
de Mammifères rapportées par Jean Dybowski de la région de 
V Ourangui, by E. de Pousargues. GALAGO (HEMIGALAGO) 
ANOMURUS, CROSSARCUS DYBOWSKII are proposed for these 
new species. Sur une Collection de Poissons recueillie, par 
Mr. Chaper à Borneo, by Léon Vaillant. Ninetv-two species 
are mentioned. The name DlASTATOMYCTER is proposed for 
a new genus. Type D. CHAPERI, Vaill. Amblyrhynchich- 
TRYS ALTUS, DlASTATOMYCTER CHAPERI, and CALLICHROUS 
EUGENEIATUS, are described as new species. 

Part II. — Sur un crapaud pourvu d'un appendice caudal, 
by Ernest Olivier. Un Saurien nouveau et un Ophidieu 
rare pour l'Algérie, by Ernest Olivier. Quatrième CAM- 
PAGNE, de l'Hirondelle, 1888, Sur les Crustacés amphi- 
podes recueillis dans lestomac des Ger?nons, by Edward 
Chevreux. Observations d'anatomie comparée sur V estomac 
des Camêliens, by J. A. Cordier. Contributions à la faune 
malacologique des Iles Sechelles, by Ph. Dautzenberg. Sur 
le mouvement de manège chez les Souris, by Remy Saint- 
Loup. Thermo-Régulateur , by Charles Janet. Notes Or- 
nithologiques, by Ch. van Kempen. Courtes Notices sur les 
Hirudinêes X., XL and XII., by Dr. Raphael Blanchard. 
PLACOBDELLA is proposed for a new genus. PLACOBDELLA 
RABOTI and GUERNEI are described as new species. 

Part III. contains : — Courtes Notices sur les Hiru- 
dinêes XI IL, by Dr. Raphael Blanchard. Contribution a 
Tetude de la faune microscopique des eaux de Paris et de 



1 8 The Humming Bird. 

ses environs, by A. Certes. SPHAEROMA DUGESI, n.sp., by 
Adrien Dolfus, for a new species from Aguas-Calientes, 
Mexico. Congrès international de Zoologie. A permanent 
Committee was constituted as follows : — 

President : M. Milne Edwards (Paris). 

Vice-Presidents : M. Jentinck (Leyden), Count Kapnist 

(Moscou), M. Th. Studer (Berne), M. L. Vaillant (Paris). 
General Secretary: Dr. Raphael Blanchard (Paris). 
Secretary : Baron J. de Guerne (Paris). 

The Permanent Committee proposes the following 
question for the prize of His Royal Highness the Tzarevitch, 
which will be delivered in 1895 at the Leyden Congress : — 

Study of the fauna of one of the great regions of the 
world, and the relations of that fauna with the neighbouring 
ones. 

Manuscripts or printed works must be in French, and 
sent to the President of the Committee, 7, Rue des Grands 
Augustins, Paris, before the first of May, 1895. Anomalie de 
la Carapace chez la Cistude d' Europe, by Dr. Raphael 
Blanchard. Une nouvelle planaire terrestre d' Europe, by 
L. von Graff. RHYNCODEMUS PYRENAICUS is the name 
bestowed for it. Notes sur quelques A?nphipodes Méditer- 
ranéens, de la famille des Orchestidae, by Ed. Chevreux. 
Etude des Mues subies par les chenilles de la livrée, BOMBYX 
NEUSTRIA, by T. Lignières. Sur une pierre de serpent, by 
Dr. Raphael Blanchard. Description d'une nouvelle Hélice 
de Kabylie, by C. F. Ancey. HELIX SUBAPERTA is the name 
given. Description d'une espèce nouvelle de Pupa provenant 
de l'Algérie, by C. F. Ancey. Pupa CARTENNENSIS. Des- 
cription d'une nouvelle espèce de Cypris, vivant dans les 
eaux ther?nales du hammam-meskhoutine , by R. Moniez. 
Cypris balnearia is the name proposed for it. 

Part IV. contains : — Note sur une adaptation particu- 
lière de certains, Chromatophores chez un Céphalopode, 
CHIROLEUTHIS BOMPLANDI, Vérant, by Dr. Jourbin. HETERO- 
CHAETA GRIMALDII, Calanide nouveau provenant de la 
troisième campagne scientifique du yatch, THlRONDELLE, by 
Dr. Jules Richard. ALLOLOBOPHORA SAVIGNYI, Lombricien 
nouveau du sud ouest de la France, by M.M.J, de Guerne and 
R. Horst. Diagnose d'une espèce nouvelle' de Rongeur du 
genre, Golunda de la collection Dybowskyi, by E. de 
Pousargues. GOLUNDA DIBOVVSKYI is the name proposed for 



The Humming Bird. 19 

it. Five specimens were obtained near the post fixed by Mr. 
Dybowsky on la Kemo, by 6° 17' latitude North, and 17 15' 
longitude East. Description d'un, Lecanium MEXICAIN, by 
T. D. A. Cockerell. Lecanium SCHINI, Licht litt, is the 
name proposed for it. Etude sur les Fourmis, by Ch. Janet. 
Spongiaires récoltés par Mr. Ch. Alluaud aux Iles Sechelles, 
by E. Topsent. Note sur la faune des Spongilides de 
France, by E. Topsent. Note sur quelques éponges du golfe 
de Tadjoura, recueillies par Mr. leDocteur L. Faurot, by 
E. Topsent, AXOSUBERITES is proposed for a new genus. 
Anoxuberites fauroti, Reniera ramusculoides and 
DEPRESSA are proposed for three new species. 

Part V. contains :- — Crustacés Isopodes terrestres from 
Seychelles, by Adrien Dolfus. ANOMALISCUS is proposed for 
a new genus. ANOMALISCUS OVATUS and Tylos MINOR are 
proposed for two new species. Sur le mouvement de manège 
chez les Insectes, by Alphonse L. Herrera. Courtes Notices 
sur les Hirudinées, by Dr. Raphael Blanchard, XX., XXL, 
XXII. and XVIII. Notes pour servir à la faune du Depart- 
ment du Doubs (Oiseaux), by E. Oustalet. Fifty-two species 
are enumerated. Sur deux Coccidies nouvelles, parasites des 
poissons, by Alphonse Labbé. Coccidium lucidum and Coccidie 
de la Motelle are the names proposed. Arachnides des Iles 
Sechelles, by E. Simon, Cryptotrele alluaudi, Club ion a 
marensis, Dendrolycosa tenella, Oxyopes alluaudi, and 
Viciria, tenuimanus, are the names proposed for the new 
species discovered by Mr. Alluaud. 

Part VI. and last for 1893, contains : — Sur quelques 
Gordiens nouveaux ou peu connus, by Lorenzo Camerano. 
Gordius raphaelis, is proposed for a new species. Du nom 
générique des Caimans à plastron osseux, by Leon Vaillant. 
Sur le transport des Oeufs d'un ?iid dans un autre par une 
Perdrix grise, by Xavier Raspail. Note sur un second 
exemple d'incubation commencée et continuée par un mâle de 
Passereaux, by Xavier Raspail. Sur le mouvement de manège 
chez les Insectes, by Raphael Dubois. 

A propos d'une méduse observée par le D'Tautain, dans 
le Niger, à Bamakou (Soudan français) j by Jules de Guerne. 
Note sur les PLATYPEZIDAE, fossiles de l'ambre tertiaire, 
by Fernand Meunier. A propos de nomenclature, by Ph. 
Dautzenbergand G. Dolfus A rejoinder to Doctor Ch. Girard. 
Notes pour servir à la faune du Départe?neut du Doubs 
(Mammifères, by E. Oustalet. Sur la vitesse de croissance 



20 The Humming Bird. 

chez les Souris, by Re my Saint Loup. Du langage chez le 
Coq et la Poule ordinaires, by L. B. de Kerhervé. Sur le 
nouveau Diapisde,du Mexique, by T. D. A. Cockerell. Myti- 
LASPIS PHILOCOCCUS, is the name proposed for it. 

1892. — Congrès International des Amèricanistes 
Compte Rendu de la huilième Session tenue à Paris en 
1890, Paris. This large volume of 704 pages of text is exceed- 
ingly interesting. Fine portraits of Armand de Quatrefages, 
and Ferdinand Denis are given. Contents : — Preface,\>y Désiré 
Pector, General-Secretary. Reports of Meetings, Receptions, 
etc., Quelques observations sur l'origine du mot AMERICA, by 
E. T. Hamy. Mr. Hamy is of my opinion (Humming Bird, 
1892, pp. 118-119) that the name AMERICA, is derived from 
Americo or Amerigo, Vespuci. Amerriques, Amerigho Ves- 
pucci, Amérique, by Jules Marcou. Mr. Marcou opines that 
the name AMERICA is derived from the Sierra AMERRIQUE, 
Chontales, Nicaragua. Sur le nom AMERRISQUE, by Désiré 
Pector. He is of the same opinion as M. Hamy and myself. 
El nombre de AMERICA, by Julio Calcafio. He is also of 
the same opinion as ourselves about the origin of that name ; 
but he says that Americo Vespuci is innocent of it. It was 
done after his death, and its origin can be traced in La 
COSMOGRAFIA, published in Lerona in 1509, by Waldsee- 
muller. Premiers Découvreurs de l' Amérique, Sur les 
communications préhistoriques entre l'ancien monde et 
V Amérique, by Hyde Clarke. The Missing Records of the 
Norse Discovery of America, by Mrs. Marie A. Shipley. 
Migration des Gaels en Amérique au moyen âge, by E. 
Beauvois. Situation géographique des anciennes colonies 
Scandinaves, by Prof. Valdemar Schmidt. Découvertes des 
Portugais eu Amérique au temps de Cristophe Colomb, by 
Paul Gaffarel and Charles Gariod. Observation sur l'histoire 
du Bananier eu Amérique, by Dr. A. Ernst. Les dernières 
recherches sur l'histoire et les voyages de Christophe Colomb, 
by J. Silverio Jorrin. A portrait of Christopher Colomb is 
given. Sobre el lugar cierto eu que repozan lar cenizas de 
C. Colon, by Francisco Henriquez y Carvajal. On so?ne points 
on the early Cartography of North A?nerica, by John B. 
Shipley. Sur quelques documents peu connus relatifs à la 
découverte de l' Amérique, by Gabriel Marcel. Sur la 
question de la pluralité et de la parenté des Races en 
Amérique, by H. ten Kate. Les premiers Américains, by 
Marquis de Nadaillac. Origine asiatique des Esquimaux, 
by l'abbé Emile Petitot. La déformation artificielle du 



The Humming Bird. 21 

crane chez les tribus indiennes du Nord Ouest des Etats 
Unis et de la Colombie britannique, by Dr. Fernand Delisle. 
Woodcuts of deformed skulls are given. 

Les Clif-Dwellers de la Sierra Madre, by Dr. Hamy. — 
Anomalies et Mutilations dentaires des Tarasqucs, by Dr. 
N. Léon. Déformations dentaires artificielles chez les 
Indiens de l'isthme de Panama, by A. L. Pinart. Collection 
de Portraits d'Indigènes du Brésil, by Dr. P. Ehrenreich. 
L homme fossile du Rio Samborombon, by Dr. J. Vilanova. 
Anthropologie fuégienne, by Dr. Deniker. Sa.cred hunts of 
the American Iudia?is, by John G. Bourke. Mémoire sur 
les analogies qu' ou peut signaler entre les civilisations de 
V Amérique du Nord, de l' Amérique centrale et les civilisa- 
tions de I Asie, by Désiré Charnav. UlTZILOPOCHTLI, Dieu 
de la Guerre des Astèques, by Dr. Ed. Seler. Woodcuts of 
several gods are given. L orfèvrerie des anciens Mexicains 
et leur art de travailler la pierre et de faire des ornements 
en plumes, by Dr. Edward Seler. Two very interesting 
coloured plates representing Indians working, and feathered 
ornaments are given. Sur le Quetzal (APANECAIOTL) ou 
coiffure Mexicaine en plumes, conservée à Vienne, by Mrs. 
Zelia Nuttall. Ouvrages eu plumes du Mexique, by Mrs. 
Zelia Nuttall. Mélodies populaires des Indiens du Guate- 
mala, by Raymond Pilet. Several pieces of music are given. 
Note sur les limites des civilisations de Vithsme américain, 
by A. L. Pinart. Aperçu sur Vile d' 'Aruba, ses habitants, 
ses antiquités, et ses pêtroglyphes, by the same Author. 
Monographie des Caraïbes, by R. de Semallé. Les Fuêgiens 
â la fin du xvii. siècle, by G. Marcel. On some daims of 
the American Indians, by S. B. Evans. Du Développement 
d'empreintes de produits textiles, sur les poteries russes, et 
de leur conformité avce les produits similaires de l' Amérique 
du Nord, by Pri?ice P. A. Poutjatine. Essai de classification 
chronologique des Monuments de l'Amérique précolombienne, 
by Marcel Daly. Archéologie mexicaine, by Dr. A. Penafiel. 
Sur les peintures à fresque des anciens palais de Mitla 
(S. Mexico), by Dr. Ed. Seler. One coloured plate is given. 
Etudes archéologiques sur le Salvador précolombien, by 
Capt. de Montessus. Pêtroglyphes de l'isthme américain de 
V Amérique centrale, des grandes et petites Antilles, by 
A. L. Pinart. Ruines de Tiahuanaco, bv Th. Ber. Rapports 
négatifs des langues américaines et polynésiennes, by Prof. 
G. Cora. Les noms des métaux chez différents peuples de la 
Nouvelle Espagne, by Count de Charencey. Terminaison du 



22 The Humming Bird. 

pluriel dans les langues. MexicanO-Opata, by Dr. V. Reyes. 
Notice sur Les langues Zapotègue et mixtèque, by Dr. Ed. Seler: — 
CHONTALES and POPOLUCAS. A contribution to Mexican 
Ethnography, by Prof. D. G. Brinton. Several vocabularies 
are given. Considérations sur quelques noms indigènes de 
localités de l'isthme centre-américain, by Désiré Pector. 
Sur le mot, ANAUAC, by Dr. Ed. Seler. De P infxation 
dans la langue MOSOUITO, bv L. Adam. Vocabulario de la 
lengua, AtanÇjUES, by Dr. Rafael Celedon. Langue, 
OYAMPI, by L. Adam. Langue roucouyenne, by L. Adam. 
Linguistique GUARANI, by Dr. C. F. Seybold. Esquisse dune 
grammaire et d'un vocabulaire BANIVA, by R. de la 
Grasserie. Vocabulaire des Euégiens, à la fin du XVIII. 
SIÈCLE, Extrait du Mémoire de Mr. G. Marcel. Collec- 
tion BOTURINI-AUBIN-GOUPIL, de manusirits figiu atifs 
mexicains, by Auguste Genin. Le Codex Troano et le Codex 
Cortesianus, by J. de la Rada y Delgado, Les Codices et les 
Calejidriers du Mexique et de l' Amérique centrale, by Georges 
Raynaud. On the Codex Poinsett, by H. Phillips, jun. La 
Période paléolithique dans V Amérique du JVovd, by Dr. 
Th. Wilson. Many woodcuts are given. This is a very im- 
portant work, as can be seen by its contents, and I con- 
gratulate heartilv my friend Mr. Désiré Pector, the General 
Secretary, for the great care and trouble which he has had 
in editing this splendid Volume. 

1892. — BOLETIM DA SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAPHIA DE 
LiSBOA. lia, Série No. 1 — 12. Contents of No. 1, List of 
Members ; No. 2, Descobertas e descobridores. DiEGO CAO, 
by Luciano Cordeiro ; No. 3, DiEGO D'AzAMBUJA, by Luciano 
Cordeiro ; No. 4, VASCO DA Gama, by the same author; No. 
5, Participacao portu^ueza na celabracho hespanhola da cen- 
tenario da chamada descoberta par Columba : — Escolha do 
horisonte fundamental para as altitudes da Europa, by Count 
d'Avila ; No. 6 — 8, Expedicâo portugueza a M. Pesé ne, 188 ç; 
relatorio de Carlos Wiese, Continued : — No. 9, Etude sur un 
poisson des grandes profondeurs du genre, HiMANTOLOPHUS, 
dragué sur les côtes du Portugal, by A. A. Girard. Descrip- 
tion d'une ECHENEIS nouveau des côtes du Portugal, by the 
same author. ECHENEIS PEDICULUS, is the name proposed 
for it. Black plates of HiMANTOLOPHUS GROENLANDICUS, 
and ECHENEIS PEDICULUS are given. Duas via gens de 
Almigi de Giovani, veneziano, a Calecut nos annos de 152c a 
1532, traducidas do livro, ViAGGl FATTI DA ViNEGiA Alla 
Tana in Persia, in India et in Constantinopoli, by 



The Humming Bird. 23 

Antonio Pereira de Paiva e Pona. Geographia mcdica (0 
clima de Tanger, no tratamento da tisica pulmonar by the 
same author. No. 10, a cir cumnavegacao do Africa offer ecida 
a Sociedade de Geographia, by A. E. de Cavalheiro e Sousa. 
O Jau, Confer encia na Sociedad de Geographia de Lisboa, 
by Padre Wieder. O. coronel Borges. No. 11. — Documen- 
tos de Macau copia da correspondencia relativo a missâo, do 
Conseikhero Adriao Accacio, by Silveira Pinto, Encargado de 
negocio com o Vice Roi Ki-ing em 1843. Adas de i8ç2. 
No. 12, Espedicao ao Humbe, Bibliographia. Catalogo das 
publicaoes feitas pela Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa. 
Aulas de 1892. 12a, Série No. 1. — Portuguezes fora de 
Portugal, Berengella e Leonor rainhas da Dinamarca, by 
Luciano Cordeiro. Berengaria et Leonora, note historique, 
de Mr. C. Brunn. 

1893, No. 2. — Album da gruta de Camoes, copia enviada 
à Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa pelo Governor de 
Macau. Um Costume dos habitantes do Pegu, by Sousa 
Viterbo. De Dubran a Beira, by Carlos T. Alford. Expedicao 
ao Hu?nbe, by Capt. Joaquim, Maria Luna de Carvallio. Biblio- 
graphia. Nos. 3 — 4, Mitras lusitanas no Oriente, by Casimiro 
C. de Nazareth. Nos. 5 — 6. America austral. Cartas escriptas 
da America nos annos de 1822, a 188 j, by A. Lopez Mendez. 
First Part, Bibliographia. Adas de i8çj. 

1893. — Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa, In- 
dices e Catalogos, A Bibliotheca. 

1892 — 93. Memorias y Revista delà Sociedad Cientifica 
Antonio Alzate, Tome VII. Mexico. Numéros 5 — 12. In 
number 5, there is a very interesting account of Les Ruines 
Zapothèques du Cerro de Quiengola, near Tehuantepec 
(Oaxaca) by A. Estrada. A good plan of the ruins accom- 
panies the relation. In numbers 9 — 12, Moyens de defense 
chez l es animaux, by A. L. Herrera. 

1893 — 94. — In Numbers 1 — 4, E homme préhistorique au 
Mexique, by A. L. Herrera, a very interesting memoir. 

1893, October 21st. — Revista mensual de la Sociedad 
GUATEMALTECA DE CiENCiAS, Guatemala. This is a new 
Journal, to which I wish a long life. Three numbers have 
been issued. The first is dated October 31st. In Parts 
2 and 3, there is a very good memoir entitled : — Apunta- 
mientos sobre los estudios de Biologia de Guatemala, 
e importancia de estos estudios, by Juan José Rodriguez, 
the well-known Naturalist. He gives a detailed account 



24 The Humming Bird. 

of all the Naturalists who have explored Guatemala 
from 1796, up to date. He also mentions many of the works 
published on the fauna and flora from Guatemala, and lastly 
he hopes that the Government will soon décrète the formation 
of a Museum of Natural History in the Capital. I add my 
wishes to that of my old friend, and I hope to hear soon that 
it is done. 

1893.— The Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, 
edited by M. M. Barrett, Champion Douglas, Fowler, Mc 
Lacklan, Saunders, and Lord Walsingham Second Series, 
Vol. IV., London, in twelve parts. This Volume contains 
292 pages of text, several black plates, and two very good 
portraits of STAINTON and WESTWOOD. This excellent 
Magazine contains a very large number of contributions, 
chiefly on British and European Insects. Page 37, PiMPLA 
EPEIR/E, is proposed by Mr. Bignel for a new species of 
that genus, found in the egg-bag of a spider; EPEIRA CORNUTA, 
at Ivybridge, South Devon. Pages 39-41, ASPIDIOTUS PALMAE, 
and DlASPlS TENTACULATUS, are proposed by M. M. Cockerel! 
and Morgan for two new species of West Indian Coccidae, 

Pages 61-63. — NlPHE AETHIOPICA, PEROMATUS 

bolivianus, Phthia cantharidina, Zelus filicauda and 
RHAPHIDOZOMA ATKINSONI, are the names proposed by Mr. 
E. Bergroth for five new species of RHYNCHOTA from West 
Africa, Bolivia, Ecuador, and India. 

Page 83. — -Rhyzophagus NOBILIS, and ANCISTRIA 
REITTERI, are proposed by Mr. Lewis for two new species of 
Japanese Coleoptera. 

Page 105-106. — Aleurodicus ornatus, is proposed 
by Mr. Cockerell for a third species of ALEURODICUS, from 
Jamaica. 

Page 151. — The name LYGAEOSCYTARIA is proposed 
by Mr. Reuter for a new division allied to LYGAEIDAE and 
CAPSIDAE. He names this curious Cupid, from Tasmania, 
LYGAEOSCYTUS CIMICOIDES, new genus, and new species. 

Page 152. — XlPHOCERA ENSICORNIS, is proposed by H. 
de Saussure, for a new species of Orthoptera, from Trans- 
vaal. 

Pages 153-155, the name of PSEUDINGLISIA, is proposed 
for a new genus of COCCIDAE, born in England, on plants 
freshly imported from Trinidad. He calls the species, 
PSEUDINGLISIA RODRIGUEZIAE. 



The Humming Bird. 25 

Page 155 — 58, MYTILASPIS ALBUS and PlNNASPIS BAM- 
BUSAE, are the names proposed by Mr. Cockerell, for two new 
species from West Indies. 

Page 182, ANAXITA DRUCEI, is the name proposed by 
Juan Rodriguez, for a new species of that genus, from 
Guatemala. 

LOCRIS CONCINNA, is proposed by Mr. Distant, for a 
new species of Homoptera from South Africa. 

Page 183 — 185, NlPONIUS ANDREWESI, PARVULUS, and 
TRYPETICUS INDICUS, are the names proposed by Mr. Lewis, 
for three new species of Histeridae, from Kanara, India. 

Pages 185 — 88, Aspidiotus COCOTIS, AFFINIS, and 
DlASPiS OPUNTIAE are the names proposed by Mr. Newstead, 
for three new species of Coccidae from Demerara. 

Page 204, HERCYNELLA, is the name proposed by Mr. 
Bethune Baker, for a new genus allied to HERCYNA. H. 
STAUNDINGERI and MARGELANA from Shah Kuh Mountains, 
Persia, are described as new. 

Pages 205, LECANOPSIS FORMICARUM, is the name pro- 
posed by Mr. Newstead, for a new species of Coccidae from 
Chesil Beach. 

Page 252, PROSTEMMIDEA is proposed by Mr. Reuter 
for a new genus of Lygaeidae, from Bombay. P. MIMICA is 
the type of this new genus. 

Pages 253 — 55, TRACHYSCELIS CILIARIS, LAEVIS, and 
PALLENS, are proposed by Mr. Champion, for three new 
species of this genus, from Australia and Ceylon. 

Page 274, Platydema asymmetricum is the name 
proposed by Mr. Champion for a new species of PLATYDEMA, 
from Damma Island, near Timor. 

Page 275, PSEUDOMOLPUS is proposed by Mr. Jacoby 
for a new genus of Phytophagous Coleoptera from Gaboon. 
P. dimidiatus , n.sp., is the type of this genus. 

Page 277 — 78, the name of HALOVELIA is proposed by 
Mr. Bergroth for a new genus of Hemiptera from Cartier 
Island, Timor, and N.W. Australia. H. MARITIMA, n.sp., is 
the type of this genus. ACANTHIA SALINA is proposed by the 
same author for a new species of that genus from N.W. 
Australia. 

3 



26 The Humming Bird. 

1893. — ORNITHOLOGISCHE MONATSBERICHTE, edited by 
Dr. Ant. Reichenow, Berlin. A new and interesting Journal, 
containing many interesting memoirs by well-known writers. 

Page II — 12, POECILOTHRAUPIS MELANOPS, CHLOROS- 
PINGUS VENEZUELANUS, GRALLARIA EXCELSA, CONIROSTRUM 
INTERMEDIUM, EMPIDAGRA BAHIAE, and SERPOPHAGA, 
MUNDA, are the names proposed by Mr. Berlepsch, for five 
new species of birds from South America. Leucotreron 
meridionalis is proposed by M. M. Meyer and Wigles worth, 
for a new species from Macassar. 

Page 28, Xenocickla damans, is proposed by Mr. Sjôstedt, 
for a new species of that genus. 

Pages 29 — 32, Symplectes stuhlmanni, Ploceus in- 
terscapulars, RUFONIGER, PACHYRHYNCHUS, MALIMBUS 
centralis, Turacus emini, Tricholaema FLAVIBUCCALE, 
DENDROPICUS POECILOLAEMUS, Caprimulgus NIGRISCAPU- 

laris, STILBOPSAR, n.g. Type, S. stuhlmanni, Tserpsi- 
PHONE EMINI, PARUS FASCiiVENTER, Cinnyris regia, Cama- 
roptera axillaris, RECTIROSTRUM, n.g. Type, R. 
HYPOCHONDRICUM, are the names proposed by Dr. Reichenow, 
for two new genera and fifteen new species, discovered in 
Central Africa, by the late celebrated Emin Pacha, and Mr. 
Stuchlmann. 

Page 41, COLUMBA PALLIDA, is proposed by M. M. Von 
Rotschild and E. Hartert, for a new species. 

Pages 42 — 44, PODICA CAMERUNENSIS, TROCHOCERCUS 
ALBIVENTRIS, SYMPLETES CASTANICAPILLUS, and ALSEONAX 
OBSCURA, are proposed by Mr. Sjôstedt, for four new species 
from Cameroons. 

Pages 60 — 62, TELEPHONUS EMINI, ClNNYRIS PUR- 
PUREIVENTRIS, MELOCICHLA ATRICAUDA, ClSTICOLA NUCHA- 
LIS, and GLAUCIDIUM CASTANEUM, are proposed by Dr. 
Reichenow, for five new species collected in Central Africa,. 
by M. M. Emin and Stuhlmann. 

Page 65, GLAUCIDIUM SJoSTEDTI, is proposed by Dr. 
Reichenow, for a new species from Cameroons. GOURA 
HUONENSIS, is proposed by Mr. Meyer for a new species from 
North New Guinea. 

Page 84, CENTROPUS FLECKI, is proposed by Dr. 
Reichenow, for a new species from Damaraland. ClSTICOLA 
DISCOLOR, is proposed by Mr. Sjôstedt for a new species 
from Cameroons. 



The Humming Bird. 27 

Page 138, DEUDROPICUS REICHENOWI, is proposed by 
Mr. Sjôstedt, fora new species from Cameroons. 

Page 177, TURDINUS RUFIVENTRIS, BURNESIA TAENI- 
OLATA, DENDROPICUS LACUUM, and Glaucidium KILIMENSE, 
are proposed by Dr. Reichenow, for four new species from 
Cameroons, Karevia and Kilimandjaro. 

Page 205, Malimbus erythrogaster, is proposed by 
D. Reichenow, for a new species from Cameroons. 

1893. — The Canadian Entomologist, edited by Rev- 
C. J. S. Bethune, Ontario. Many new species of Insects are 
described in this Volume. 

1893. — Twenty - third Annual Report of the 
Entomological Society of Ontario. Many woodcuts 
of injurious Insects are given. The songs of our grasshoppers 
and crickets, by S. H. Scudder, is well worth reading. 
Musical notes of several species are given. 

1893. — Appendix to the Report of the Minister 
of Agriculture on Experimental Farms, Ottawa. One 
Volume with 289 pages of text and woodcuts. 

1893. — Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. Bulletin 
No. 19. Grasses, their uses and composition ) by James 
Fletcher. 

1892. — Bulletin of the United States National 
MUSEUM, No. 40. Bibliographies of American Naturalists. 
IV. — The published writings of George Newbold Lawrence, 
1844-1891 , by L. S. Foster, with a fine portrait of Lawrence. 
One hundred and twenty-one memoirs of this celebrated 
Ornithologist are mentioned. In these, 323 new species of 
birds are described. Names and habitats are given for each 
species. 

1893. — The Prairie Ground Squirrels, or Sperm- 
OPHILES OF THE MISSISSIPPI Valley, by Vernon Bailey, 
Washington. Sixty-seven pages of text, coloured plates of 
SPERMOPHILUS TRIDECEMLINEATUS, FRANKLINIand RICHARD- 
SONI are given A very interesting memoir on these Mammals, 
mentioning their natural enemies, the methods of destroying 
them, and a full account of the three species figured. 

1893.— NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA, No. 7; The 
Death Valley Expedition, a biological survey of parts of 
California, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah. Part II. — Wash--- 
ington. This important volume of 393 pages contains : — 



28 The Humming Bird. 

Report on Birds, by A. K. Fisher. 

Report on Reptiles and Batrachians, by Leonhard 
Steineger. 

Report on Fishes, by Charles H. Gilbert. 

Report on Insects, by C. V. Ryley. 

Report on Mollusks, by E. C. Stearns. 

Report on Desert Trees and Shrubs, by C. Hart Merriam. 

Report on Desert Cactuses and Yuccas, by C. Hart 
Marriam. 

List of Localities, by T. S. Palmer. Fourteen black 
plates and five maps are given. SCELOPORUS CLARKii, 
MAGISTER, ZOSTEROMUS, ORCUTTI, BOULENGERI, and FLORI- 
DANA, are figured on plate i. PHRYNOSOMA CORNUTUM, 
BLAINVILLEI, GOODEI, and PLATYRHINOS, on plate ii. XANTUSIA 
VIGILIS, Salvadora HEXALEPIS, Bufo HALOPHILUS, NELSONI, 
and Rana FISHERI, sp. nov., on plate iii. SAUROMALUS ATER 
on plate iv. EMPETRICHTHYS MERRIAMI, gen. et sp. nov., 
on plate 5. RHINICHTHYS NEVADENSIS, sp. nov., and VELIFER, 
sp. nov., on plate vi. OPUNTIA ACANTHOCARPA, WHIPPLEI, 
PARRYI, and RUTILA, on plates vii. to xi. YUCCA BACCATA, 
ARBORESCENS, and MACROCARPA, on plates xii. to xiv. Amni- 
COLA, MICROCOCCUS, and FLUMINICOLA MERRIAMI, are 
figured in text, pages 277 and 282. The fine maps illustrate: — 
The General Route-Map of the Expedition, Lower Division 
of the Lower Sonoran Zone, Distribution of Leconte thrasker 
(HARPORHYNCHUS LECONTEl), Distribution of the Creosote 
Bush (LARREA TRIDENTATA) and Distribution of the Tree 
Yucca (YUCCA ARBORESCENS). Derivations, names, and 
localities, are given for 137 species of Birds and 56 species of 
Reptiles, 13 species of Fishes. A list of about 800 species 
of Insects is given, many new species are pointed out ; two 
new genera and 18 species of DlPTERA are described, also one 
new genus, and 10 new species of Hemiptera Heteroptera, 
and two new species of ORTHOPTERA. 47 species of MOL- 
LUSKS are pointed out, among which, one new species, Amni- 
COLA MICROCOCCUS. A list of 144 species of trees and 
shrubs, is given, and lastly 23 species of CACTUSES, YUCCAS 
and Agave. 

1892. — Anales del Instituto fisico-geografico y 
DEL MUSEO NACIONAL DE COSTA Rica, Tome III., San José, 
Costa-Rica. Contents : — Observaciones meterologicas, Viaje 
de Exploracion al Rio Grande de Terraba, by H. Pittier, 
with map. La Parte Sur Este de la Republica de Costa-Rica, 



The Humming Bird. 29 

by Dr. A. von Frantzins. Apuntamientos para la historia 
natural de Costa-Rica, by H. Pittier. Crustaceos, Insectos, 
Y MOLLUSCAS. Resultados de las observaciones meteorologicas 
practicadas en el ano de 18 go, by H. Pittier. Descripcion 
de una especie nueva de " GALLINA de MONTE," by José C. 
Zeledon. ARAMIDES PLUMBEICOLLIS is the name proposed. 
Descripcion de très especies nuevas para la fauna costari- 
cense, by G. K. Cherrie. RAMPHOCELUS COSTARICENSIS, 
Myrmocciza occidentalis, and Grallaria lizanoi, are 
the names proposed. Antiquedades de Costa Rica, by Dr. 
H. Polakowsky. A fine photograph illustrating eleven rare 
antiquities is given. Ave s colectadas en Costa Rica, by 
Adolfo Boucard. It is a traduction of my paper published in 
the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, January, 
1878, made by Anastasio Alfaro. Resena de las principales 
Aves, que habitan la parte superior del Volcan de PoÀS, by 
Anastasio Alfaro. Investigaciones sobre el azucar del AGAVE 
AMERICANA, by Gustavo Michaud y José Fidel Tristan. 

1891. — Memoria de la Secretaria de Gobernacion 
Policia Y Fomento, San José, Costa Rica. 

1892. — Die Vogel der Insel Curacao, by Hans von 
Berlepsch. In this memoir Mr. Berlepsch mentions all the 
works published anteriorly, on the birds of Bonaire, Curacao 
and Aruba, and gives a list of all the species recorded from 
these Islands. On page 91, TiNNUNCULUS BREVIPENNIS is 
proposed fora new species from Curacao. 

1891. — Katalog der Vogelsamlung, im Museum der 
Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 
in Frankfurt Am Main, by Ernst Hartert, Frankfurt. 259 
pages of text. This is a complete list of the species of birds, 
in the collection of the Museum of Francfort. 3,612 species 
are enumerated. 

1892. — Catalogue of a Collection of British 
Birds formed by the late Mr. John Henry Gurney and 
HIS Son, by the latter, with the localities, sex, and state* of 
plumage, London. 

1891. — A LIST OF MOLLUSCA AND OTHER FORMS OF 
Marine life, collected in the years 188c — 1890, in JAPAN, 
by Frederick Stearns. Detroit. One black plate is given. 

1891. — Viaggio di Leonardo Fea, in Birmania e 
REGIONI VICINE : — ODONATËS, by Edm de Selys Long- 
champs, Genova. Many new species are described in this 
memoir. 



30 The Humming Bird. 

1893. — La chasse aux petits oiseaux par le Baron 
d'Hamonville. (Revue des Sciences Naturelles appliquées) , 
Paris, Baron d'Hamonville wishes that it should be prohibited 
to shoot small birds, to obviate their rapid extinction in the 
Department of Meurthe-et-Moselle. 

1893. — Rapport sur une Mission exécutée dans 
la Mer Rouge et le golfe d'Aden, by Doctor 
Jousseaume, Paris. 

1893-94.— The English Illustrated Magazine, Lon- 
don, Illustrated London News Office. In No. 121, October 1893, 
there is an interesting memoir entitled: — A Naturalist in a 
Swiss Forest, by C. Parkinson, with very good illustrations, 
by George E. Lodge. In Number 124, January 1894, The 
Zoo REVISITED, A Chat with the Sacred Ibis, by Phil 
Robinson, is spirited and very good. In the course of his 
chat with the Ibis, Mr. Robinson remarks that different species 
of birds are put together in the same cage, and that labels 
with the names of the species enclosed, are attached to the 
cage, but that it is quite impossible for the Visitor to make 
out which is which. That is what I have found myself in 
many Zoological Gardens, and it ought to be remedied at once, 
by giving illustrations, with names of the species exhibited. 

1893. — Science and Art and Technical Education, 
edited by John Mills. London: Chapman and Hall. Very 
good illustrations are given. 

1893. — The International Christmas Recorder, 
in New York Recorder, December 10th. 

Contents : — Wealth and Progress of the United States. 
A lot of information on Natural Finances, Gold and Silver, 
Iron Ore Product, An Economical Process of extracting 
gold, A Yatch on Wheels, etc., etc. 

1893. — The Antigua Observer, edited by Daniel W. 
Scarville, El Porvenir, edited by Antonio Araryo, Cartha- 
gena, Columbia, etc., etc., etc. 



SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAPHIA DE 

LISBOA. 

In the Session held on the 10th April, 1893, our Chief 
Editor, Mr. Adolphe Boucard has been elected Corresponding 
Member of the Geographical Society of Lisboa, Portugal. 



The Humming Bird. 31 

THE FLYING MAN. 
By the Editor. 

|||jf| GERMAN, Mr. Otto Lilienthal, a practical worker, 
SÊÈk has successfully invented an apparel, not exactly 
adequate for flying about, but quite good enough to precipi- 
tate himself into space from an elevated spot or eminence. 
During three years Mr. Lilienthal has been studying the 
mechanism of wings in birds, and the result was the con- 
struction of an apparel consisting chiefly of two gigantic 
wings, about sixteen yards square, when opened. These 
wings, weighing forty-two pounds, are fixed on a skeleton 
frame made with osier, in the centre of which the experimen- 
tator sits. From his seat he can easily modify the inclination 
of the wings, and direct two rudders, fixed at the back of the 
apparel. 

With the exception of the hands, which lay on a 
transversal bar, the rest of the body is entirely free in its 
movements, and by sloping it more or less to the right or to 
the left, modifies the position of the centre of gravity of the 
apparel. 

After numerous experiments, resulting in acquiring the 
perfect manipulation of the wings and rudders, Mr. Lilienthal 
made up his mind to experiment his flying machine. He 
first took his flight from a tower, twelve feet high, which he 
purposely built for that purpose. He was so successful that 
his next attempt was made from a hill, about three hundred 
feet high. He landed at a distance of nine hundred feet 
from the hill, leisurely and without the least difficulty. 

During the aerial voyage, he worked the wings so, as to 
accelerate or delay the descent at will. He succeeded 
also to fly against the wind. Therefore we can say with 
certainty that the first step for the manufacturing of flying 
machines is an accomplished fact, and before long, man will 
have conquered AlR at last. 

Mr. Lilienthal himself confesses that much remains to be 
done to make his apparel perfect ; but with the elements 
worked upon by him, it will not take long now, to construct a 
perfect machine, which will enable Man to explore that 
domain. I congratulate, heartily, Mr. Lilienthal for his im- 
portant discovery, to which his name will remain permanently 
associated, as the first practical discoverer of this most 
interesting and scientific problem. 



32 The Humming Bird. 

To Mr. Lilienthal, and to others who will follow him, I 
will suggest this : — If you want to solve satisfactorily and 
quickly, the problem of travelling into space with a flying 
machine, follow the path so well laid out by Mr. Lilienthal. 
Study first NATURE in its aerial inhabitants, viz. : — BIRDS, 
either alive or dead. Nature contains everything as perfect 
as it can be. The solution of this problem, as that of many 
others, is there. Are not all successful inventors after all, only 
imitators of the works of Nature. For example, begin by 
studying the skins of a Condor or a Golden Eagle. See how 
the feathers of wing and tail are disposed on their wings and 
tail, measure their length, count their number, weigh the 
bodies, then make your calculations, and construct an 
apparatus resembling as much as possible in its formation to 
the wings and tails of these birds. Then study their flight, 
note the strength of their nerves and muscles, so as to 
enable you to replace these with a machine of sufficient 
power, according to the weight which must be lifted in the 
air, and at the same time enabling you to move easily wings 
and tail in all directions. Then you will have an apparel 
with which the solution of the aerial navigation problem will 
probably be solved. 

You may also study with advantage other species of 
Birds, especially Hawks, Gulls, Crows, Swifts, Swallows, etc. 
All of these have long wings, short tails, comparatively light 
bodies for the length of their wings, and fly easily and swiftly. 

Since ICARE, captive of MlNOS, made some wings to fly 
away from the place of his captivity without any other result 
than his fall in the Algean Sea, many are the attempts which 
have been made to construct a flying apparatus, but not one 
was adequate. The most important one, was made by the French- 
man, PlLATRE DE RoziER, but he was not more successful 
than his predecessors. But now we can hope that before the 
end of this century, such a machine will exist, and will produce 
a revolution in the ways of travelling, at least for the 
audacious ; because I do not see how it could ever be so 
vulgarised as to make it handy for the public at large. 



LIST OF PARROTS and PITTAS FOR SALE at 225, High Holborn, 

London, W.G. 



PSITTACI. 

Nestor notabilis, Gould 

meridionalis, Gmel. 

Chalcopsittacus ater, Scop. 

duyvenbodei, Dub. 

scintillatus, Tem. 

occidentalis, Salv. 

Eos reticulata, Mull. 

cardinalis, Homb. 

rubra, Edw. 

wallacei, Finsch. 

riciniata, Bechst. 

fuscata, and Var. Bl. 

Lorius hypoenochrous, G.R. 

lory, L. . . 

erythrothorax, Salv. 

jobiensis, Salv. 

domicella, L. 

garrulus, L. 

Vini australis, Gmel. 

Trichoglossus cyanogrammus, Wagl. 

massena, Bp. 

novoe hollandiae Gm. 

rubritorques, Vig. 

ornatus, L. 

Psittenteles flavoviridis, or n.sp. 

meyeri, Schl. 

euteles, Tem. . . 

chlorolepidotus, Ku. 

Ptilosclera versicolor, Vig. 
i Glossopsittacus conciunus, Shaw 

porphyreocephalus, Diet. 

pusillus, Shaw. 

Hypocharmosyna placens, T. 

a aureocincta, Lay. . . 

Charmosynopsis pulchella, G.R. 
Charmosyna papuensis, Gm. 

stellae, Mey. 

Neopsittacus muschenbroeki, Ros 

iris, T. . . 

Cyclopsittacus desmaresti, Garn. 

coxeni, Gould 

diopthalmus, H. and T. 

suavissimus, Sclat. 

Microglossias aterrimus, Gm; . 
Calyptorhynchus xanthonotus, G 

banksi, Lath. 

Callocephalon galeatum, Lath. 
Cacatua galerita, Lath. 

triton, Tem. 

. leadbeateri, Vig. 

roseicapilla, Vieil. .. 

Licmetis nasica, Tem. 
Calopsittacus novoe hollandiae, C 
Ara macao, L. 

chloroptera, G.R. . . 

militaris, L. 

severa, L. . . 

macavuanna, Gmel. 



3o 
20 
12 
100 
12 

25 
20 
60 
12 
30 

i5 
12 
20 
16 
16 
20 
12 
16 
20 
10 
10 

4 
30 

5 
30 



4 
20 

3 

12 

3 

10 
20 
20 
12 
16 
20 

50 
6 

10 
6 

20 

20 

30 
30 
10 
12 
20 
12 
12 
16 
10 
20 
30 
24 
20 
20 



Psittaci — Continued. 

58 Ara nobilis, L. 

5g hahni, Souancé 

60 Rynchopsittacus pachyrhynchus, 

61 Conurus lencophthalmus, Mul 
62 

63 

64 

65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 

71 ocularis, Sclat. and Salv. 

7* 
73 



nenday, Desm. 

— solstitialis, L. 

— jendaya, Gm. 

— weddelli, Dev. 

— wagleri, G.R. 

— chloropterus, Sou. . 

— holochlorus, Sclat. . 

— astee, Sou. 

— aeruginosus, L. - . 

— ocularis, Sclat. and 

— aureus, Gm. 

— canicularis, L. 



Sw. 



74 Cyanolyseus patagonus, Vieil 

75 Gnathosittaca icterotis, M.S. 

76 Henicognathus leptorhynchus, K 

77 Pyrrhura cruentata, Neu 

78 - vittata, Shaw 

79 — leucotis, Licht. 

80 picta, Mul. . . 

81 luciani, Dev. 

82 egregia, Sclat. 

83 calliptera, Man. 

84 souancei, Verr... 

85 rhodocephala, S. and Salv 

86 — — hoffmauni, Cab. 

87 ... chiripepe, Vieil. 

88 Myopsittacus monachus, Bodd. 

89 Bolborhynchus panychlorus, S. an 

90 Psittacula conspicillata, Laf. 

91 sclateri, G.R. 

92 passerina L. 

93 guianensis, Sw. 

94 Brotogerys tirica, Gmel. 

95 
96 

97 
98 

99 

100 Chrysotis fârinosa, Bodd. 

101 amazonica, L. 

102 ochrocephala, Gm. 

103 panamensis, Cab. 

104 ■ auropalliata, G.R. 

to5 — — aestiva, L. . . 
106 albifrons, Spar. 

107 ventralis, Mull. 

108 Pionus menstruus, and Var., L. 

109 sordidus, L. 

no bridgesi, Boucard . 

in senilis, Spix. 

112 fuscus, Mull. 

113 Deroptyus accipitrinus, L. 

114 Triclaria eyanogaster, Vieil. 

115 Pionopsittacus pileatus, Scop. 



chiriri, Vieil. 
■ virescens, Gm. 
jugularis, Mull, 
chrysopterus, L. 
tui, Gmel. . . 



20 
16 

4 
20 
16 
12 
20 
10 
d God. 16 



LIST OF PARROTS and PITTAS FOR SALE at 225, High Holborn 

London, W.C. 



Psittaci — Continued. 

116 Pionopsittacus amazoninus, Desm 

117 haematotis, S. and Salv 

118 coceineicollaris, Lawr. 

119 pyrilia, Bp. . . 

120 caica, Lath. 

121 Urochroma cingulata, Scop. 

122 purpurata, Gmel. .. 

123 surda, 111. 

124 — : — hueti, Tern. . . 

125 Caica melanocephala, L. . . 
126 xanthomera, G.R. .. 

127 Poeocephalus robustus, Gm. 

128 gulielmi, Jard. 

129 senegalus, L. 

130 versteri, Finsch. . . 

131 meyeri, Rupp. 

132 Psittacus erithacus, L. 

133 Coracopsis vasa, Lev. 

134 nigra, L. .. 

135 comorensis, Pet. . . 

136 barklyi, Newt. 

137 Dasyptilus pecqueti, Less. 

138 Eclectus pectoralis, Mull. 
13g cardinalis, Bodd. . . 

140 Geoffroyus personatus, Shaw. 

141 aruensis, G.R. 

142 rhodops, G.R. 

143 - cyanicollis, Mull. . . 

144 Prioniturus platurus, T. . . 

145 flavicans, Cass. 

146 discurus, Vieil. 

147 Tanygnathus affinis, Wall. 

148 * mulleri, T. . . 

149 Palaeornis nepalensis, Hodg. 

150 torquata, Bodd. 

151 - 

152 - 

153 " 

154 " 

155 " 

156 - 

157 - 

158 — .... ,„ ,_..,.,.,, 

159 Polytelis barrabandi, Sw. 

160 alexandrae, Gould.. 

161 melanura, Vig. . . 

162 Ptistes erythropterus, Gm. 
163 jonquillaceus, Vieil. 

164 Aprosmictus cyanopygius, V. 

165 chloropterus, Rams. 

166 dorsalis, Quoy. 

167 Pyrrhulopsis tabuensis, Gm. 

168 personata, G.R. 

169 Psittacella brehmi, Ros. . . 

170 modesta, Ros. 

171 Psittinus incertus, Shaw . . 

172 Bolbopsittacus mindanensis, Steere. 

173 Agapornis pallaria, L. 

174 Loriculus vernalis, Sparm. 



docilis, Vieill. 
cyanocephala, Briss. 
rosa, Bodd. . - 
schisticeps, Hodgs. 
peristerodes, Finsch. 
calthropae, Lay. 
fasciata, Mull, 
longicauda, Bodd... 



s. 
30 

6 
16 
30 

8 

4 
6 

5 

16 
10 

3° 
16 

30 
10 

40 
20 
10 
16 
16 
20 

3° 
20 
10 

30 
8 



12 
10 
20 
16 
6 
10 

5 
6 

5 

10 
12 
20 
20 

5 
8 
12 
12 
10 
12 

30 
16 
16 
16 

25 
30 
30 
50 

5 

20 

6 

4 



Psittaci — Continued. 

175 Loriculus exilis, Schl. 

176 philippensis, Briss. 

177 galgulus, L 

178 stigmatus, Mull. . . 

179 aurantiifrons, Schl. 

180 Platycerus elegans, Gmel. 

181 adelaidae, Gould . . 

182 flaviventris, T. 

183 pallidiceps, Vig. 

184 eximius, Shaw. 

185 Porphyreocephalus spurius, K. 

186 Barnardius barnardi, Lath. 

187 semitorquatus, Quoy. 

188 Psephotus xanthorhous, Gould 

189 multicolor, Brown 

190 haematonotus, Gould 

191 Neophema pulchella, Shaw 

192 venusta, T. 

193 elegans, Gould 

194 chysogastra, Lath. . . 

195 Cyanoramphus novoe-zelandiae, 

196 rowleyi, Bull . 

197 saisseti, Verr. 

198 ~auriceps, Kuhl. 

199 malherbei, Sou. 

200 Nymphicus cornutus, Gmel. 

201 Nanodes discolor, Shaw 

202 Melopsittacus undulatus, 

203 Pezoporus formosus,Lath. 

204 Stringops habroptilus, G.R. 

205 greyi, G.R. 

Conurus mitratus, T. 
Chrysotis salvini, Salv. . . 

PITTIDAE. 

206 Hydrornis nipalensis, Hodgs. 

207 Gigantipitta caerulea, Rafl. 

208 Pitta maxima, Mull. 
209 
211 
212 
213 
214 

215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 



Sparm. 



Shaw 



— cyanoptera, T. 

— megarhyncha, Schl. 

— brachyura, L. 

— strepitans, T. 

— granatina, T. 

— coccinea, Eyt. . . . 

— arcuata, Gould (imperfect) 

— erythrogastra, Tern. 

— celebensis, West 

— mackloti, and Var., T. 

— atricapilla, Briss. . . 

— muelleri, Bp. 

— novoe guineae, Mull. 

— cucullata, Hartl. .. 

— baudi, Mull. 

225 Eucickla cyanura, Bodd. . . 

226 boschi, Mull. 

227 gurneyi, Hume 

228 Philepitta jala, Bodd. 



This List oanoels all previous ones. 



Printed by Pardy & Son, 8, The Triangle, Bournemouth. 



Vol. IV. Part III.] SEPTEMBER, 1894. 



[Price 2/6. 



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of South American Birds. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 
with coloured plate, figuring Chiromachacris 
coronata. Boucard, London, 1879 ... ... 2/- 

The same, with black plate ... .. ... 1/- 

Description d'une espèce nouvelle de Pseu- 
doeolaptes de Costa Rica. Paris, 1880 ... 6d. 

Descriptions de deux espèces nouvelles de 
Cicindélides de Panama. Paris, 1880 ... 6d. 

On a Collection .of Birds from .Yucatan 
(Mexico), with notes by Mr. Osbert Salvin, 
f.r.s. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 30 pages. London, 1883 2/6 

Notice biographique sur Francois Sumichrast, 
Naturaliste Voyageur, Brochure in 8vo., avec 
portrait. Paris, 1884 ... ... ... ... 2/- 

Visite aux ruines de Xochicalco (Mexique). 
Paris. 1887 ... .. ... ... ... 1/- 

Catalogue des Objets exposés par la Rè- 
puplique de Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1889 .. ... ... ... .. 1/- 

Catalogue des Oiseaux de la Collection 
Riocour. Paris, 1889 ... ,. ... 1/- 

THE HUMMING BIRD. A Monthly Scien- 
tific, Artistic, and Industrial Review. 
Vol.1. London, 1891 ... ... ... .. 10/- 

Conterts of Vol. I. 
Preface — What is to be seen everywhere in London — 
The McKinley Bill — The Panama Canal — Notes on the 
Genus Pharomacrus — An easy way of making £100 a 
a year — Reports on Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 
Skins — Rapport sur la Vente publique, de plumes et 
d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décembre, 1890 — The Museum 
of la Plata, and my idea of a typical' and practical 
Museum of Natural History — Reports on Public Sales 
of Postage Stamps — Notes on rare species of Humming 
Birds, and Descriptions of several supposed new species 



— Second International Ornithological Congress — 
Answers to Correspondents — Description of a supposed 
new species of Parrot in Boucard's Museum — Notes on 
the Crowned Superb Warbler (Malurus coronatus (Gould) 
— A Visit to the Gardens of Zoological Society of Lon- 
don — British Museum (Zoological Department) — Royal 
Aquarium — Books and Journals received — Obituary — 
Description of a supposed new species of Paradise bird 
in Boucard's Museum — The Pilgrim Locust — Descrip- 
tion of a supposed new species of Tanager — Notes on ' 
the grea/t Bower Bird {Chlamydodera nuchalis, Jard) — 
Collections made in Thibet and Central Asia — A Visit to 
the British Museum (Natural History Department) — 
The Plantain or Banana Plant — Inauguration of the 
statue of Pie-"** Belon, the Naturalist — A Giant 
Land Crab — Review of new Scientific Books— Report- 
on the Public Sale of the celebrated Collection of Shells, 
formed by the late Sir David Barclay, and sold at 
Steven's on Monday, the 6th of July, and following days 
— Recommendations for the prevention of damage by 
some common Insects of the Farm, the Orchard, and 
the Garden — La Vie champêtre. La Destruction de la 
Larve du Hanneton (Melolontha vulgaris) — Crocodile, - 
Snake, and Fish skins for industrial purposes — World's 
Columbian Exposition, Bâtiment de l'Administation. 

The same, Vol. II. London, 1892 ... ... 10/- 

Contents of Vol. II. 
Description of a supposed new Species of Humming Birds, 
in Boucard's . Museum — The World's Fair, Inter- 
national Exposition of Chicago — Review of New 
Scientific Books— Notes on the Rare Pheasant, 
Rheinardius ocellatus — Books received — Celebrated 
Gallery of Old Masters, of the late General Marquess 
de Garbarino — Customs Tariff of Great Britain and 
Ireland — Obituary — Biographical Notes on Henry 
Walter Bates, F.R.S., etc. (with portrait) — American . 
Pearls — Fish from Volcanoes — A very large Tree — A 
Curious Rat Catcher — List of Birds collected, by Mr. j 
Hardy at Porto-Real, Brazil, with description of one 
supposed New Species — Description of a supposed New; 
Species of the genus Manticora, " Cicindelidae," from ■ 
Damara Land, South Africa — Description d'une espèce 
nouvelle de Diptère parasite de Costa Rica, Ornithom- 
yia geniculata — The Completion of the Panama Canal \ 
— A complete list, up to date, of the Humming Birds 
found in Columbia, with descriptions of several supposed . 
New Species — Christopher Columbus — Festivities and 
Exhibitions, held in honour of Christopher Columbus in I 
America, Spain, Italy and France — America — Le Canal ■; 
de Panama — International Exhibition in Monaco — A.J 
new Emission of Postage Stamps. 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS, comprising:— 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithso- 1 
nian Institution, 1890-1891 — Catalogue of Birds in the I 
British Museum, Vol. XX., 1891, Vol. XVI., 1892, j 
Vol. XXII., 1892— Zoological Record, Vol. XXVIII., 
1892 — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, j 
1892 — The Ibis, Vol. IV., Sixth Series, 1892 — Mémoires 
de la Société Zoologique de France, Vol. V., 1892 — j 
Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad cientifica, Antonio 1 
Alzate, 1892 — Actes de la Société scientifique du Chili, j 
Vol. I., 1892 — The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, j 
1892, etc. 
OBITUARY:— 
August von Pelzen — Dom Pedro d'Alcantara — M. 
Alphand — Monseigneur Freppel — Armand de Quatre- .! 
fages de Breau — Duke of Clarence— Henry Walter j 
Bates— Etienne Arago — Hermann Charles Burmeister j 
— Carl August Dohrn — -Marshal da Fonseca — Ernest 1 
Renan — Alfred Tennyson — Xavier Marmier. 
GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, by A. Boucard, ; 
pages 1 to 56. 
Sauvetage du Panama, 4éme edition, Brochure 

in 8vo., 32 pages. Tours, 1892.. .. 6d. fl 

Catalogue des Collections d'historié 

naturelle récoltées au Mexique par M. 

Adolphe Boucard ... ... .. .. !/-■ 

Catalogue de Mammifères, Oiseaux Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles de la Californie, 

Louisiane, Mexique et Uruguay ... ... i/-H 

Catalogue de Carabiques et Colcoptères 

divers, 1477 espèces ... .. .. ... I l-M 

Catalogue d'Hétekomères et de Curculio 

nides, 2242 espèces ... .. .. .. 1 h \ 

Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles et Poissons, 

1157 espèces */*■ 

Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2636 espèces 1/6 
Liste des Coléoptères en> vente chez M. 

Adolphe Boucard, 79^6 espèces ... ... 4J-^Ê 

Liste des Oiseaux en vente chez M. Adolphe 

Boucard, 4584 espèces ... .. .. 4/-™ 

La série complète des huit Catalogues et Listes ... w/-jB 



Mît Humming 




VISITS TO THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY'S GARDENS, 

LONDON. 

II. — The Insect House in Summer. 

KSKjLTHOUGH, as I demonstrated in my article on the 
HifSI^ Insect House, which appeared in the Humming; 
Bird, that building can be of great interest even in the 
winter, still, midsummer is the time to see it in its full 
glory, when insects from all parts of the world, and in all 
possible stages of existence, are on view in the various cases 
with which the house is full. Following the plan adopted in 
my former article, of turning figuratively speaking, to the left 
after passing through the doorway, the case of cocoons of 
(Actias selenœ) , the Indian Moon-moth, is found to be still in 
the same place, but now, besides the cocoons, there are several 
fine specimens of the perfect insect, a truly superb moth, 
which must be seen in order to be properly admired. There 
were also, at the time of my visit, several clusters of eggs laid 
by these moths, which will breed somewhat freely in this 
country, although the larvae require very careful rearing. 
They are interesting on account of the changes of colour 
which they undergo as they shed their skins. On being 
hatched they are black, with two or three red bands around 
the body, when this skin is shed, the colour is changed to 
crimson, with two rows of black tubercles along the back, 
each tubercle bearing several white hairs. In the third stage, 
they are a beautiful pale green, the tubercles on the first two 
or three segments being orange-coloured, and the remainder 
red. Each tubercle bears one or two black hairs with white 
tips, as well as several shorter black bristles, none of the 
hairs being clubbed at the tips, as is the case with those of 
Antherea Pernyi (Perny's Silk-moth), and many other 
species of the family Saturnidae. These interesting larvae 
feed on the Walnut Tree in this country. The eggs usually 
hatch about the end of June. 

The second case contained more cocoons and imagines 
of the same species. Next to it was one containing cocoons 
and perfect insects of the Great Atlas Moth (Attacus atlas) , 
also from India, one of the largest moths in the world. By 



34 The Humming Bird. 

the side of these were cocoons of the Ailanthus Silk-moth 
(Attacus cynthia) , and a number of very fine living 
imagines. This, which is another Asiatic species, is very 
easily reared in England, feeding on the Lilac as well as on 
the Ailanthus Tree! Unfortunately, they degenerate gradually 
both in size and strength in this country after two or three 
generations have been reared. The only way to prevent this 
is to import a number of fresh cocoons from Japan every year, 
to interbreed with the English-bred moths. A closely allied 
species, which, however, is not so frequently seen in this 
country, is the Eria Silk-moth (Attacus ricini) , the larvae of 
which, as the specific name denotes, feed on the Castor Oil 
Plant. 

In the next case were cocoons of the Tusseh Silk-moth 
(Antherea mylitta) , from which, however, no moths had 
emerged at the time of my visit. This species is said to 
produce one of the strongest silks spun, although I believe it 
is too difficult to wind to be used in any quantity as an article 
of commerce. The moth is large, of a tawny colour, with a 
large round spot or eyelet, destitute of scales, in the centre 
of each wing. The inmates of the neighbouring- case were 
near relatives of this species, being cocoons and living 
imagines, or perfect insects of Perny's Silk-moths (A. Perny) , 
which greatly resembles the Tusseh in general characteristics, 
but is considerably smaller. It comes from China. As men- 
tioned in my former article, the larva is one of the easiest to 
rear in this country, feeding on Oak and Hawthorn. A closely 
allied species sometimes seen at this house is A. Roylei, which 
is often crossed with A. Perny. 

The Madagascar Pratincole (Glareola ocularis) , described 
in my last article, was still in the same place, looking in 
splendid health, as did the Electric Eels, but the Short-winged 
Tyrant-birds (Machetornis rixosa) , which occupied the next 
cage to the Eels' tank in December last, had been removed 
to the Parrot House, their former habitation being tenanted 
by two pairs of the Bearded Titmouse (Panurus biarmicus) , 
a charming European species, light brown in colour, with grey 
heads, the males having a number of long black feathers 
extending from the bill down each side of the throat, forming 
two lengthened black patches like moustachios, hence their 
name of " Bearded." 

I found a change had also taken place in the wall aviary 
in the north-west corner of the building, our old friend the 
Fruit Cuckoo having been evicted from this roomy cage, 
which he had occupied for many years, in order to make room 



The Humming Bird. 35 

for a specimen of the Oven Bird (Furnarius rufus), from 
Buenos Ayres. It is a bird of about the same size of a 
Thrush, which it somewhat resembles in general appearance, 
except that the breast is not spotted. The Cuckoo had been 
placed in a small cage in a recess to the aviary, and looked 
very crestfallen at having been turned out of his spacious 
apartment to make room for a new-comer. While I was 
there, he gave utterance to the usual cry of his family, 
"cuck-oo/' but in a very deep, resonant tone, strikingly 
different to the sprightly call of his English cousin. Horsfield's 
Scops Owl (Scops tempyi) , from Malacca, and a pair of the 
Sahara Bunting (Fringillaria saharœ) , from North Africa, 
occupied two adjacent cages, as they did on the occasion of 
my last visit. The Undulated Grass Parroquets (Melop- 
sittacus undulatus) , and the Large Hill Mynahs (Gracula 
intermedia) , from Australia and India respectively, were also 
in the same place as before. 

In a small glass case next to the Mynah's cage were some 
curious spiders from Bahia, Brazil. These were Tree Trap- 
door Spiders. 

The ordinary Trap-door Spiders make a burrow in the 
earth, with a cleverly constructed lid to it, composed of earth 
and silk, opening on a hinge of the latter article. When 
closed, this lid is exactly level with the surface of the ground, 
and, the top being of earth, it is perfectly indistinguishable 
from its surroundings. The spider slightly lifts the edge of 
this extraordinary trap-door, and watches for unwary insects 
that chance to pass that way. In the case of the particular 
species mentioned above, its habits are much the same, except 
that the burrow is constructed in the trunk of a tree instead 
of in the ground, the trap-door being made to assimilate with 
the surrounding bark. Three or four very good photographs 
above the case show the spider in the act of entering and 
leaving his tunnel, and by comparing them with the pieces of 
tree-trunk, one is enabled, after some difficulty, to detect the 
entrances to the burrows, the spiders themselves being rarely 
visible. I should think that these curious creatures must 
make a very good living, tree-trunks being such favourite 
resorts for all kinds of insects, especially in a country like 
Brazil, where insect life is so prolific. 

Next to the spiders is a case of pupae of the Bat Hawk- 
moth (Deilephila vespertilio) , a European species which 
somewhat resembles the better-known Spurge Hawk-moth 
(D. Euphorbias) j found in some places on the British coast. 
Their next door neighbours were the giant snails (Bulimics 



36 The Humming Bird. 

oblongus) , from Africa, which I spoke of in my former article. 
An interesting case to collectors of British insects was one 
containing young larvae of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary 
Butterfly (Argynnis Euphrosyne) , which were hatched from 
ova laid by a wild-caught female from Kent. 

Some curious insects were to be seen in one of the large 
cases, namely, a great number of Stick-insects (Diapheromera 
femorata) , from Canada. As their name implies, these 
extraordinary creatures resemble twigs of trees, being from 
three to four inches, and extremely slender, varying in colour 
from light-green to brown. The antennae are very long, 
thin, and tapering, the legs been alsoattenuated and lengthened. 
Many of them, especially those of a light colour, bear a 
remarkable resemblance to the skeleton of a leaf, the remain- 
ing portion of which, has been eaten by some insect, leaving 
the principal ribs or veins bare. These insects are interesting 
on account of this being the third generation in succession 
raised in the Insect House from the original ova, and yet they 
do not show the slightest deterioration either in size or vigour. 
They feed on the leaves of plants, like the locusts and grass- 
hoppers, and judging from the voracity which these specimens 
exhibited, I should imagine that they must be very destructive 
where found in any number. 

There were several species of Silk-moths in cases close 
to the Stick-insects, one being the Cecropian Silk-moth' 
(Samia cecropia) , a large species from North America, the 
prevailing colour of which is a warm gray, with a reddish 
crescent-shaped mark in the centre of each wing. It is a fine 
moth, very easily reared in this country. Another species was 
the Polyphemus Silk-moth (Telea polyphemus) , also North 
American ; this is another good-sized moth, somewhat re- 
sembling the genus Antherea in the shape of the wings and 
general appearance. The colour is tawny, with a large 
circular spot, denude of scales, in the centre of the hind 
wings, which spot is surrounded by a patch of dark-coloured 
scales. In the next case were living specimens of the 
American Moon-moth (Actias lunaj , which is smaller than 
the Indian species mentioned at the commencement of this 
article, but like it, light green in colour, with a white crescent 
in the centre of each wing, and with the hind wings prolonged 
into " tails." 

Turning my attention to the cases on the centre tables, 
the first to catch my eye was one containing specimens of the 
Silver- washed Fritillary (Argynnis paphia) , from the New 
Forest, Hampshire. This is one of the finest species found 



The Humming Bird. 37 

in England, and tolerably common in the South. It is deep 
tawny above, with black spots and streaks, but the hind wings 
are very handsome on the under surface, being green, streaked 
or " washed " with silver. There is a curious variety of the 
female found in the New Forest, in which the tawny red 
colour of the upper surface gives place to green ; this variety 
is much prized by collectors. 

Another British species was represented by some larvae 
and pupae of Lycœna corydon, the Chalk-Hill Blue Butterfly, 
which is common on chalk-cliffs and downs, these particular 
specimens coming from Dover, which is a great place for them. 
It is unique in colouration among British butterflies, being of 
a peculiar silvery greenish-blue, very beautiful and striking. 
In the same case were some pupae and perfect insects of the 
Glanville Fritillary Butterfly (Melitœa cinxia) , an extremely 
local species in this country, the principal resort being the 
Isle of Wight, from which these specimens came. 

A second example of the genus Telea was shewn, in the 
shape of T. promethea (the Promethean Silk-moth.) This 
is a smaller and darker species than T. pohyphemus exhibiting, 
in its general appearance a good deal of affinity with the 
Cecropian Silk-moth. 

The family of Sphingidœ or Hawk-moths was represented 
by several European and one North American species. One 
of the most familiar to British collectors was the Spurge 
or Spotted Elephant Hawk-moth (Deilephila euphorbia?) , 
which is very pretty, with pink hind wings, barred with black. 
A member of a different genus was the Oak Hawk-moth 
(Smerinthus quercus) , also from Europe, resembling in shape 
the Poplar Hawk-moth (Sm. populi) , a common British 
species, but somewhat larger and paler than the latter. The 
North American species in another case belonged to this 
genus; it is a smaller moth, more like the English Sm. 
ocellatus, or Eyed Hawk-moth, but smaller. Its scientific 
name is S?n. excœcatus. 

Two representatives of the genus Sphinx were the 
Convolvulus Hawk-moth (S. convolvuli) , and the Pine Hawk- 
moth (S. pinastri.) The latter is a large greyish moth, a 
reputed British species, but very doubtful. The former is 
found in this country, but is far from being common. 

I was pleased to see on one of the centre tables, a case 
containing some beetles belonging to the family Cassididœ. 
These were very curious, head, legs, and body being entirely 
hidden under acircular horny carapace, the tips of the antennae 
and legs being just visible when the creature is walking, so 



38 The Hummi7tg Bird. 

that it looks like some strange animal moving about with a 
shield on its back. That part of the carapace which is 
attached to the body is reddish-brown, while the edges are 
semi-transparent yellow. It comes from Ceylon. I say that 
I was glad to see it, because the order Coleoptera is very 
seldom represented at the Insect House, although many of its 
members are quite as beautiful and interesting as the 
Lepidoptera. I am certain that there must be many species 
which could be sent to this country in a living state, and 
collectors who would take the trouble to make the experiment, 
and forward a few to the Zoological Society of London, would 
have the satisfaction of knowing that they were conferring a 
benefit, both on the public, by increasing their knowledge of 
these insects, and on science, by facilitating their study, 
as a closer observation could be kept on them than is possible 
in their wild state, and many interesting and important facts 
relating to them would doubtless be discovered, which would 
otherwise have remained unknown. 

I w r ill conclude by recommending everyone who takes an 
interest in Natural History, and who has not visited this 
charming place, to do so on the first opportunity ; I am 
positive that they will not regret it. Every day new changes 
are taking place, ova are hatching, larvae changing into pupae, 
and butterflies and moths emerging from their shells. At the 
time of my visit, almost all the cases which had living 
imagines in, had ova also, the larvae from which will be 
nearly full-fed by the time this article appears. 

W. H. Rosenberg. 



A NURSERY OF INSECTS. 

For the breeding and rearing of insects, a building has 
been newly erected by the United States Department of 
Agriculture at Washington. Attached to it is a large glass 
conservatory, which serves as a sort of hothouse for the pro- 
pagation of insects of ever so many species. Those selected 
for hatching out and bringing up are such as are of economic 
importance — that is to say, which are injurious or beneficial 
to useful plants. Like other animals, they require plenty of 
light, and the air is kept warm and moist all through the 
winter for the benefit of their health. 

Along shelves in the conservatory are ranged a great 
number of glass receptacles of different sizes. Some of them 
are ordinary jelly glasses, while others are large jars, and yet 



The Humming Bird. 39 

others are tubes open at one end only, and corked tightly 
with plugs of cotton. Each of these contains insects of some 
kind in process of development, though just now most of 
them are torpid, passing the winter in the chrysalis. 

For example, in one jar are two gr three sunflower heads 
which were infested by the larvae of the beetle.. The little 
worms have buried themselves in the sand with which the 
vessel is half filled, and next spring they will emerge as 
perfect beetles, ready to lay their eggs in fresh sunflowers. 

By thus confining an insect where it can be watched its 
life history may be studied at leisure. All its transformations 
may be noted, the breeding being carried on with many species 
or generation after generation. 

In a small jar half full of beans there are hundreds of 
bean-eating bugs which will continue to reproduce their kind 
so long as the food supply holds out. 

Most of the jars are covered with muslin gauze, so as to 
admit the air w r hile others are closed with glass tops to retain 
moisture. 

In one jelly glass filled with little flies is an Irish potatoe 
riddled with holes by the maggot-like larvae of the flies. A 
jar contains a few twigs infested with little worms which will 
come out after a while as beetles. In another receptacle, 
half full of sand, are some yucca pods lying about. 

They have been abandoned by certain grubs, which have 
buried themselves in the sand, where they will undergo a 
transformation, emerging next spring at the blossoming time 
•of the yucca in the shape of white moths. Yet another vessel 
holds half a dozen huge oak galls, three inches in diameter. 

They are tumoury-like excrescences caused by small gnat- 
like insects, which sting the stem of the plant in hundreds of 
places close together, depositing an egg in each wound. 

Thus irritated, the tree forms over the injured part an 
odd-looking growth, which serves to protect the offspring of 
the gall bag until they are ready to go out into the world and 
lay more eggs, perhaps on the stem which fostered them. 
Some galls are woolly and others are of brilliant colours. 
They have many commercial and medicinal uses. 

Every day all of the glass receptacles are examined. 
Newly hatched insects, when wanted, are removed and killed, 
after which they are stuck on pins in boxes, arranged accord- 
ing to species, as books are arranged in a library. The boxes 
shaped like hollow books and opening in the same way, are 
similarly placed in rows on shelves, the back of each one 
labelled. 



40 The Humming Bird. 

A catalogue serves as an index to the entire collection,, 
every individual bug having a number. Up to date, only a 
small fraction of the insects in the world have been named 
and classified, it being estimated that no fewer than 10,000,000 
species exist. « 

In one jar are a few pieces of bark honey-combed by 
woodborers. In this case, sawdust instead of sand is provided 
for the larvae to bury themselves in, preliminary to coming out 
as flies. A jelly glass contains a little wheat flour, together 
with some beetles of a kind that devour stored grain and 
flour. These latter are readily bred, and can be watched 
throughout their development, from the egg to the larval form,, 
and from the latter to the beetle. 

In like manner wheat moths are propagated in a vessel 
with kernels of wheat, and "joint worms" are observed in 
the act of feeding upon stems of the wheat plant. Root- 
attacking bugs are propagated very simply in earth in pots, 
together with the growing plants whose roots they feed upon. 
To prevent them from escaping when they come out of the 
ground, glass jars are inverted over the plants and pots. 

An important feature of this work is the study of parasites 
of the insects themselves. There is hardly any kind of bug 
which is not preyed upon by one or more other species. The 
best way to exterminate a pestiferous bug is often to introduce 
a hostile species to the region where the damage is being 
done. In this manner the Department of Agriculture has> 
saved the orange-growing industry of California from being 
destroyed by the fluted scale insect from Australia, the lady 
bug which preys upon the scale. 

The operations of such parasites are watched in the same 
jars with the insects fed upon, and thus knowledge is obtained 
of their habits which is likely to be most useful. In one jar 
are several chinch bugs together with some of the fungus 
which attacks them as a destructive disease. 

This vegetable parasite is being extensively utilised over 
in Kansas, bugs affected with it being scattered broadcast to 
spread contagion among their kind. In other receptacles are 
combs of bumble bees and wasps, which are being kept for 
the purpose of developing and breeding insect parasites that 
have attacked the larvae in the cells. Of course, the bumble 
bee is an animal of economic importance, inasmuch as it does 
a great deal of useful work in the fertilising of plants. With- 
out its aid in this way there would be no red clover. 

" Citizen, Brooklyn." 



LIST OF BIRD SKINS FOR SALE at 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



RAMPHASTIDAE. 

i Ramphastos toco, Mull. .. 

2 ,, carinatus, Sw. 

3 „ brevicarinatus, Gould 

4 ,, tocard, Vieil. 

5 „ ambignus, Sw. 

6 ,, cuvieri, Wagl. 

7 ,, culminatus, Gould 

8 ,, ariel, Vig. . . 
g „ vitellinus, Litht. . . 

io ,, vitelliuus Var., trinitensis 

(Trinidad), 
il „ dicolorus, L. 

12 Andigena hypoglaucus, Gould . . 

13 ,, laminirostns, Gould . . 

14 ,, nigrirostris, Waterh. . . 

15 ,, spilorhynchus, Gould . . 

16 ,, bailloni, Vieill. 

17 Pteroglossus wiedi, Sturm 

18 ,, pluricinctus, Gould 

19 ,, torquatus, Gmel. . . 

20 ,, bitorquatus, Vig. . . 

21 ,, flavirostris, Fras. . . 

22 ,, viridis, L. . . 

23 Selenidera maculirostris, Licht. 

24 ,, reinwardti, Wagl. 

25 ,, piperivora, L. . . 

26 ,, spectabilis, Cass. 

27 Aulacoramphus sulcatus, Sw 



28 
29 
30 
3i 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 



erythrognathus, Gould 
derbianus, Gould 
whitelyanus, Salv. 
prasinus, Licht. 
albivittatus, Sclat. 
haematopygius, Gould 
caeruleicinctus, d'Orb . 
caeruleigularis, Gould, 
var veraguensis 

CALBULIDAE. 



37 Urogalba paradisea, L. . . 

38 Galbula viridis, Lath. 

39 ,, ruficanda, Cuv. 

40 ,, melanogenia Sclat 

41 „ tombacea Spix 

42 ,, albirostris Lath 

43 ,, chalcocephala Dev. 

44 ,, leucogastra, Vieill 

45 ,, chalcothorax, Sclat. 

46 Brachygalba fulviventris, Sclat. 

47 Jacamsralcyora tridactyla Vieill, 

48 Galbalcyrhynchus lencotis Des Murs 

49 Jacamerops grandis and Var, Less. 

CAPITONIDAE. 

50 Pogonorhynchus dubius, Gmel. 

51 Melanobucco bidentatus, Shaw 

52 ,, melanopterus, Gof. 

53 ,, levaillanti, Leach. 

54 ,, abyssinicus, Lath. - 

55 ,, torquatus, Dum. 

56 ,, vieilloti, Leach. 

57 Tricholuema leucomelas, Shelley 

58 Gymnobucco calvus, Gray 



s. 
16 
10 
10 
10 

8 
20 
20 
10 



16 
5o 
40 
12 
12 
16 
8 
10 

5 
20 
20 
10 
16 
16 
10 
16 
16 
20 

30 

50 

6 

5 
10 

50 
20 
20 



5 
5 
5 

10 
10 
10 
12 
12 
8 
10 
30 

Ï2 



16 
l6 
16 
50 
20 
IO 

4 
10 



Capitonidae — Continued. 

59 Barbatula duchaillui, Cass. 

60 „ pusilla, Dum. 

61 ,, lencolaema, Verr. 

62 ,, subsulphurea Fras. 

63 Caloramphus hayi, Gray 

64 ,, fuliginosus, Tem. 

6Ç Megalaema marshallorum, Swinh. 

66 Chotorhea chrysopogon, Tem. . . 

67 . . versicolor Raffl. 

68 Cyanops asiatica Lath. 
69 
70 

7 1 

72 

73 

74 
75 
76 



henrici, Tem. 
franklini, Blyth 
ramsayi, Wald. 
mystacophanes, Tem. 
monticola, Sharpe 
caniceps, Fras. . . 
lineata, Vieill. 
viridis, Bodd. 

77 Mesobucco duvauceli, Less. 

78 Xantholaema haematocephala, Mull. 

79 ,, rosea, Dum. 

80 Psilopogon pyrolophus, Mull. . . 

81 Trachyphonus margaritatus, Rupp. 

82 ,, boehmi, Finch. 

83 ,, purpuratus, Verr. 

84 ,, goffini, Schlegel. 

85 Capito maculicoronatus, Lawr. 



86 

87 

88 

89 
90 

9i 



niger, Mull, 
punctatus, Less, 
richardsoni, Gray 
granadensis, Shelley 
bourcieri, Laf. 
salvini, Shelley 



92 Tetragonops frantzii, Sclat. 

BUCCONIDAE. 

93 Bucco collaris, Lath. 

94 ,, macrorhynchus, Gmel 

95 ,, dysoni, Sclat. . . 

96 ,, swainsoni, Gray 

97 ,, pectoralis, Gray 

98 ,, tectus, Bodd. 

99 ,, subtectus, Sclat. 

100 „ macrodactylus, Spix. 

101 ,, ruficollis, Wagl. 

102 ,, bicinctus, Gould 

103 ,, tamatia, Gmel. ■ 

104 ,, maculatus, Gmel. 

105 ,, radiatus, Sclat. 

106 Malacoptila fusca, Gmel. 

107 ,, torquata, Hahn 

108 ,, panamensis, Laf. 

109 , ,, mystacalis, Sclat. 
no ,, costaricensis, Cab. 
in ,, inornata, Du Bus 

112 Monacha nigra, Mull. .. 

113 ;.,', flavirostris, Strickl. 

114 ,, morpheus, Hahn. 

115 ,, pallescens, Cass. 

116 ,, nigrifrons, Spix. 

117 Chelidoptera tenebrosa, Pall. 

118 ,, brasiliensis, Sclat. 



LIST OF BIRD SKINS FOR SALE at 225, High Holborn, London, 



CUpULIDAE. 

119 Coccystes glandarius, L. 

120 ,, coromandus, L. 

121 ,, jacobinus, Bodd. 

122 ,, cafer, Licht. 

123 Hieroeoccyx sparveriodes, Vig. 

124 Guculus micropterus, Gould 

125 ,, canorus, L. 

126 ■ ■■ ,, pallidus, Lath. 

127 Cacomantis flabelliformis, Lath. 

128 ,, merulinus, Scop. 

129 ,, virescens, Brugg. 

130 ,, cartaneiventris, Gould 

131 ,, passerinus, Vahl. 

132 Chrysococcyx smaragdineus, Sw. 

133 ,, cupreus, Bodd. 

134 Ghalcococeyx xauthorhyuhus, Horsf. 

135 ,, meyeri, Salv. 

136 ,, basalls, Horsf. 

137 ,, lucidus, Gmel. 

138 Coccysus minor, Gmel. 

139 ,, • melanocoryphus, Vieill. 

140 ,, americanus, L. 

141 Urodynamys taitiensis, Sparm. 

142 Eudynamys honorata, L. 

143 ,, cyanocephala, Lath . . 

144 ,, melanorhyncha, Mull. 

145 Scythrops novoe hollandie, Lath. 

146 Centropss menebiki, Less. 

147 ,, nigricans, Salv. 
14b ,, phasianus. Lath. 

149 ,, sinensis, Steph. 

150 ,, borneensis, Bp. 

151 ,, toulou, Mull. .. .. 

152 ,, javanicus, Dum. 

153 ,, eurycercus, Hay. 

154 ,, seuegalensis, L. 

155 ,, superciliosus, Hempr. 

156 ,, celebensis, Quoy. 

157 Saurothera dominicensis, Laf. 

158 ,, merlini, Dorb. 

159 Piaya csyana, L. 

160 ,, mehleri, Bp. . . 

161 ,, melanogastra, Vieill.. . 

162 ,, minuta, Vieill. 

163 Zanclostomus javanicus, Horsf. 

164 Rhopodytes tristis, Less. . . 

165 ,,, diardi, Less. .. 

166 ,, ' sumatranus, Rafl. 

167 Rhinortha chlorophea, Rafl. . . 

168 Rhamphococcyx calorhynchus, T. 

169 Urococcyx erythrognathus, Hartt. 
1:70 Centmochares flaVirostris, Sw. 

171 ,, intermedius, Sharpe . . 

172 Dasylophus superciliosus, Cuv. 

173 Coua caerulea, L. 

174 ,, reynaudi, Pucher 

175 ,, cristata, L. . . 

176 ,, ruficeps, Gray 

177 ,, coquereli, Grand .. 

!78 ,1 gigas, Bodd. . . . . 

17g Geococcyx mexicanus, Gm. 



s. 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 
5 
3 
5 
4 
5 
5 
20 

5 

15 
6 
10 
20 
4 
5 
5 
8 

5 
12 

4 
5 : 
6 

10 
6 

16; 
6 
6 
8 
6 

4 
6 

5 ! 

10 

6 

20 
20 

4 
4 



6 

3 

8 

5 

6 
10 
20 

8 
30 

8 
16 
20 
40 
16 



Cuculidae — Continued. 

180 ,, • affinis, Hartl. 

181 Diplopterus naevius, L 

182 Dromococcyx phasianellus, Spix. 
183- ,, • pavoninus, Pelz. 

184 Crotophaga major, Ginel. 

185 • ,, ani, L. . . . . 

186 ,, sulcirostris, Sw. 

187 Guira guira, Gmel. 

MUSOPHACIDAE. 

188 Turacus persa, Gray . . 

189 ,, meriani, Rupp. 

190 ,, leucolophus, Hengl. 

191 Gallirex porphyreolophus, Vig 
ig2 Musophaga violacea, Isert. 
193 Corythaeola cristata, Vieill. 
ig4 Schizorhis africana, Lath. 

TROGONIDAE. 

195 Pharomacrus mocinae, la Llave. 
ig6 ,, cortaricensis, Boucard 
ig7 ,, ' antisiensis, d'Orb 
ig8 ,, auriceps, Gould 
igg ,, pavoninus, Spix. 

200 Tmetotrogon 1 ^odogaster T 

■ b - | roseigaster, Vieill. 

201 Prionotelus temnurus, T. 

202 Trogon mexicanus, Sw. 
2.03 
204 
205 
206- 
207 
208 
20g 

210 

211 
212 
213 
214 
215 
2l6 
217 
218 

21g 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 



personatus, Gould 
eollaris, Vieill. 
laglaizei, Boucard 
elegans, Gould . . 

ambiguus, Gould 
puella, Gould 
auranteivenlris, Gould 
atricollis, Vieill. 
tenellus, Cab. 
viridis, Briss. 
chionurus, Sclat. 
bairdi, Lawr. 
citreolus, Gould 
melanocephalus, Gould 
caligatus, Gould 
meridionalis, Sw. 
ramonianus, Dev. 
surucura, Vieill. 
melanurus, Sw. 
macrurus, Gould 
masseua, Gould 
elathratus, Salv. 

225 Hapaloderma narina, Lev. 

226 Harpactes diardi, T. 

227 ,, kasumba, Rafl. 

228 ,, whiteheadi, Sharpe . . 
22g ,, erythrocephalus, Gould 

230 ,, duvauceli, T. 

231 ,, oreskios, T. 

This List cancels all previous ones. 



Printed by Pardy & Son, 8, The Triangle, Bournemouth, 



Vol. IV. Part IV.] DECEMBER, 1894. 



[Price 2/6. 



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Published by A. Boucard, Nevis Villa, Spring Vale, Isle of Wight ; and by Messrs. Wesley & Son, 

Essex Street, Strand, London, W.C 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 



© © © © 



e^x Change of Address. 



x^> 



MESSRS. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & Co. 

IRaturaliôtô anî> philatéliste, 

T^EG to announce to their Patrons, Friends, and Corres- 
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directed as under : — 

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Subscriptions to Vol. V. of the Humming Bird can be sent to 

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She §iummittg 




DESCRIPTION d'une ESPECE NOUVELLE 

de COQUILLE du JAPON du genre ARCA 

par le Docteur Felix Jousseaume. 

Area Boucardi, n.sp. 

Testa oblonga,valde inaequilateralis, postici oblique truncata 
superne emarginata, carina angulata ab umbone ad marginem 
decurrens, margo ventralis bisso oblongo hians, tennuissime 
radiatim granuloso-costata, supra carinam radiis 5 latioribus 
longitudinaliter striata, albido rufescens aut cinerea; epitesta 
nigra antice hirta postice tomentosa ; umbones angulati 
curvati ; area ligamenti plano-eoncava, alba tennuissime 
striata, striis rectis imbricatis in quatuor partem sectans corio 
nigro obtecta. 

Long, 57 à 60. Alt., 28 à 33. Diam. trans., 33 à 37 mill. 

Cette coquille par sa taille et par sa forme se place à coté 
des A noce et navicularis, elle est bombée au centre et 
atténuée à ses extrémités ; la partie bombée, légèrement 
déformée au milieu a la forme d'un triangle dont l'un des 
angles est formé par le crochet des valves qui se contourne en 
volute en s'inclinant en dedans. L'extrémité antérieure 
beaucoup plus courte que la postérieure décrit une courbe 
arrondie qui se continue sans ligne de démarcation avec le 
bord inférieur. Elle s'arrête brusquement en haut où elle 
forme un angle droit avec le bord de la surface du ligament. 
L'extrémité postérieure qu'une arête saillante et anguleuse 
sépare de la partie médiane est plane et taillée en bec de 
flûte, son bord libre est obliquement incliné de haut en bas et 
d'avant en arrière. Sur la partie externe des valves dont la 
teinte est d'un gris maculé d'un rouge clair ferrugineux se 
dessinent des côtes rayonnantes qui portent des sommets, ces 
côtes qui vont en augmentant de grosseur et de nombre par 
l'addition de côtes intermédiaires sont très fines, serrées' 
granuleuses et d'environ 70 sur la partie médiane de l'extrémit , 
antérieure. Sur la partie plane de l'extrémité postérieure, leé 
côtes sont beaucoup plus larges et plus espacées, au nombre d e 



42 The Humming Bird. 

cinq. Simples à leur naissance elles sont ensuite divisées en 
deux ou trois petits cordons superficiels par des stries 
longitudinales peu profondes ; dans les sillons qui les séparent 
il existe également de un à deux de ces petits cordons filiformes; 
•ce faisceau des stries longitudinales est découpé par de fines 
lamelles transversales. Le bord inférieur légèrement déprimé 
en face les sommets présente en cet endroit un écartement 
des valves qui laisse' pour le passage du byssus, une étroite et 
longue ouverture baillante. Le bord supérieur presque aussi 
long et parallèle au précédent s'étale en une large surface 
excavée transversalement comme la tuile d'un toit et recouverte 
dans presque toute son étendue par une membrane noirâtre. 
Au dessus de cette membrane apparaît le test de la coquille 
qui est blanc et très finement strié. Ces stries très fines, 
nombreuses, droites et serrées suivent pour chaque valve la 
direction des bords de la surface sur laquelle elles se trouvent 
et viennent se joindre à angle obtus en formant une ligne qui 
s'étend d'un crochet à celui de la valve opposée. La face 
interne des valves blanches et rugueuses est encadrée par un 
étroit liseré brun qui couvre les bords, les impressions 
musculaires dont la postérieure est violacée sont irrégulières 
et couvertes d'un réseau arborescent de stries longitudinales. 
Les bords antérieur et inférieur sont finement dentés alors que 
le postérieur ne porte que quatre à cinq dents assez saillantes, 
larges et séparées par des sillons d'une largeur à peu près 
égale. 

Habitat. — Mers du Japon. 

Les trois coquilles que j'ai de cette espèce dont une seule 
est en parfait état, mont été données par mon excellent ami 
M. Adolphe Boucard à qui je dédie cette espèce. C'est un 
bien faible hommage de ma reconnaissance en rapport aux 
immenses services rendus à l'étude des sciences naturelles par 
un homme qui depuis sa plus tendre enfance leur a sacrifié 
tous les instants de sa vie. 

Monsieur Boucard avait à peine douze ans lorqu'il entreprit 
son premier voyage scientifique. Depuis cette époque 
jusqu'à l'âge de 45 ans, il a fait de nombreux voyages 
d'exploration, surtout en Amérique et soit par lui même ou 
par ses voyageurs il a répandu, fait connaître et augmenté 
d'espèces nombreuses les différents groupes de la faune 
américaine. Par ses relations avec les Naturalistes du monde 
entier, il a procuré aux travailleurs et aux savants de riches et 
importants sujets d'étude. 



The Humming Bird. 43 

La faune du Japon, si intéressante par la forme inattendue 
des espèces qu'on y recontre et si instructive dans ses rapports 
avec celle des autre mers, n'était connue des malacologistes 
que par un très petit nombre d'espèces disséminées dans les 
collections ; aussi malgré les importantes monographies qu'on 
avait publié à ce sujet, était il impossible de se faire une idée 
exacte de eette faune et d'en tirer des conséquences précises. 

Pour combler cette lacune, M. Boucard s'est fait envoyer 
du Japon un très grand nombre d'espèces et d'individus qu'il 
a livrés aussitôt aux malacologistes et aux collectionneurs. 

Ce qu'il m'a envoyé personnellement et la collection déjà 
importante que je possédais d'espèces du Japon me permet de 
donner un aperçu général sur la corrélation de cette faune avec 
celles de localitées si éloignées ; que l'on est surpris d'y 
rencontrer les mêmes espèces. 

Plus de mille espèces de la faune malacologique du Japon 
nous sont actuellement connues. Les unes qui n'ont pas encore 
étérencontréesailleurs semblent confinées dans la merde Chine; 
d'autres se retrouvent dans l'Océan arctique et les points les 
plus rapprochés de l'Océan pacifique, mais c'est dans la Mer 
rouge que l'on rencontre le plus d'espèces de la faune du Japon, 
et fait extraordinaire l'on trouve des espèces du Japon dans la 
Méditerrranée, alors qu'on ne rencontre aucune espèce, com- 
mune entre la faune de la Méditerranée et celle de la Mer 
Rouge. 

Les espèces spéciales au Japon et dont quelques unes 
vivent également sur les côtes de Chine ont des formes si 
gracieuses et si bizarres qu'elles ont du servir de modèle à 
l'art décoratif de l'extrême orient. Parmi ces espèces je 
citerai Fusus pagonus, Ranella perça, Murex falcatus, That- 
cheiria mirabilis, Cancellaria nodulifera, et les espèces du 
genre Latiaxis et d'autres de formes moins excentriques tel que 
les espèces des genres Siphonalia, Volutharpa turcica, le 
Murex troscheli, la Nassaria Japonica, Eburna Japonica, etc., 
qui semblent également porter en elles un cachet local. 

Les espèces du Japon que l'on rencontre dans la Merrouge, 
sont si nombreuses que je ne signalerai ici que celles qui sont 
connues de tous les malacologistes et sur l'identité desquelles 
il ne peut subsister aucun doute ; tels que, Murex adustus, 
rota ; Bucinum proteus, undatum, Triton pileare, aquatilis, 
tritonis ; Ranella granifera, Phos senticosus ; Purpura ru- 
dolphi, mancinella ; Rapana bulbosa ; Coralliophilla mono- 
donta ; Leptoconchus striatus ; Mitra ferruginea, amphorella, 



44 The Humming Bird. 

crenulata ; Columbella scripta, flava, mendicaria ; Doliuro 
perdix, pomum ; Ficula reticulata ; Natica toeniata, simioe, 
melanostoma, papillo ; Cassis rufa, vibex, Terebra maculata r 
subulata ; Conus ebraeus, textile ; Strombus lustruanus, gib- 
berulus ; Pterocera bryonia, lambis, Terrebellum punctatum ;. 
Cypraea isabella, carneola, felina, cribraria, fimbriata, macula, 
reticula, arabica, mauritiana, moneta, annulus, vitellus, lynx, 
erosa, caurica, helvola, staphylea, lienardi ; Ovula ovum ; 
Cerithium columna, aluco, kockii; Nerita albicilla; Phasianella 
variegata ; Umbonium vestaria; Cardinalia, virgata; Stomatia 
phrynotis ; Gena lutea; Teinotis asinina ; Macrochisma macro- 
chisma ; Hydatina physis, Bulla ampulla ; Atys naticum, 
Gastrochœna grandis ; Aspergyllum vaginiferum ; Merope 
aegyptiaca, Roeta pellucida ; Coecella chinensis ; Psammobia 
occidens, Venus reticulata, marica ; Tivella damaoides, Vene- 
rupis macrophylla, Coralliophaga coralliophaga ; Tridacna 
squamosa, Modiolaria cumingiana ; Vulsella spongiarium, 
Meleagrina margaritiformis ; Malleus régula, Pinna bicolor,, 
saccata ; Area navicularis, Cucullaea, concamerata, etc. 

Toutes ces espèces, et un nombre bien plus grand encore que 
je n'ai pas signalées, au lieu de prendre le chemin le plus 
court pour se rendre de l'une à l'autre de ces deux localités 
'se sont tracées un itinéraire dont je vais indiquer les princi- 
pales stations: — les Philippines, la Nouvelle Calédonie, et l'île 
Maurice où l'on retrouve toutes ces espèces associées à des 
espèces provenant des autres localités environnantes. Ce 
n'est qu'isolées ou en très petit nombre que l'on constate la 
présence des espèces que nous venons d'énumérer dans 
l'immense espace compris entre les côtes est et sud de l'Asie 
et la courbe qui relie la Mer rouge au Japon en passant par 
Maurice, la Nouvelle Calédonie et les Philippines. Aussi 
pourrait-on les considérer comme des rejetons d'individus qui 
se seraient égarés. Je ne doute pas que ces espèces suivent 
dans cette migration la direction des courants sous marins et 
que ce soit eux qui se sont chargés de leur transport d'une 
localité à une autre. 

Des espèces communes à la faune du Japon et de la 
Mediterrannée, nous ne connaissons actuellement que les 
suivantes : — 

Triton nodiferum, Parthenopes. lampas ; Cassis saburon ; 
Mya arenaria, truncata; Tapes decussata; anomia ephippium ; 
Terebratulina caput serpentis. 

La présence des mêmes espèces dans deux localités aussi 



The Humming Bird. 45 

éloignées est si peu concevable que les auteurs qui se sont 
occupés les premiers de la faune malacologique du Japon, 
leur ont donné des noms différents. Quoique peu nombreuses, 
* ces espèces confinées dans deux localités que sépare dans 
toute sa largeur le continent asiatique et dont on ne rencontre 
aucune trace sur l'immense parcours des mers qui les relient, 
sont les témoins irrécusables du prolongement de l'Océan 
indien jusqu'à la Méditerranée à travers la partie septen- 
trionale de l'Asie : car il est inadmissible qu'une cause acci- 
dentelle ait présidé au transport, d'une de ces localités à 
l'autre, d'espèces de taille aussi grande et de genres aussi 
•différents et aussi éloignés. 

L'on pourra voir par ce court aperçu, de quel intérêt serait 
pour la science une étude approfondie de la faune malacolo- 
gique du Japon, et combien les efforts tentés à ce sujet par 
M. Boucard sont louables et méritoires. 



THE USE OF SALT 
FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES, 



Salt can be considered as of the utmost importance to 
agriculture, but in dry and light soil it is not sufficient. Two 
hundredweight of salt should be applied with each cartload of 
manure. The best time to use it is just before the land is 
broken up, when it gets ploughed in, and thoroughly incor- 
porated with the soil. Five or six hundredweight per acre 
may be used with great advantage on light and friable soil, 
but upon heavy wet land, it should be used more moderately. 
It is good for all produce. It strengthens the straw and 
increases the yeild on crops of wheat, barley, oats, and such 
like. It can be also used with the greatest advantage in the 
orchard, for nearly all classes of vegetables and fruits. It 
protects all of them from the attacks of the mildew. 

A friend of mine, who lives near Paris, has succeeded in 
obtaining splendid crops of cherries, pears, apples, peaches, 
grapes, and other fruits, by using salt mixed withmanure. Before 



46 The Humming Bird. 

he knew of this, his beautiful and extensive garden was sa 
attacked by mildew that he could scarcely raise any fruit at all, 
and this of a very poor description. After making use of salt, 
about four ounces for each vine, and as many pounds for each 
fruit tree, he had the satisfaction of seeing the mildew disappear 
completely, and now he gathers such a quantity of good fruit 
that he scarcely knows what to do with it. 

Here, where I am living now, in the Isle of Wight, the 
farmers have the same habit as those of Normandy and 
Brittany, of gathering the varec on the shore, and to cart and 
spread it in their fields in large quantities, and I am told that 
the results are very satisfactory. Although I am quite certain 
that the varec by itself is a good sort of manure, I attribute, 
more especially, the success attending their operations to the 
salt which they carry with the varec, although I am afraid that 
they have never found it out. Therefore Salt must be con- 
sidered as one of the best remedies against the attacks of the 
mildew, and as a great factor in obtaining good crops, and it 
ought to be extensively used by all, in agricultural pursuits. 



ARE ANTS OF AID TO FRUIT-GROWERS ? 



Can the ant be enlisted into the service of man and be 
utilised for a beneficent purpose by the fruit-grower ? In this 
country the ant is looked upon as a pest by the horticulturist 
and gardener that must either be poisoned with arsenic, suffo- 
cated with tobacco smoke, or drowned in boiling water ; but 
in spite of these stereotyped ideas, there is just the possibility 
of indiscriminately destroying an insect which, though insig- 
nificant in stature, may, when its true value be determined, 
prove one of the most useful aids in the orchard that can be 
imagined. 

Though generally regarded as an unmitigated nuisance, 
they may, when their habits are more fully known, be found 
to be useful servants of the farmer and gardener. 

For instance, many of the leading orchardists of Southern 
Germany and Northern Italy hold the black ant in high 
esteem, and take measures to promote their increase. 

They establish ant hills in their orchards, and leave the 
police service of their fruit trees entirely to their tiny colonists, 
which pass all their time in climbing up the stems of the 



The Humming Bird. 47 

fruit trees, cleansing the boughs and leaves of malefactors, 
natural as well as embryonic, and descend laden with spoils 
to the ground, where they comfortably or prudently store 
away their booty. 

They never meddle with sound fruit, but only invade 
such apples, pears and plums as have already been penetrated 
by the insects, in pursuit of which they penetrate to the very 
heart of the fruit. Nowhere else in the orchard are the apple 
and pear trees so free from insect ravages and blight as in 
the immediate neighbourhood of a large ant hill, five or six 
years old. 

HOW THEY PROTECT THE TREES BY DESTROYING 

THEIR BROTHER INSECTS. 

In China, even since the sixteenth century, and probably 
earlier, ants have been used to protect fruit trees from the 
ravages of insect pests. In the province of Canton, the 
orange trees are injured by certain worms, and the orchardists 
rid themselves of the pests by importing ants from the hill 
country. 

Two species of ants — the red and yellow, which build 
their nests suspended from the branches of trees — are used 
for this purpose. The ants are placed in the upper branches 
of the tree, where they build their nests ; bamboo rods are 
stretched from one to another all through the orchard, so as 
to give the ants free access to all the trees. 

They are said to be very effectual in protecting the trees. 
The valuable aid afforded by ants in protecting orange trees 
from insect ravages has been observed in Florida. One year, 
when very few of the groves near Jacksonville bore much 
fruit, on account of insect ravages, one planter secured a 
large crop, and attributed his success to having used ants as 
insect destroyers, having induced them to frequent his trees 
by trying them with a strong solution of syrup and water. 

The solution dried, leaving a saccharine substance adher- 
ing to the leaves, twigs, and branches of the trees, in seeking 
which the ants killed the insects which infected the trees and 
destroyed the blossoms in the bud, or the young fruit after it 
had set. 

Ants have been observed to destroy canker worms. 
Whether this is a frequent occurrence or not, it is a matter 
well worth the attention of those orchardists who have suffered 



48 The Humming Bird. 

much from the ravages of that pest. In this connection here 
are the observations made by a specialist. He said : — 

" It is new to us that ants are great destroyers of the 
canker worms, and probably other worms or insects of the 
smaller varieties. We watched with great interest the work 
of a large colony of black ants which attacked the canker 
worms on an elm tree in our grounds, and were delighted 
with the nature and result of their labours. 

" Two processions of the ants were moving down, each 
bringing with it a canker worm, which it held fast in its 
mandibles, grasping the worm firmly in the centre of the 
body. 

" Although the prey was nearly the size of the destroyer, 
the plucky little ant ran down the tree in a lively way, 
deposited its body in its nest in the ground, and instantly 
returned for further slaughter. 

" There were at one time as many as forty coming down 
the tree, each bringing its victim, and doing the work with 
apparent ease. Extending our observation we noticed that 
the ant ran up the trunk and out on the limb, and from thence 
on to the leaves of the tree where the filthy worm was at 
work, and, seizing him with a strong grip about the centre of 
the body, turned about with the squirming worm, and retraced 
his steps. 

" The worm was dead by the time the ant reached the 
ground. If this move of the ant is common, they must prove 
valuable friends to the farmers and fruit raisers, and should be 
protected in every way possible. We do not believe that the 
birds that prey upon worms will do the work in a week in our 
orchards which these ants were doing in an hour." 

Worms have also been known to have been destroyed by 
ants. A gentleman, a few years since, gave the following 
account of what he saw : — 

" During the last two weeks of July I was cursed with an 
invasion of the worms, and after I had recovered from my 
first chargin at the prospect, I began to enjoy the antagonisms 
between the ants and the worms. 

" If the ant attacking the worm was the large black ant, 
one usually engaged in the contest, the ant usually took the 
worm by the nape of the neck, and the struggle was between 
the strength of the ant and that of the worm. The bite of 
the ant did not seem to kill the worm at once, but the fight 
sometimes lasted fifteen minutes, always resulting in the 
victory of the ant. 



The Hui?î??iing Bird. 49 

" It was then dragged to the ant's quarters. If the attack 
was made by the small red ants, two usually took the work. 
One made the attack, but would soon require assistance. 
Sometimes the ant would go away and seek help, and upon 
returning" could find no worm, and thus the worm would 
escape." 

The question is an important one to fruit growers, 
especially as since the unjustifiable and wanton destruction 
of birds by farmers, the ravages of insects pests during the 
past few years have increased in the most alarming manner. If 
the ant can be utilized in the manner we suggest, there will 
be no need for the introduction of poisonous solutions into 
English orchards. — Horticultural Times. 



BANANA CULTURE. 

The banana, we learn from a United States official Report, 
is so popular a fruit in that country, that during August and 
September seventy-eight thousand tons were imported, while, 
on the other hand, its culture is extending with such rapidity, 
that before long the entire home demand will be met by 
Florida, Mississippi, and other suitable areas of the Republic. 
If true — which we doubt — this will not be good news for the 
grape dealers whose wares it is displacing, or for our West 
India Colonies from which the supplies of this wholesome 
fruit are at present obtained. Nor is it altogether for the 
benefit of the United States ; for when the lazy negro learns 
that with the minimum of labour the maximum of food can be 
grown on a mere patch of ground, it will be vain to expect 
him to toil at such uncertain crops as cotton or tobacco, far 
less at "raising" wheat which is saleable in Liverpool for 
thirty shillings the quarter, and in the land where it is grown 
brings a great deal less. All he has to do is to betake him- 
self to the hot, steaming country on the Lower Mississippi, 
plant a banana patch, and return to a state of pristine savagery. 
In short, the introduction of the banana is destined to do as 
much harm in the old slave lands as the introduction of the 
potato did in Ireland — an easily reared food plant, highly con- 
ducive to early marriages, large families, and all abounding 
sloth. 

But the banana — and under this head we include the 
plantain, which is reallv only one of many varieties — has 
infinitely greater possibilities than the potato. It is, in the 



50 The Humming Bird. 

first place, far more nutritious and a hundredfold more fruitful. 
At the best the Irish tuber yields only food, and, by a process 
with which the excise are not supposed to be acquainted, an 
uncommonly poor description of very ardent spirit. But the 
banana is excellent food, and, with a little manipulation, gives 
a beverage largely consumed over the whole of Central Africa. 
It is capable of providing shelter quite sufficient for the wants 
of the dwellers in the sun lands, and its fibre is, for the 
purpose of weaving, preferable to cotton or flax. An Indian 
— say in Central America — or a negro in Uganda, may, when 
he plants an acre of bananas, dismiss from his mind any 
anxiety as to the future. It is impossible to imagine a crop more 
easily reaped. With a little care the plants may be made to 
bear practically all the year round, and as a bunch will weigh 
from twenty to eighty pounds, it is clear that to lay in stores 
for a frugal household (to whom a yard of cotton apiece is an 
ample wardrobe) is a briefer and easier task than even digging 
a bucket of potatoes or husking a bushel of maize. And there 
is no comparing the productive powers of the two vegetables. 
An imperial acre of bananas is estimated to produce forty-four 
times more by weight than the potato, and one hundred and 
thirty five more than wheat. Unripe, the banana is excellent 
boiled as a vegetable, or, as all who have visited the West 
Indies must recall, sliced and fried as fritters for breakfast. 
As a fully ripe fruit most of us know it, even in the immature 
condition in which it reaches the English markets from the 
Azores and other Southern countries. Roasted and flavoured 
with the juice of oranges and lemons, and sugar, and made 
into a kind of compote, it is excellent ; and in Monbuttu, in 
Central Africa — and elsewhere — the fruit is dried, in which 
condition it can be preserved for months, or, if spices and 
sugar are added, it is formed into a paste quite capable of 
being kept good for years. The mealier ones, by being oven 
or sun dried, and then pounded, can be readily converted into 
a nutritious flour, which contains not only starch, but protein, 
or flesh forming material. 

But the food-yielding properties of the banana do not 
end here. There is a wild species — the " Ensete " — of Aby- 
ssinia, the fruit of which is dry and inedible, though the base 
of the flower stalk can be cooked and eaten. When soft, 
like a turnip well cooked and flavoured with butter or milk. 
Bruce declared it to be " the best of all food — wholesome, 
nourishing, and easily digested," an eulogy which must, how- 
ever, be discounted by the fact that the Scottish traveller 



The Humming Bird. 51 

himself had the credit of discovering this vegetable resource 
of a rather resourceless land. Finally, the l( merissa " beer, 
which is drunk in prodigious quantities all over the Upper 
Nile and Lake country in Africa, is the fermented juice of the 
banana. Even the Mahdi has had to wink at its consumption, 
while a recent traveller doubts whether he ever saw as many 
tipsy people as in a certain district in Africa. The banana 
will even yield medicine, forthe juice ofthestem — the spongy 
pith of which is also highly nutritious — is a useful astringent. 
Taken internally, the leaves are said to be valuable against 
dropsy, and are often used externally in cases of scalds and 
ulcers. The stems are, in Tonquin, burned, and the ashes 
employed for purifying sugar, while all parts of the plant 
abound in a fibre which has never been systematically utilised 
except in small quantities. In Dacca, the country people 
make from it the string of the bow with which they tease 
cotton, and in some of the Indian islands a cloth is woven 
from the banana thread which is not much inferior to that 
made from the Abaca — a banana which yields the well- 
known Manilla hemp. The top of the banana stems, if boiled, 
is an excellent pot herb, and the large fronds are employed 
not only for packing and as plates, but in roofing the native 
huts. In brief, the United States, by teaching the negroes 
the manifold virtues of a plant known to their countrymen in 
Africa, are doing them and the country at large a question- 
able benefit. We doubt, however, whether, even with the 
protective tariff, the warmest portions of the United States 
will ever be able to compete with the West Indies in rearing 
a fruit which flourishes in such perfection all over Jamaica and 
the Antilles generally. Central Africa, too, is becoming one 
vast banana plantation. For miles and miles nothing else is 
seen ; even the Indians of Central and South America have 
not taken more kindly to it. Captain Lugard describes the 
fruit as the national meat and drink ; and Emin Pacha tells 
us that, though the plantations are well kept, the only manure 
they receive is bunches of grass allowed to rot around the 
base of each plant. In that part of Africa there are three 
kinds of bananas — one with insipid fruit, used only for making 
beer ; a second sweet, with white pulp, which is both eaten 
and employed in distilling "wines;" and a third, used entirely 
for eating, though generally cooked with meat, in the green 
state. In Monbuttu there are ten different varieties, one of 
them bearing fruit eight to ten inches long, and thick in pro- 
portion, though generally consumed in a dried condition. 



52 The Humming Bird. 

In all these lands the plants grow with great ease, in spite 
of the fact that they receive the least amount of care. To set 
out a new plantation is the simplest of operations. The stems 
formed by the base of the leaves, are annual, and usually die 
down after the exhaustive process of fruiting has been com- 
pleted, new ones being produced from buds or suckers in the 
root stock, which is perennial. It is by planting these buds 
that the banana is propagated, and fresh plantations made. 
And so exceedingly simple is this form of agriculture, that the 
plant generally bears ripe fruit within ten months of the offsets 
being put into the ground. As is the case with many other 
useful plants, it is now difficult to trace the original country 
of the banana. Botanical geography, however, forbids the 
acceptance of the belief that bananas where the fruits called 
"grapes" which the spies of Moses brought from the valley 
of Eschol, and it is about as unlikely to have been the " for- 
bidden fruit" as the Seychelles cocoa-nut was, according to 
the belief of General Gordon. It is supposed to be a native 
of India, and in that Empire it still forms a large part of the 
people's food in the area where it grows best, and bunches of 
it figure at weddings as symbols of plenty. But it is doubtful 
whether it was introduced into Africa from any part of Asia. 
We know that it is not indigenous to Egypt. Nevertheless, on 
some ancient Egyptian sculptures we see representations 
of Isis with ears of corn and the foliage of the plant in question, 
and carvings have been met with which represent the hippo- 
potamus destroying the banana. This species Bruce took to 
be the Abyssinian one, the hippopotamus typifying the Nile, 
the inundations of which have at times washed away not only 
the wheat, but also the " Ensete " banana, the nutritous stems 
of which were to supply its place. It is also the recorded 
opinion of Emin Pacha that all the varieties of Central Africa 
bananas are cultivated forms of the inedible Abyssinian species, 
which have gradually spread southward, or have been carried 
by the Gallas or other northern tribes on the invading expedi- 
tions which have given Wahumu Kings to so many of the 
countries in the vicinity of the Great Lakes. Be this as it may 
■ — and the cattle and fowls which are found in every African 
village are equal mysteries — it is certain that from a time 
beyond which the memory of man runneth not the banana has 
been the fruit of a large portion of Africa just as it is of a 
large area of South America, and bids fair to become the staple 
produce of the hotter parts of the United States. 



The Humming Bird. -53 

STRANGE PHENOMENON in CALIFORNIA. 

FORMATION OF AN INLAND SFA. 



A geological phenomenon of considerable importance has 
appeared in San Diego County, in the extreme south of 
California. It consists in the almost sudden formation of an 
inland sea. On Saturday a trickling of water was observed 
to damp the ground around the Salton Salt Works, and now 
it has expanded into a lake ten miles square, and from three 
to eight feet deep. Then at Indian Wells, sixty miles south 
of Salton, another new sea, forty miles square and from three 
to five feet deep, has been formed. It appears possible that 
these bodies of water may unite, and form a lake fifty miles 
long and four hundred feet deep. Indian runners have been 
employed to go round the rising waters, and as they have failed 
to find any surface inlet, a boat has been provisioned for a week, 
andstartedtoexploreand try todiscover the connection with the 
Colorado River, whence the water is believed to come, whether 
above ground or by a subterranean communication. The so- 
called Colorado Desert, lying to the east of the new lake, 
resembles the bed of a dead sea. It has an area of three 
thousand miles, and lies two hundred and seventy feet below 
the ocean level. Shells and other marine deposits abound. 
Engineers have often planned to make this area fertile by 
irrigation, after the manner of the Valley of the Nile, which 
would add two million acres to the State, but all their efforts 
so far have been in vain. The Southern Pacific Railway 
crosses the Colorado River at several places 160 feet above 
the ocean. For twelve miles near Yuma (Arizona City) only 
a loose, water-sodden ridge, nine feet high and a mile wide, 
separates the district from the Salton Sink. All the district 
appears now to be reverting to the condition described in Indian 
tradition. The stoppage of several artesian wells conflicts 
with the theory of a subterranean ocean, having a current 
running inland. 



54 The Humming Bird. 

WASTE PRODUCTS MADE USEFUL, 



In the North American Review for November there is a 
very interesting article by Lord Playfair under the above title, 
says The West Indian and Commercial Advertiser, from 
which we take the following extract : — 

THE UTILIZATION OF RATS. 

Of all living things rats seem to be among the most 
repulsive; and when dead what can be their use? But even 
they are the subjects of production in industrial arts. In 
Paris there is a pond surrounded by walls into which all dead 
carcasses are thrown. A large colony of rats has been intro- 
duced from the catacombs. The rats are most useful in 
clearing the flesh from the bones, leaving a clean-polished 
skeleton fitted for the makers of phosphorous. At the base 
of the wall numerous shallow holes are scooped out just 
sufficient to contain the body of the rats, but not of their 
tails. Every three months a great battue takes place, during 
which the terrified rats run into the holes. Persons go round 
and catching the extended tails, pitch the rats into bags, and 
they are killed at leisure. Then begins manufacture. The 
fur is valuable and finds a ready sale. The skins make a 
superior glove — the gant de rat — and are especially used for 
the thumbs of kid gloves because the skin of the rat is strong 
and elastic. The thigh bones were formerly valued as tooth 
picks for clubs but are now out of fashion ; while the tendons 
and bones are boiled up to make the gelatine wrappers for 
bonbons. 



HOW TO PRESERVE ANIMALS. 

In Scientific American, Mr. Wiese gives the following 
receipt for the preservation of bodies in their natural form and 
colour : — " Dissolve 600 grammes hyposulfit of soda in five 
quarts of water, and seventy-five grammes of chlorine of 
ammonium in 250 grammes of water. Mix both solutions, 
and add six c uarts of spirit of wine. Put all bodies of 
animals in this liquid, and they will keep their form and 
colours during an unlimited period. 



The Humming Bird. 55 

THE ENGLISH GRASS SNAKE. 

Snakes have always had a peculiar fascination for me. 
When at school I generally used to carry one or two in my 
jacket pocket, from which they would often escape, causing the 
greatest surprise and consternation among my friends. I re- 
memberonefellow,who although very tame, was anadeptatseiz- 
ing the slightest opportunity of obtaining his liberty. Hewould 
be lost for weeks, and then turn up in a neighbouring house, 
perhaps five or six doors away. The whole street used to look 
for his more or less welcome visits, and when he did arrive, 
would send for me to take him away. 

I have found the grass snake (Tropidonotus natrix) , to 
be rather common in the country lying to the north of London, 
and have even caught one within the four mile radius from 
CharingCross. That, however, was elevenyearsago. Theequip- 
ment of a snake hunter is very simple, consisting of a linen 
bag to contain his captures, or it may be as well to take two, 
so as to be able to separate very young snakes from the others. 
The only other article required is a stick, forked at the end 
like a Y; it should be about the length of an ordinary 
walking stick. 

On meeting a snake, you thrust at it with the forked end 
of the stick, in such a way that a prong enters the ground on 
each side of its body, pinning the reptile to the earth, when 
one can examine it in safety in order to see whether it is a viper 
or not. Of course, care must be taken not to use too much 
force, or the snake will be injured, and to further lessen the 
danger of this it is a good plan to attach a strip of india- 
rubber to the ends of the prongs ; this will deaden the force 
of the blow. 

For the benefit of the novice I will mention a few of the 
most important characteristics which distinguish the innocuous 
grass snake from the poisonous viper. By far the most 
striking difference, one which can be seen at a glance, is the 
broad yellow mark or collar behind the head of the former, 
which is absent in the viper. This collar is very deep in 
colour in young specimens, becoming paler with age, until it 
is almost white in very old snakes. There is a second collar, 
which is black, behind the yellow one. This mark is quite 
sufficient of itself to distinguish the two species, and can easily 
be seen when the snake is pinned to the earth by the forked 
stick. 

The viper has a broad zigzag stripe down the back, while 



56 The Humming Bird. 

the common snake has only a few black spots ; in the latter 
also, the scales have a keel or ridge, those of the viper being 
smooth. The general appearance of the two reptiles is very 
different, the viper being comparatively short and stumpy, 
with the. base of the head much wider than that of its non- 
poisonous relative. The latter is perfectly harmless, and, 
although I have caught numbers of them, I have never known 
one to even attempt to bite. In any case their teeth are much 
too small to do any harm, and can scarcely be felt with the 
finger. Needless to say, their tongue, which the)/ constantly 
protrude, is quite incapable of hurting anyone. I was once 
bitten, however, by a snake belonging to the same genus, but 
of a different species (Tropidonotus tesselatus) , from the 
south of Europe. He was a most savage, intractable fellow, 
always hissing loudly whenever approached. After he had 
been in my possession some little time, he managed to make 
his escape, and, not being heard of for two or three weeks, was 
given up as lost. One day a gentleman living three or four- 
doors round the corner came to tell me that there was a snake 
on a ledge at the back of his house, and to ask if it belonged 
to me. The information gave me great pleasure, which, 
strangely enough, did not appear to be shared by the occupier 
of the house. I quickly went with him, when he pointed out 
the snake, which was coiled up and basking in the sun. I got 
on the ledge and seized him, when to my great surprise he bit 
me three times in rapid succession, each bite leaving a double 
row of little holes in the fleshy part of my hand. The 
punctures bled freely, but knowing that the snake was not 
venomous I did not feel any alarm, although I thought it 
advisable to have the wounds touched with caustic, as the 
reptile's mouth might not have been clean. This snake had 
much stronger teeth than the English species ; I do not believe 
that those ol the latter would draw blood, even if they tried 
to bite, which, as I said before, I have never known them to 
do. There is another European species, the Vipérine snake 
(T. viperinus) , which is very interesting, and becomes very 
tame. It is smaller than T. natrix, and, as its name implies, 
bears a considerable resemblance in shape to a viper, but is 
perfectly harmless. 

Now a few words regarding the best localities for meeting 
with the Grass Snake. They are essentially water-lovers, and 
therefore the vicinity of ponds and ditches is the best place to 
explore for them. They are probably more common in damp, 
clayey parts of the country than on sandy heaths and commons. 



The Humming Bird. 57 

The viper, on the contrary, is usually found in the latter 
localities. All my captures have been made in situations of 
the former description, where there was little or no fear of 
meeting with the viper, so that I have usually dispensed with 
the forked stick, and have seized the reptiles with my hands. 
This is a surer means of capture, as, if the first thrust with 
the stick misses, the snake will probably escape. We will 
suppose that the snake-hunter has arrived at a likely spot, such 
as a meadow with a hedge and ditch running round it, and 
with a pond in it. He should slowly and noiselessly walk by 
the side of the ditch, carefully examining the banks as he goes, 
for that is where the snakes usually lie, basking in the sun. 
He is more likely to hear them before he sees them, as they 
are very quick to take alarm, and glide away under the hedge or 
down disused burrows of rabbits and field-mice with incredible 
swiftness. 

If, however, they have just had a meal they are very 
sluggish, even remaining coiled up until seized. When cap- 
tured in this condition they often disgorge their prey, which 
generally consists of frogs ; these they swallow alive, and I 
have often caught snakes which had just swallowed their 
victims, the latter on being disgorged, hopping about as 
though nothing had happened. 

If there is water in the ditch, the collector should keep 
an eye on that also, as snakes swim very rapidly and without 
noise. When one is captured, it should be transferred to the 
linen bag, which should then be carefully and strongly tied ; 
if the day is very hot, it is advisable to occasionally dip the 
bag in water whenever a pond is passed. After the hedge- 
banks have been thoroughly explored and examined, attention 
should be turned to the pond. This latter should be very 
cautiously approached, or the snakes may dive into the water, 
under which they can remain for a considerable time. It took 
me about half-an-hour one day last summer to capture a 
beautiful little snake six or seven inches long. It swam across 
the pond twice, finally climbing into the branches of a bush 
which overhung the water. Here w T as a dilemma. If I had 
made the least sound it would have glided into the water, so I 
had to crawl on hands and knees, moving scarcely an inch at 
a time, until within reach of the bush, when I seized the reptile 
just as he made a dart for the water, nearly diving head-first 
into the latter myself. 

It sometimes happens that two or more snakes are found 
together ; in that case things get exciting. On one occasion 
2 



58 The Humming Bird. 

I was walking by a hedgerow in company with a friend, who 
was not a snake-lover, when I saw what seemed to be a most 
enormous snake on the bank ; on catching it, it turned out to 
be not one, but three snakes, two of which were fully four feet 
long. Not having come out with the intention of snake- 
hunting, I had no bag, but as I had caught two small snakes 
just before, I had then improvised a bag with a pocket hand- 
kerchief. But it was quite another thing to get the last three 
into it, for it was no easy matter to hold the struggling reptiles 
in one hand and to untie the handkerchief with the other. 
My friend had speedily retreated to a safe distance as soon as 
he saw the wriggling, hissing cluster of snakes in my hand,, 
and it was with the greatest difficulty that I persuaded him to 
help me make them secure. But when the handkerchief was 
untied, the two snakes already in it darted out in different 
directions and almost escaped ; a most exciting five minutes 
followed, for as soon as 1 got one into the bag another would 
get out, but eventually they were all safely tied up. 

When a snake is first captured it is apt to frighten a 
novice, for it hisses and struggles in a most alarming manner. 
A favourite trick of theirs is to sham death ; when they find 
that they cannot escape from their captor, they will lie limp 
and motionless in his hands, with the tongue hanging out 
and the mouth open. But if laid upon the ground they will 
instantly recover, and dart off into the undergrowth. 

The best cage for snakes is undoubtedly a fern-case, the 
larger the better ; but still, almost any kind of box with a 
glass top or front, and plenty of ventilation, will answer the 
purpose. Everything should be made as natural as possible 
with growing grass, ferns, &c. A receptacle for water should 
be placed in the cage, for the grass snake dearly loves that 
element, and will lie in it for hours together. A piece of 
virgin cork is a good thing to put in for the reptile to hide 
under, and when it wants to change it skin, will be useful for 
it to rub against. Their favourite food consists of young 
frogs, or, in the case of large snakes, even full-grown ones ; 
they must be given to them alive, for they will not touch 
them when dead. I have never known them to eat toads in 
captivity, although I once caught a snake which shortly after- 
wards disgorged a young toad, which was apparently none 
the worse for its adventure. But as toads secrete an acrid 
fluid, which causes most animals to drop them as soon as- 
taken in the mouth, the above must have been a very unusual 
occurrence. 



The Humming Bird. 59 

No alarm need be felt if a snake refuses to eat, for they 
can go without food for a wonderful length of time, but they 
must always have clean water in the cage. One objection to 
them is their excessively unpleasant odour when first caught, 
but they lose this after a few days of captivity, especially if 
handled frequently. At first they are very nervous, hissing 
and struggling whenever taken up, but they get tame in an 
incredibly short space of time. Particular care should be 
taken to keep their cage securely fastened, as they are very 
quick to perceive the least opportunity of escape, and are by 
no means easy to discover when they once get loose in a house. 
Very young snakes should not be placed with larger ones, as 
the latter will not hesitate to devour them. 

Those who do not feel that antipathy to these reptiles, 
which is so common among people who are not properly 
acquainted with them, will find the time and trouble spent on 
them amply repaid, especially if they go into the country and 
study their habits in a state of nature as well as in captivity. 

W. F. H. Rosenberg. 



THE GREAT LAKES. 



A MYSTERY UNVEILED. 
" Discovered," in a scientific sense, the Great Lakes of 
Africa undoubtedly have been during the latter half of this 
century ; " discovered " in the popular acceptation of the term 
they certainly were more than four centuries since. If we 
turn to the old maps of Africa, dating back 400 years, a surprise 
will await us. For there, rudely drawn no doubt, and not very 
correctly placed, though more accurately than was the greater 
portion of Africa until recently, are large inland waters which 
it is not difficult to recognise as the Victoria Nyanza, Tangan- 
yika, or Albert Nyanza, perhaps — and possibly also the Nyassa 
lake. This fact is very clearly brought out in the second 
volume of that very admirable work, " The Story of Africa 
and its Explorers," by Robert Brown, M.A., published, with 
copious maps and illustrations, by Messrs. Cassell & Company. 

A STRANGE LAND. 
Aristotle and Ptolemy both alluded to the African lakes, and 
the Portuguese and Arabs also brought vague rumours from the 
interior of the existence of three great inland seas. But it 
was reserved for Richard Burton to be the first white man to 



6o The Humming Bird. 

literally set eyes upon Lake Tanganyika and Mr. Brown gives 
a vivid picture of the watery wilderness upon which the intrepid 
traveller gazed, after a journey of terrible hardships. Croco- 
diles swarmed everywhere in that district, and among the 
endless superstitions of the natives were charms to prevent 
these reptiles from snatching an unwary bather ; while hippo- 
potami were numerous, especially at the mouths of the rivers 
that feed the lake. Two snakes, the great siluris, and many 
other fishes and molluscs inhabited the waters. Long-horned 
buffaloes peeped in wonder at the intruders in their leafy 
haunts ; antelopes were often sighted, and the fresh tracks of 
elephants were more numerous than they are now, for the 
eagerness of the ivory-hunters has gone far to exterminate 
them. 

UGANDA. 

A sheik, whom Burton and Speke encountered on the 
shores of Lake Tanganyika, gave them a graphic description 
of the empire of Uganda, of which we hear so much nowa- 
days. Burton was too ill to accompany an expedition formed 
to penetrate further into the interior, so Speke, set off by him- 
self. On July 30th, 1858, Speke sighted Victoria Nyanza. 
" It was early morning," he tells us, in a passage that will be 
often quoted in the centuries that are to come, " the distant 
sea-line of the north horizon was defined in the north and 
north-west points of the compass ; but even this did not afford 
me any idea of the breadth of the lake, as an archipelago of 
islands, each consisting of a single hill, rising to a height of 
200ft. or 300ft. above the water, intersected the line of vision 
to the left, while on the right the western horn of the Ukerewe 
Island cut off any further view of its distant waters to the 
eastward or north. A sheet of water — an elbow of the sea — 
however, at the base of the low range on which I stood, 
extended far to the eastward, to where in the dim distance 
a hummock-like elevation of the main-land marked what I 
understood to be the south and east angle of the lake." 

BAKSHISH. 

The travellers encountered strange races. Men and 
women seem to live there in a continual condition of drunken- 
ness. Native beer, a muddy beverage at best, was drunk all 
day long, and it was only in the intervals between potations 
that a chief could be seen or any business undertaken. But 
they were always sober enough to beg, and on no occasion 
did anybody pay a visit without being asked for something 



The Humming Bird, 61 

before he left. One would demand the iron camp-stool on 
which he had been squatting, and another would open his 
conversation by a request for some beads, or anything else — 
they were not particular what, so long as it was portable. At 
Suwarora's capital a messenger arrived from M'tesa, King of 
Uganda, a personage destined to be heard of very often in 
future years, but until then a strange name to the outer 
world. But this ambassador though willing to take to his 
master Speke's card, in the shape of a red pocket-handkerchief, 
declined to accept a revolving rifle, on the plea that the King 
might think it magic, and act accordingly. For the same 
reason one of the officers of Suwarora refused to carry to that 
sovereign a five-barrelled pistol. 

A BEAUTIFUL COUNTRY. 
According to the records of Speke and Grant — gathered 
during the second expedition — Uganda is in parts a splendid 
and fertile tract of country. One of the valleys, through which 
flowed the Victoria Nyanza — a stream which, in a cooler climate, 
would have been dear to the trout fisher — was clothed with 
noble trees and all kinds of luxuriant vegetation. Among 
these the pandana palm reared its head in addition to fine 
gardens of plantains. The common weeds were large thistles 
and wild indigo ; and far beyond they could see lines of what 
looked like extinct cones, resembling those of Auvergne, in 
France, while still further were the rich grassy mountains of 
Karagwe and Kishakka. 

THE SOURCES OF THE NILE. 

Speke's exultation at the discovery — or the confirmation 
of a discovery — he had made, is sometimes described as pre- 
mature, inasmuch as we now know the Victoria Nyanza to be 
only one of the Nile sources, and that other lakes contribute 
their surplus waters to its flood. In reality, time has added 
to instead of diminishing the importance of the Victoria 
Nyanza source, for the other lakes, which were at the time of 
the discovery believed to be as large as, if not larger than 
it, are now known to be much smaller. It was, therefore, 
with every right to be jubilant that Speke's party began their 
journey down the Nile towards the sea H in five boats of five 
planks each, tied together and caulked with rags," from a 
point a little below the Ripon Falls, in the hope of meeting 
Grant. The wanderings of other travellers are either 
described by Mr. Brown or told by themselves in the succeed- 
ing pages. The brief summary I have given of a couple of 



62 .The Humming Bird. 

chapters in this highly entertaining volume will afford some 
notion of the nature and variety of its contents. A careful 
perusual of the book by those interested in the Dark Continent 
will tend greatly to elucidate the African problem, which has 
so puzzled and disheartened many in this generation, and 
which may be solved by the next. G.A. 



INHABITED WORLDS. 

W. A. H. (Willimantic, Conn.) (i) I s it not a fact that our 
earth is the only globe in the universe inhabited by 
intelligent human beings ? (2) Is it believed by those 
who know best that there is an inhabited planet in our 
solar system besides the earth ? fjj If so, are those 
inhabitants supposed to be organized like human beings ? 
(4) What arguments are adduced in favour of the theory 
of the plurality of worlds. 

(1) According to the best modern calculations, there are 
no less than 500,000,000 of stars of various magnitudes within 
the range of the best telescopes, and photography reveals an 
infinitude of worlds, which baffles all attempts to be conceived 
by the human mind. Our own sun, itself 1300 times larger 
than our own planet, sinks into insignificance beside that 
giant sun, Sirius, and the latter in its turn is dwarfed by other 
luminaries in infinite space. In view of this fact it would be 
mere presumption to assert that our microscopic earth — a 
" grain of sand on an infinite seashore" — is the only centre of 
intelligent life. 

(2) The fact that most of the planets, as the stars beyond 
our system, are inhabited, has been admitted by men of 
science. Laplace and Herschell believed it, though they wisely 
abstained from imprudent speculations, and the same conclusion 
has been worked out and supported with an array of scientific 
considerations by Camille Flammarion, the well-known 
French astonomer. Of the long list of great thinkers who 
believed in the plurality of inhabited worlds in general we 
only mention the great mathematicans Leibnitz and Bernouilli; 
Isaac Newton himself, as can be read in his "Optics;" 
Buff on, the naturalist ; Condillace, the sceptic : Beilly, Lavator, 
Bernadin de St. Pierre, Diderot, and most of the writers of 
the Encyclopaedia. Following these comes Kant, the founder 
of modern philosophy; the poet philosophers, Goethe, Krause, 



The Humming Bird. 63 

Schelling, and many astronomers, from Bode, Ferguson, and 
Herschell to Lalandeand Draper, with many of their disciples 
in more recent years. 

(3) Many are the romances and tales, some purely fanci- 
ful, others bristling with scientific knowledge, which have 
attempted to imagine and describe life on other globes ; but we 
always find that the new world is but the one we ourselves 
live in, and its inhabitants the men of our own race, presented 
either, as with Voltaire, under a miscroscope, or with de 
Bergerac, a graceful play of fancy and satire. Commenting 
on this tendency, Flammarion in his work " Sur la Pluralité 
des Mondes Habités," says, " It seems as if to the eyes of 
those authors who have written on this subject the earth were 
the type of the universe, and the man of earth the type of 
the inhabitants of heavens. It is, on the contrary, much 
more probable that, since the nature of other planets is essen- 
tially varied, and the surroundings and conditions of existence 
essentially different, while the forces which preside over the 
creation of beings and the substances which enter into their 
mutual constitution are essentially distinct, it would follow 
that our mode of existence cannot be regarded as in any way 
applicable to other globes." (Page 439). 

(4) The facts of physical astronomy speaks strongly in 
favor of the presence of life, even organized life, in other 
planets. Thus, in four meteorites which fell, respectively, at 
Alais, in France, the Cape of Good Hope, in Hungary, and 
again in France, there was found on analysis, graphite, a form 
of carbon known to be invariably associated with organic life 
on this earth of ours. In one meteorite which fell at Argueil, 
in the south of France, in 1857, there was found w T ater and 
turf, the latter being always formed by decomposition of 
vegetable substances. Flammarion show's, in addition, that 
all the conditions of life — even as w r e know it — are present on 
some at least of the planets, and points to the fact that these 
conditions must be much more favourable on them than they 
are on our earth. Thus, Venus, like Mercury, has a very 
dense atmosphere, as also has Mars ; and the snows which 
cover their poles, the clouds which hide their surface, the 
geographical configuration of their seas and continents, the 
variation of seasons and climates, are all closely anologous to 
those of our earth. 

The three conclusions which M. C. Flammarion formulates 
as vigorous, and exact deductions from the known facts and 
laws of science are calculated to convince the sceptical mind 



64 The Humming Bird. 

of the plurality of inhabited worlds : — I. The various forces 
which were active in the beginning of evolution gave birth to 
a great variety of beings on the several worlds, both in the 
organic and inorganic kingdoms. II. The animated beings 
were constituted from the first according to forms and 
organisms in co-relation with the physiological state of each 
inhabited globe. III. The humanities of other worlds differ 
from us, as much in their inner organization as in their exter- 
nal physical type. — The World. 



EL COCO. 



El cultivo del coco en Jamaica es objeto de estudios muy 
curiosos. Se distinguen las varias clases por la forma y ta- 
mano de la nuez asî como por el grueso de la corteza y el 
grueso de la pulpa. El llamado Curasao es una nuez grande 
con corteza dura y mucha carne. El maddén es muy 
pequeno, crece en largos racimos, y mientras que el Curasao 
rara vez tiene mas, de 6 6 7 cocos en el racimo, ultimamente se 
exhibiô uno de Maddén que contenîa 29 cocos. El curaso 
produce la mayor cantidad de aceite, 6 sea 12 botellas cada 
cien cocos. Cuando el coco retona, se coloca en la tierra por 
su parte mas plana, y debe estar tan inclinado, que la lèche 6 
el agua penetren y el retono crezca mas pronto. Mientras 
mas ligero se trasplante el retono (siendo la estaciôn favor- 
able), mas fuerte sera la planta. La mejor època para esto, 
es el principio de Octubre. Cuando se hace una siembra, la 
tierra debe ser desyerbada toda, pues el ârbol no requière 
sombra. El suelo debe ser gredoso, hûmedo y bien desaguado. 
La distancia entre ârboles debe ser media cadena, aunque pue- 
den plantarse hasta a 40 pies, especialmente si la tierra es muy 
humeda, porque entonces el sol pasa entre las ramas cuando 
los ârboles estân crecidos y caliente el piso. Al trasplantar la 
nuez, se entierra hasta el borde, dejândola al nivel del suelo, 
luégo se limpia con la azada el terreno en una circunferencia 
de 3 a 5 pies. Mientras crece la mata, puede sembrarse yer- 
bas de guinea en el terreno, dejando un espacio de cinco pies 
al rededor de cada planta. La experienciaha demostrado que 
lo mejor es dejar quieta la mata y que crezca como ella quiera, 
sin cortarle alguna rama. 

La planta comienza a producir a los 7 anos. General- 



The Humming Bird. 65 

mente se deja que el coco caiga por si solo, y se recoge cada 
uno 6 dos dîas, para llevarlo al depôsito. La mayor parte de 
los cocos embarcados en Jamaica van para America y Canada, 
aunque una gran cantidad se embarca para Inglaterra y para 
el Continente. Cuando se mandan para el primero de los 
paîses nombrados, las frutas vienen peladas, mientras que para 
Europa se envîan sin pelar. El precio se calcula por término 
medio en 2 centavos cada fruta. Algunos hacendados, en vez 
de exportar su producciôn, prefieren extraerle el aceite, lo 
cual se hace por un método sumamente sencillo. Después de 
pelado el coco se parte, y se acerca al fuego para que la carne 
se sépare de la câscara ; entonces se lava aquélla sin necesidad 
de quitarle lacorteza negra que le queda al salir de la câscara, 
y luégo se raya la carne, se coloca en una cuba, se le echa agua 
hirviendo, y por ultimo, se cuela el todo. Cuando el agua se 
enfria, el asiento sobrenada, se recoge fâcilmente y se deja 
enfriar, con lo cual queda listo para ir al mercado. El aceite 
se vende a 12 centavos la media botella. Se trata hoy de 
introducir en Jamaica, manufactura de manteca do coco. — (El 
Porvenir) . 



MANY-EYED MONSTER. 



ALTHOUGH A GREAT ANNOYANCE THEY SERVE 
A PURPOSE. 

The question where flies come from is asked many times 
during the summer. It is always a mystery to the woman who 
has her house well screened how even one of these little pests 
can get in. 

The parents of a good many of them were probably 
housed a year before, when, in the autumn, vigilance was 
relaxed and perhaps a door or window left unguarded. 

With the instinct with which nature has provided them 
they crept in the warm house into cracks not perceptible, and 
there they hibernated. There, too, they lay their eggs, 177 to 
each fly, thus looking out for the propagation of the race ; 
and so, when the first warm days come they surprise us by 
buzzing away on the windows or around the table. 

In the meantime the eggs are hatching and by a fly-time" 
they come forth in swarms. 

Sometimes in the dead of winter a fly will appear, 
beguiled from his resting place by the deceptive warmth of 



66 The Humming Bird. 

the furnace-heated house. He seems a harbinger of spring 
and perhaps one may be inclined to pet it a little. Don't do 
it. Kill it and thus put an end to a prospective future 
generation of flies. They are natural scavengers. Their 
purpose in life is to consume various substances which are 
thrown off from the human body, by articles of food and by 
almost every animal and vegetable production when in a state 
of change. The substances are given out in such small 
quantities that are imperceptible to common observers and 
not removable by ordinary methods of cleanliness, even in the 
best kept room. 

When a fly persists in crawling over one's face it is 
merely taking care of the particles of dead matter thrown off 
through the pores and thus helps to keep the complexion 
clean. So it is really doing good while it annoys. 

As a common fly has about 4,000 eyes it is no wonder it 
is so hard to catch, or that it evades the blows aimed at it. — 
Boston Herald. 



THE TELESCOPE AND THE 
MICROSCOPE. 



It was the telescope, said Dr. Chalmers, in his splendid 
astronomical discoveries, that enabled us to realize in some 
degree, the vastness of the universe. But about the time of 
its invention another instrument was formed which rewarded 
the inquisitive spirit of man with a scene no less wonderful. 
This was the microscope. The one led me to see a system in 
every star ; the other shows me a world in every atom. The 
one taught me that this mighty globe, with the whole burden 
of its people and its contents, is but a grain of sand on the 
field of immensity. The other teaches me that every grain of 
sand may harbor within it the tribes and families of a busy 
population. The one tells me of the insignificance of the 
world I tread upon. The other redeems it from all insignific- 
ance, for it tells me that in the leaves of the forest and in the 
flowers of every garden, and in the waters of every rivulet, 
there are worlds teeming with life and numberless as are the 
glories of the firmament." So it is plain that if the observa- 
tion of the starry universe suggests the thought that God's 
kingdom is too great to justify the belief that we are noticed 



The Humming Bird. 67 

and cared for by Him, the observation of any portion of His 
works, however minute, indicates that there is nothing too 
small for my constant and superintending care. If science 
makes faith in God's care difficult, science also offers to faith 
the most abundant aid. It shows that while His power rolls 
through space the millions of worlds He has created, at the 
same time He feeds the ravens when they cry, and clothes every 
lily with its beauty, and numbers even the hairs of our heads 
and the leaves that clothe the forest with their verdure and 
beauty. 

MISTAKES ABOUT ALCOHOL. 

There is a common belief that alcohol gives new strength 
and energy after fatigue sets in. The sensation of fatigue is 
one of the safety valves of our machine ; to stifle the feeling 
of fatigue, in order to do more work, is like closing the safety 
valve so the boiler may be over heated and explosion result. 
It is commonly thought that alcoholic drinks aid digestion, but 
in reality the contrary would appear to be the case, for it has 
been proved that a meal without alcohol is more quickly 
followed by hunger than a meal with alcohol. In connection 
with the sanitation of armies thousands of experiments upon 
large bodies of men have been made, and have led to the 
rusult that, in peace or war, in every climate — in heat, cold or 
rain — soldiers are better able to endure the fatigue of the 
most exhausting marches when they are not allowed any 
alcohol at all. That mental exertions of all kinds are better 
undergone without alcohol is generally admitted by most 
people who have made the trial. It appears certain that from 
70 to 80 per cent, of crime, 80 to 90 per cent, of all poverty 
and from 10 to 40 per cent, of the suicides in most civilized 
countries are to be ascribed to alcohol. — Westminster Review. 



COTTON SEED OIL. 

The uses to which cotton seed oil is put appear to be 
manifold and a trade is now being opened for the carriage of 
the oil in bulk by means of tank Steamers. In an article on 
the subject an expert states that the cotton seed oil is made into 
the finest Holland butter, that it is taken to Limburg, and goes to 
America again in the form of the famous cheese ; that it goes 
to Switzerland, and returns as Xeuchatel cheese ; and that it 
is taken as far south in Europe as Italy, from which country it 
again crosses the Atlantic, transformed into pure olive oil. He 



68 



The Humming Bird. 



also declared that the cotton seed oil was a healthful food 
product, and held that the trade was likely to increase so 
rapidly that other tankers would be put into it. The oil is 
brought to New Orleans, from all parts of the States, especially 
from Texas ; it is pumped from the cars into the refinery, and 
from the refinery into the tankers. When it reaches Rotterdam 
it is pumped into tank cars, which are distributed throughout 
Europe. — St. Thomas Tidende. 



GENERA AVIUM. 



Mr. Boucard begs to inform his scientific Friends and 
Correspondents, that he is preparing the manuscript of a 
GENERA AVIUM, and being very anxious that the said work 
should be as complete and as perfect as possible, he will con- 
sider it a great favour, if any of his Correspondents can pro- 
cure him some of the Genera mentioned in the adjoining 
list :— 



PSITTACIDAE. 

Cyanopsittacus 

Pachynus 

Geopsittacus 

Capitonidae. 

Erythrobucco 

Smilorhis 

Stactolacma 

BUCCONIDAE. 
Micromonacha 
Hapaloptila 

CUCULIDAE. 
Pachycoccyx 
Cercococcyx 
Mesocalius 
Microdynamis 
Ramphomantis 
Hyetornis 
Rhynococcys 
Dryococcyx 
Neomorphus 

MUSOPHAGIDAE. 
Gymnoschizorhis 



Trogonidae. 
Euptilotis 

Alcedinidae. 
Ceycopsis 
Myioceyx 

Meropidae. 
Dicrocercus 

BUCEROTIDAE. 
Bucorax 
Dichoceros 
Aceros 
Anorrhinus 
Berenicornis 
Rhinoplax 

PlCIDAE. 
Geocolaptes 
Xenopicus 
Dendrocoptes 
Thripias 
Sapheopipo 
Verreauxia 



BOUCARD, A., Works by:— 
Guide pour récolter préparer kt expédier 
des Objets d'Histoire Naturelle, Brochure 

in 8vo., 32 pages, Rennes, 1871 1/- 

The same in Spanish ... ... ... ... ... 1/- 

Notes sur quelques Trochilidés, Brochure 
grand, in 8vo., 16 pages, Lyon, 1873 ... ... 1/6 

Hand-rook of Natural History, 2nd Edition, 
Vol, in 8vo., 234 pages, profusely illustrated 
with Woodcuts, London, 1874 4/- 

Coloured Diagrams of Natural History, 2nd 
Edition, 20 sheets, i8in. by 24m., comprising 166 
Diagrams of typical animals and plants, natural 
size, and 37 natural typical specimens of woods, 
and minerals, all neatly mounted on strong card- 
board 40/- 

The same, varnished 45/- 

NOTES SUR LES TROCHILIDÉS DU MEXIQUE, 

Brochure grand in 8vo., 16 pages, Lyon, 1875 ... 1/6 
Monographic List of the Coleoptera of the 
genus PLUSIOTIS, with descriptions of 
several new species. Pamphlet, in 8vo, with 
coloured plate, illustrating five new species ... 4/- 
The same, with black plate ... ... .. 2/6 

Catalogues Avium hucusque descriptorum, i 
Vol. in 8vo., cloth, 352 pages, 2546 genera, and 
11,031 species recorded. London, 1876. A useful 
book for Museums and Ornithologists. Price 
reduced to ... ... .. ... .. 10/- 

The same, with French preface ... .. .. 10/- 

The same, interleaved with blank sheets of paper, 
French or English preface ... ... ... 12/- 

Noteson Pharomacruscostaricensis. Pamphlet 
4to, 8 pages. Brighton, 1877 ... ... ... 4/- 

On Birds collected in Costa Rica, by Mr. 
Adolphe Boucard. Pamphlet in 8vo, 72 pages, 
with coloured plate of Zonotrichia Volcani. 
Boucard, London, 1878 ... ... .. 4/- 

The same, with black plate ... ... ... 2/6 

Notes on some Coleoptera of the genus 
PLUSIOTIS, with descriptions of three 

NEW SPECIES FROM MEXICO AND CENTRAL 

America. Pamphlet in 8vo, 4 pages, with 
coloured plates, illustrating fine species, P. 

RODRIGUEZI, BADENI, BOUCARDI, MNISZECKT, 

and prasina ... ... .. ... -.. 4/- 

The same, with black plate ... ... ... 2/6 

Notes sur les objets exposés par la Ré- 
publique de Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1878, Brochure in 8vo, 32 pages. Paris, 1878 1/- 

Liste des Oireaux récottés au Guatemala en 
1877, par M. Adolphe Boucard, Brochure 
grand,tin 8vo, 48 pages. Lyon, 1878 ... ... 2/6 

Descriptions of two supposed new species 
of South American Birds. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 
with coloured plate, figuring Chiromachacris 
coronata. Boucard, London, 1879 ... ... 2/- 

The same, with black plate ... .. ... 1/- 

Description d'une espèce nouvelle de Pseu- 
doeolaptes de Costa Rica. Paris, 1880 ... 6d. 

Descriptions de deux espèces nouvelles de 
Cicindélides de Panama. Paris, 1880 ... 6d. 

On a Collection of Birds from Yucatan 
(Mexico), with notes by Mr. Osbert Salvin, 
f.r.s. Pamphlet, in 8vo., 30 pages. London, 1883 2/6 

Notice biographique sur Francois Sumichrast, 
Naturaliste Voyageur, Brochure in 8vo., avec 
portrait. Paris, 1884 ... ... ... ... 2/- 

VlSITE AUX RUINES DE XOCHICALCO (MEXIQUE). 

Paris. 1887 ... .. ... ... ... 1/- 

Catalogue des Objets exposes par la Rè- 
puplique de Guatemala et par M. Adolphe 
Boucard à l'Exposition universelle de 
Paris, 1889 .. ... ... ... .. 1/- 

Catalogue des Oiseaux de la Collection 
Riocour. Paris, 1889 ... .. ... 1/- 

THE HUMMING BIRD. A Monthly Scien- 
tific, Artistic, and Industrial Review. 
Vol.1. London, 1891 ... ... ... .. 10/- 



ConteiHs of Vol. I. 
Preface — What is to be seen everywhere in London— 
The McKinlev Bill—The Panama Canal — Notes on the 
Genus Pharomacrus — An easy way of making £100 a 
a year — Reports on Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 
Skins — Rapport sur la Vente publique, de plumes et 
d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décembre, i8<jo — The Museum 
of la Plata, and my idea of a typical and practical 
Museum of Natural History — Reports on Public Sales 
of Postage Stamps — Notes on rare species of Humming 
Birds, and Descriptions of several supposed new species 
— Second International Ornithological Congress — 
Answers to Correspondents— Description of a supposed 
new species of Parrot in Boucard's Museum— Notes on 
the Crowned Superb Warbler (Malurus coronattis (Gould) 
— A Visit to the Gardens of Zoological Society of Lon- 
don — British Museum (Zoological Department) — Royal 
Aquarium — Books and Journals received — Obituary — 
Description of a supposed new species of Paradise bird 
in Boucard's Museum — The Pilgrim Locust — Descrip- 
tion of a supposed new species of Tanager — Notes on 
the great Bower Bird {Chlamydodera nuchalis, Jard) — 
Collections made in Thibet and Central Asia — A Visit to 
the British Museum (Natural History Department) — 
The Plantain or Banana Plant — Inauguration of the 
statue of Pierre Belon, the Naturalist — A Giant 
Land Crab — Review of new Scientific Books — Report 
on the Public Sale of the celebrated Collection of Shells, 
formed by the late Sir David Barclay, and sold at 
Steven's on Monday, the 6th of July, and following days 
— Recommendations for the prevention of damage by 
some common Insects of the Farm, the Orchard, and 
the Garden — La Vie champêtre. La Destruction de la 
Larve du Hanneton {Meîolontha vulgaris) — Crocodile, 
Snake, and Fish skins for industrial purposes — World's 
Columbian Exposition, Bâtiment de l'Administation. 
The same, Vol. II. London, 1892 ... ... 10/- 

ContentsofVol.il. 

Description of a supposed new Species of Humming Birds, 
in Boucard's Museum — The World's Fair, Inter- 
national Exposition of Chicago — Review of New 
Scientific Books — Notes on the Rare Pheasant, 
Rheinardius ocellatus — Books received — Celebrated 
Gallery of Old Masters, of the late General Marquess 
de Garbarino— Customs Tariff of Great Britain and 
Ireland — Obituary — Biographical Notes on Henry 
Walter Bates, F.R.S. , etc. (with portrait) — American 
Pearls — Fish from Volcanoes— A very large Tree — A 
Curious Rat Catcher — List of Birds collected, by Mr. 
Hardy at Porto-Real, Brazil, with description of one 
supposed New Species — Description of a supposed New 
Species of the genus Manticora, " Cicindelidse," from 
Damara Land, South Africa — Description d'une espèce 
nouvelle de Diptère parasite de Costa Rica, Ornithom- 
yia geniculata — The Completion of the Panama Canal 
— A complete list, up to date, of the Humming Birds 
found in Columbia, with descriptions of several supposed 
New Species — Christopher Columbus — Festivities and 
Exhibitions, held in honour of Christopher Columbus in 
America, Spain, Italy and France — America — Le Canal 
de Panama — International Exhibition in Monaco — A 
new Emission of Postage Stamps. 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS, comprising:— 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithso- 
nian Institution, 1890-1891 — Catalogue of Birds in the 
British Museum, Vol. XX., 1891, Vol. XVI., 1892, 
Vol. XXII., 1892— Zoological Record, Vol. XXVIII., 
1892 — Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
1892 — The Ibis, Vol. IV., Sixth Series, 1892 — Mémoires 
de la Société Zoologique de France, Vol. V., 1892 — 
Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad cientifica, Antonio 
Alzate, 1892— Actes de la Société scientifique du Chili. 
Vol. L, 1892— The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 
1892, etc. 

OBITUARY:— 

August von Pelzen— Dom Pedro d'Alcantara — M. 
Alphand — Monseigneur Freppel — Armand de Quatre- 
fages à". Breau — Duke of Clarence— Henry Walter 
Bates- Etienne Arago — Hermann Charles Burmeister 
— Carl August Dohrn — Marshal da Fonseca — Ernest 
Renan — Alfred Tennyson — Xavier Marmier. 

GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, by A. Boucard, 
pages 1 to 56. 



THE HUMMING BIRD. A Quarterly Scien- 
tific, Artistic, and Industrial Review. Vol. 
III. London, 1894 ••• •• ■•• ...10/- 

Contents of Vol. III. 

Panama — Grover Cleveland; the elected President of the 
United States — Dercriptions of several supposed New 
Species of Humming Birds, by A. Boucard — Visits to the 
Zoological Gardens of London, by W. Rosenberg — Paris 
International Exhibition of 1900 — World's Columbian 
Exhibition — Chicago Exposition; World's Fair Notes — 
Relics at the Fair — Big Prizes for Live Stock — World's 
Fair Souvenirs- — Travels of a Naturalist, by A. Boucard 
— Genera of Humming Birds, by A. Boucard — The 
Imperial Institute — Anver's International Exhibition — 
Royal Institution — Description of one supposed New 
Species of Cetonia, from Syria, by A. Boucard — How 
Animals are Protected Against Their Enemies, by W. 
Rosenberg — Abundance of Wasps — Notes on Wasps, 
by A. Boucard — The Ways of Wasps — Les Guêpes — 
Rectification of Name for Semioptera gouldi — Alligators 
—Destructive Insects of Victoria, by French — Interna- 
tional Exhibitions — The late World's Fair— International 
Exhibition of Lyon (France) — International Exhibition 
of Paris, 1900 — International Exhibition of Industry, 
Science and Art, in Hobart Town, (Tasmania) — Inter- 
national Exhibition in San Francisco (California). 



GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS:— 

Genus Oxypogon, Gould 

„ Eupogonus, Muls. and Verr. 

„ Lampropogon, Bon. 

„ Chalcostigma, Reich. 

,, Metallura, Gould 

,, Avocettinus, Bon. 

„ Adelomyia, Bon. 

,, Urosticte, Gould 

,, Augastes, Gould 

„ Phlogophilus, Gould 

,, Ramphomicron, Bon. 

Lesbidae. 
Genus Zodalia, Muls 
,, Sappho, Reich. 
„ Lesbia, Lesson 
,, Cyanolesbia, Steg. 
„ Neolesbia, Salv. 

Thaluranidae. 
Genus Thalurania, Gould 



PAGE 

.63 
66 

67 
68 

70 

77 
78 
81 

83 
84 

85 

87 
89 
9i 
96 

99 



NEW SPECIES OF BIRDS AND INSECTS— 
Described in Vol. III. of the Humming Bird: — 



Aves. — Trochili. 



Metallura peruviana 
Lesbia aequatorialis 
Oreotrochilus bolivianus 
Hylocharis brasiliensis 
Amazilia forreri 
Saucerottia wellsi 
Uranbmitra whitelyi 
Agyrtria speciosa 
Chrysuronia buckleyi 
Phaethornis garleppi 
Hemistephania guianensis 
Patagona peruviana 
Patagona boliviana 
Cyanolesbia meridana 
Cyanolesbia columbiaria 
Thalurania valenciana 



Boucard 



Gen. H. Bird 
Gen. H. Bird 



PAGE 

6 

6 
7 
7 
7 



9 
9 
10 
60 
61 
97 



Insecta.— tColeoptera, Cetonid/e. 



Cetonia delagrangei 
Cetonia syriaca ? 



Boucard 



PAGE 

40 
40 



Contents of Vol. IV. 

Wonderful Discovery in Colorado (Mexico) — Recent Scien- 
tific and other Publications, with Notes by the Editor — 
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smith- 



sonian Institution — The Hawks and Owls of the United 
States in their relation to Agriculture, by A. K. Fisher 
— Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, Volume 
XXL, Columbaeor Pigeons, by T, Salvadori — Catalogue 
of Birds in the British Museum, Volume XXII. , The 
Game Birds, by Olgilvie Grant — The Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London, Part IV., 1892, and Parts 
I., 11.", and III., 1893— Zoological Record, Vol. XXIX., 
edited by Doctor Sharp —The Ibis, Sixth Series, Vol.V., 
edited by Philip Lutley Sclater — The Ibis, Vol. VI., No. 
21, edited by Philip Lutley Sclatler — Bulletin of the 
British Ornithologist's Club, 1892-93 — Mémoires de la 
Société Zoologique de France, Tome V., 5èm partie, et 
TomeVI.,1893 — Congres International de Américanistes 
Compte Rendu de la Huilieme Session tenue à Paris en 
1890 — Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa; Indices e 
Catalagos, A Bibliotheca, 1893 — Revista Mensual de la 
Sociedad Gautemalteca de Ciencias, 1893 — The Ento- 
mologists' Monthly Magazine, 1893 — Ornithologische 
Monatsberichte, edited by Dr. Ant. Reichenow, Berlin, 
1893 — The Canadian Entomologist, edited by Rev. C. T. 
S. Bethune, Ontario, 1893 — Twenty-third Annual Report 
of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 1893 — Bulletii 
of the United States National Museum, Washington, 
1892 — North American Fauna, No. 7, Part II. .Washing- 
ton, 1893 — Anales del Instituto fiscio- geografica del 
Museo de Costa Rica, Tome III., 1892 — Die Vogel dei 
Insel Curacao, by Hans von Berlepsch, 1892 — The Fly- 
ing Man, by the Editor — Visits to the Zoological 
Society Gardens, London, by W. H. Rosenberg — Î 
Nursery of Insects — Description d'une nouvelle espèce 
de Coquille du Japon du genre Arca, par le Docteur 
Félix Joussaume — The Use of Salt for Agricultural 
Purposes, by the Editor — Are Ants of Aid to Fruit- 
Growers? — Banana Culture — Strange Phenomenon ii 
California, Formation of an Inland Sea — Waste Pri 
rfucts made Useful — How to Preserve Animals — Thi 
English Snake, by W. Rosenberg — The Great Lakes, b; 
G. A. — Inhabited Worlds (The World) — El Coco — Many- 
Eyed Monster — The Telescope and the Microscope- 
Mistakes about Alcohol — Cotton Seed Oil — Gener; 
Avium. 

NEW GENERA and SPECIES of BIRDS and SHEL1 

Described in Vol. IV. of The Humming Bird : — 

Aves. — Trochili. 



Thalurania boliviana, 
Gmelinius, N.G*, 

Type, GmeL Bicolor 
Chlorostilbon wiedi, 
Chlorostilbon panamensis, 
Lawrencius, n.g., 

Type, L.cupreiceps 



Shells, 
Area boucardi, Joussaume, H. Bird 



Boucard, Gen. H. Bird 



PAGI 

107 
10 

12' 

124 

173 



41 



Sauvetage du Panama, 4éme edition, Brochure 

in 8vo., 32 pages. Tours, 1892.. 
Catalogue des Collections d'historie 

naturelle récoltées au mexique par m. 

Adolphe Boucard 
Catalogue de Mammifères, Oiseaux Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles de la Californie, 

Louisiane, Mexique et Uruguay 
Catalogue de Carabiques et Colcoptères 

divers, 1477 espèces ... 
Catalogue d'Héteromères et de Curculio 

nides, 2242 espèces 
Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles et Poissons, 

1157 espèces .. 
Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2636 espèces 
Liste des Coléoptères en vente chez M. 

Adolphe Boucard, 7956 espèces 
Liste des Oiseaux en vente chez M. Adolphe 

Boucard, 4584 espèces 
La série complète des huit Catalogues et Listes ... 



6d. 






Printed by Pardy & Son, 8, The Triangle, Bournemouth. 






INTEROCEANIC CANALS. 12J 

some cannon made in the Philippines were carried by this 
route to the fortress of Uloa, near Vera Cruz. The fourth 
is that of Uraba to the Gulf of San Miguel. 

The distance between Nombre de Dios and Panama is 
sixty-eight miles, that of Uraba and San Miguel seventy-five 
miles ; these two are the most difficult, but handicraft is 
plentiful. If it is decided to make the passage.it will be done. 
Means are not wanted. The Indies, which will benefit by this 
work, will supply them. For the King of Spain, who disposes 
of the Indies' wealth, it is possible and easy, so much the 
more so, that the object is the trade of spices. 

If the passage of which I speak is made, the navigation 
to Moluccas will be shortened one third, and the ships would 
sail constantly in warm latitudes without leaving the domains 
of the Spanish Monarchy, and without fear of meeting 
enemies. Our goods would be sent to Peru and other pro- 
vinces on the same ships freighted in Spain. Much expense 
and trouble would be avoided : — 

Herrera mentions also the same lines quoted by Gomara, 
and he adds that the project of a Canal was proposed to 
Charles Quint, and that it was always a subject agreeable to 
speak upon, with the Emperor. 

Nevertheless, neither the Emperor nor his successors ever 
decided upon the digging of the Canal. 

This was attributed to their firm resolution to keep the 
traffic between America and the Moluccas entirely to them- 
selves. Everyone knows that for more than two centuries 
this traffic enriched, and gave a great importance to Spain. 
What Spain never did, it is probable that the Scotch Company 
would have tried to do, if they had had time. The founder, 
Mr. Paterson, a very bold man, had projected to take posses- 
sion of the Isthmus. To that effect, he established a Colony 
of merchants and soldiers in the Isthmus. In his manifesto he 
said that those who would be in possession of the Isthmus 
would be masters of the universal trade. In reply to this 
manifesto, Scotland contributed to equip a first expedition of 
twelve hundred men, who landed in the Gulf of Darien, and 
founded several localities, which they named New Caledonia 
and St. Andrew, but the Spaniards soon obliged them to 
abandon the country. 

In 1 804, when the celebrated Baron de Humboldt returned 
from his long voyage in Mexico and South America, in his 
Political Essay of New Spain and in his Historical Relation 
of the Voyage to Equinoctial Regions, he called the attention 

13 



128 NICARAGUA. 

of all the World to the possibilities of digging an Interoceanic 
Canal between the two Oceans. The project which he 
thought best was that of the Isthmus of Cupica, but he was 
not opposed to those of Panama and Nicaragua. 

In 1842, he wrote to Mr. Salomon : " Twenty-five years 
ago I sent you the description of a project of communication 
between the two Oceans, either by the Isthmus of Panama, 
the lake of Nicaragua, or the Isthmus of Cupica. It has been 
discussed topographically, but nothing has been done yet." 

This citation shows that these three projects were those 
which he considered to be the best, leaving out entirely the 
two others of Tehuantepec and that of Darien to Raspadura. 

In 1827, the celebrated General Bolivar, the father of 
South American Independence, who spoke with Humboldt 
and was very interested in the question of the Canal, instructed 
the English engineer, Mr. Lloyd, to survey the Isthmus of 
Panama ; and it is probable that if the English capitalists had 
been disposed to undertake the opening of a Canal at that 
time, they would have been certain to obtain the most complete 
co-operation from Bolivar and his successors. 

Immediately after the constitution of the Central American 
Confederation, the Hon. Deputy for Nicaragua, Mr. Manuel 
Antonio de la Cerda, proposed to Congress to discuss the 
question of the Canal, which was forthwith done and approved. 
But the Guatemalan Archives relating to Nicaragua having 
been destroyed, when the Mexicans entered and occupied the 
capital, it was resolved to make a new survey. 

This survey was made during the years 1823- 1825, and 
on the 1 2th of July, 1825, the President of the Republic, Don 
Manuel Jose Arce, deputed the authorisation to a private 
Company for the opening of a Canal through the Isthmus of 
Nicaragua. Among many propositions offered by various 
Companies, two were the principals, one presented by the 
engineer, Mr. John Bailly, in the name of Messrs. Barclay, 
Herring, Richardson & Co., of London, the other by Mr. Carlos 
Beneski in the name of Aron Palmer, of New York. The pro- 
position of Mr. Beneski was accepted, but it came to nought. 

In 1828, Guillaume I., King of Holland, the richest 
Sovereign of Europe, and a very enterprising man, sent 
General Verveer to the grand Assembly convoked in Panama 
in 1825. The Central American Confederation was repre- 
sented in that general Assembly by M. M. Lorrazabal and 
Molina. General Verveer was so impressed with the com- 
munications made by M. M. Larrazahal and Molina to him, 



1NTER0CEANIC CANALS. 129 

that he decided to return to Holland, and advised the King to 
send a Minister to Guatemala with the special mission to 
promote the undertaking of the Canal. This Minister was 
General Verveer himself, who arrived in Guatemala in 
March, 1829, well decided to do all what he could for the 
success of this gigantic work. 

But it happened that a revolution had taken place during 
his absence, and General Morazan, had just been elected to 
power, and was very busy in establishing his government. 
A long time passed without anything being done, and it was 
only on the 21st of October, 1830, that the Federal Congress 
sanctioned the contract passed between General Verveer and 
Guatemala. 

When Central America thought that a new era of great- 
ness was going to begin for their country, the French and 
Belgian Revolutions took place, and in consequence every- 
thing was stopped, and, after the loss of a great deal of time, 
resulted in the abandonment of the undertaking. 

In 1837, General Morazan thinking that it would be very 
difficult to induce foreign capitalists to undertake the open- 
ing of the Canal, decided to have it done by the country 
itself. With that purpose, he instructed M. M. John Bailly 
and José Bâtres to make a survey of the country. The 
survey lasted about six years, during which a revolution 
overthrew Morazan in favour of Carrera, and after all, the 
survey made by M. M. Bailly and Bâtres resulted only in an 
interesting publication published in 1843, m which the out- 
line surveyed is fully shown by them, that of the River San 
Juan del Norte, the lake of Nicaragua and San Juan del 
Sur, by the river Lajas. 

After the fall of Morazan, the Confederation was dis- 
solved. The State of Nicaragua proclaimed its independence 
in 1838. Now the matter of the Canal rested entirely with 
it. Mr. Pierre Rouhaud, my friend of Granada, was 
authorized to go to France and see if he could find capi- 
talists willing to undertake the opening of the Canal, but he 
did not succeed. Several years after in 1843, Count 
Hompesch, who presided over the Belgian Company of 
Santo Tomas, was also asked to take the matter in hand, 
faut he had the same fate as Mr. Rouhaud. In the mean- 
while, Mr. Castellon was sent to France to solicit the 
protectorate of the Government of Louis Philippe. 
Mr. Guizot, who had sent Mr. Napoleon Garella to survey 
the Panama route did not care for the offer of Mr. Castellon, 



130 NICARAGUA. 

who then thought of Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte r 
actually imprisoned in the fortress of Ham. 

Mr. Castellon found in the Prince, a person well disposed 
to the scheme. However, he could not get a decisive reply, 
and returned to Nicaragua without anything more than a 
treaty signed with a Belgian Company. 

In 1846, Prince Louis Napoleon wrote that he was disposed 
to accept the propositions of Mr. Castellon. In reply to that 
letter, the Nicaraguan Government, sent the Paris Minister to 
Ham for the signature of a treaty very favourable to the Prince. 
Three months after, he was free, and immediately, a 
pamphlet entitled the Canal of Nicaragua or Project of the 
Junction of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, was printed 
in London. In that pamphlet he gave a resume of his ideas 
about the undertaking trusted to his credit and energy. His 
project was to make use of the river San Juan, the lake of 
Nicaragua, the lake of Managua and Realejo on the Pacific. 
It was beforehand called, Canal Napoleone, but the French 
revolution of 1848, which made Napoleon, President of 
the French Republic, in the first place, and afterwards 
Emperor of France, modified all his ideas about the Canal, 
and it was again relegated for a time. 

In 1849, a contract was signed between Nicaragua and 
Mr. Brown, the representative of an American Company, but 
nothing came of it. After Mr. Brown, came the White and 
Vanderbilt Company, but Nicaragua, before signing the 
agreement, asked from the American Government to be 
security for that Company. Mr. Squier, the American Resi- 
dent Minister in Nicaragua, who had special instructions from 
his Government to obtain the concession in favour of an 
American firm, guaranteed the responsibility of the United 
States. Accordingly, the Vanderbilt contract was signed the 
27th of August, and ratified by Congress the 25th of Sep- 
tember following. The next day, the Congress ratified also 
a treaty of confederacy and goodwill with the United States, 
to the satisfaction of all. 

• The treaty of the 27th of August was as liberal as the 
preceding ones. All flags were treated alike. 

Nicaragua reserved for itself the lion's share, which pro- 
bably had a certain influence on the ultimate want of success. 

That country had stipulated that £2,000 were to be paid 
to them after the ratification, £2,000 yearly until the conclu- 
sion of the Canal, and one million of shares, when emitted. 
Besides, twenty per cent, during twenty years on the nett 



INTEROCEANIC CANALS. 131 

products, and twenty-five per cent, during the remainder of 
the concession, which was for eighty-five years. The pro- 
mises made by that country were to give sixty square miles 
of land to the Company, with the perspective for the heirs of 
the shareholders of an indemnity of fifteen per cent, during 
ten years on the nett products of the Canal, if the cost did 
not exceed one hundred millions, and during twenty years if 
that sum had been exceeded, these sums becoming due at the 
expiration of the concession. 

This concession had the same fate as the preceding 
ones, and was absorbed in the national catastrophe of which 
Walker was the hero. 

Indeed it is extraordinary to see how badly the South 
American Republics understood their own interests. 

Instead of helping the companies which devote their 
time and capital in favour of their countries, they only think 
of making a good business of it. 

If they chose to follow the example given to them by 
Europe and North America, by not reserving the best part 
for themselves, but by helping the companies, with large 
subventions, guarantee of interest, large grants of lands, and 
privileges extending to a very long time, it is probable that 
one of the Canals would have been opened a long time ago. 

Meanwhile they remain so narrow-minded, and see only 
to their immediate interests, there is little chance for the com- 
pletion of such gigantic and wonderful works as those of the 
Interoceanic Canals. 

If Europe and North America had acted in like manner, 
railways and maritime services, and all other great under- 
takings, would never have been completed, and the wealth of 
these countries would have remained stationary, as it is the 
case with the Central and South American Republics. 

If these countries really want to attain the importance, 
for which they are fit, it is indispensable that the men who 
govern them should change their tactics, should have 
great minds, be large and generous, and think more of 
the future, and not so much of the present. They cannot do 
better than to follow the examples given to them, by the 
Founders of their Independence, such as Bolivar, Hidalgo, 
Morazan, and many others. 

On the 1st of May, 1858, a treaty was signed between 
Mr. Thomas Martinez, President of the Republic of 
Nicaragua, Mr. Juan Rafael Mora, President of the 
Republic of Costa Rica, and Mr. Felix Belly, Publicist. 



132 NICARAGUA. 

This treaty, containing 28 separate clauses, granted the 
execution and the exploration of a maritime Canal between 
the two Oceans to Mr. Joseph Belly exclusively. 

The principal clauses were, that the length of the con- 
cession was for 99 years, that three miles of land on each 
side of the Canal were granted to the Company, that all the 
mines found, should be the property of the Company, and 
explored according to the laws of the country, that the two 
ports in both Oceans should be free, the Canal opened to all 
flags, at a minimum rate of passage, which was fixed at 8 
shillings per ton and £2 8s. per each person, free passage for 
ten years for the ships of the Company, no taxes whatever 
on the properties of the Company for twenty years, etc., etc. 

For the two Republics, it was agreed that eight per cent, 
of the gross receipts should be paid and divided between them, 
and that the two Republics guaranteed the Company and their 
agents from all attacks, and would build a first-class light- 
house on each side of the Canal, etc., etc. Although Mr. 
Felix Belly, by issuing several interesting publications, and 
otherwise, did all that he could to obtain the co-operation of 
French capitalists, he did not succeed, and after several 
attempts, and surveys, he was obliged to desist in this enter- 
prise in 1 86 1. 

In 1867, he published a very interesting book in two 
volumes entitled, "A travers l'Amérique centrale, Le 
Nicaragua et le Canal Interocéanique, in which he explains 
ail the difficulties and chicanery from which he had to suffer 
at the time. 

After Mr. Belly, several other Companies were formed, 
but they had the same fate. 

Now we come to the last, known as The Maritime Canal 
Company of Nicaragua, incorporated by an Act of the Senate 
and House of Representatives of the United States of America, 
in Congress assembled ; Approved February 20th, 1889. 

The Committee of Direction was composed in 1889 of: 

Hiram Hitchcock, President. 

Chas. P. Daly, Vice-President. 

Frederick Billings, Chairman Executive Committee. 

Thos. B. Atkins, Secretary and Treasurer. 

A. G. Menocal, Engineer. 

Mr. Ford, Engineer, was the special Delegate of the 
Company at the Paris International Exhibition of 1889. 

Everyone will remember the interesting model of the 
Canal exhibited in the Nicaragua Pavilion, under the special 



MARITIME CANAL COMPANY OF NICARAGUA. 133 

care of Mr. Ford, who was always willing to give all necessary 
information to the public. Here is a copy of the prospectus 
issued and distributed to the visitors at the Paris International 
Exhibition. 

THE NICARAGUA CANAL. 

" This Maritime Canal, for the largest ships, is being 
constructed through the territory of the Republic of Nicaragua. 
In part it borders upon the Republic of Costa Rica. It 
traverses the lowest depression of land in the Cordillera, 
between the Arctic Ocean and Cape Horn. This depression 
is occupied by a large inland sea of fresh water, called Lake 
Nicaragua, and by its outlet the San Juan River. The western 
border of the lake is within twelve miles of the Pacific Coast, 
from which it is separated by a low divide of forty-two feet. 
The surface of the Lake is one hundred and ten feet above 
the level of the sea. The lake drains towards the Atlantic 
into the Carribean Sea, through the San Juan River. This 
great natural feature is to be utilized in the proposed Canal. 
The lake is one hundred miles long, has an average width of 
forty-five miles, and a variable depth, reaching in some places 
one hundred and fifty feet. The San Juan River is already 
navigable for river and lake craft throughout most of its 
length. 

The details of work to be done are, roughly, a 
breakwater at Greytown, on the Carribean Sea, dredging 
thence to the westward ten miles through alluvial ground, 
then a lock of thirty-one feet lift. At two miles beyond, there 
will be a second lock, or double lock of the combined lift of 
seventy-five feet, and a dam across the small stream Deseado, 
above which will be a basin affording four-and-a-half miles of 
free navigation in the valleys of two small rivers, the San 
Francisco and the Machado. Here the water will be raised 
by dams and embankments, and the basins will connect 
directly with the San Juan River, above a large dam across 
that river, which will raise the surface level in the river and 
lake and secure additional free navigation of sixty-four-and-a- 
half miles in the river, and fifty-six-and-a-half miles across the 
lake. On the western side of the lake the Canal enters a cut 
of slight depth in the earth and rock, nine miles long, issuing 
thence into the Tola basin, with five-and-a-half miles of free 
navigation, obtained by damming the small stream, the Rio 
Grande. At this dam a series of locks lowers the level 
eighty-five feet, and the Canal proceeds in excavation down 



134 NIGARACUA. 

the valley of the Rio Grande, a distance of two miles, to the 
last lock, a tidal lock of twenty to thirty feet lift, below which 
the Canal enters the upper portion of the harbour of Brito, 
one-and-a-half miles from the Pacific Ocean. 

The location of the Canal is the result of thorough and 
minute examination of the region which it traverses, and of 
due consideration of recent surveys. 

The total length of the route from Ocean to Ocean is one 
hundred and seventy miles, divided as follows : — 

Canal in excavation, east side ... 16 miles 
Canal in excavation, west side ... n^ miles 
Six Locks ... ... ... \ mile 



Total .. ... ... 28 miles 

Basin of Deseado ... ... 4J miles 

Basin of San Francisco ... ... 11J miles 

Basin of Tola ... ... ... 5Ï miles 



Total navigation in basin 21 miles 

Free navigation in River San Juan 64J miles 
Free navigation in Lake Nicaragua 56^ miles 

Total free navigation ... 121 miles 

Total from Atlantic to Pacific 170 miles 

With the exception of the rock cuts in the eastern and 
western divides, the Canal in excavation will be at all points 
wide enough for two ships to travel in opposite directions. 
Through the basins and in the lake and River San Juan 
vessels can pass each other and navigate with entire freedom. 

The traffic of the Canal will be limited only by the time 
required to pass a lock. On the basis of 45 minutes as the 
time consumed in the operation, and that but one vessel will 
pass in each lockage, the number of vessels which may pass 
through the Canal in one day is calculated at 32 or in one 
year, 11,680, which based on the average tonnage of vessels 
going through the Suez Canal, will give an annual capacity 
for traffic of over 20,000,000 tons. The locks, however, are 
650 feet long and 70 feet wide in the chamber, and two 
vessels, each of 2,000 tons displacement can be passed in 
one lockage, thus materially increasing the estimated 
capacity. The minimum depth of water throughout the 
Canal will be 30 feet. 



MARITIME CANAL COMPANY OF NICARAGUA. 135 

The lowest flow of the lake in the dry season is 11,390 
cubic feet per second. Its average discharge is 14,724 cu^ic 
feet per second, or in one day 1,272,530,600 cubic feet. 
The water required for 32 lockages in one day is 127,400,000 
cubic feet : consequently the lake supply alone is ten times 
the maximum wanted for the operations of the Canal. 

The time consumed in passing from Ocean to Ocean by 
steamers, is estimated at 28 hours, which includes one hour 
and twenty minutes for possible detentions in narrow cuts." 

To this day, the Maritime Canal Company of Nicaragua, 
has made many surveys, and I think that excavations have 
been commenced at several places, but the result has been 
of little importance. 

On the 21st of February, 1891, there was a debate in 
the Senate at Washington on the Nicaragua Canal Bill. 
Some Senators spoke in favour, others against, and the 
Senate ultimately adjourned without having come to any 
decision regarding the Bill. 

It was estimated that the Canal could be made at a cost 
of 100,000,000 dollars, or £25,000,000 ; but in my Journal 
the Hmnming Bird, Vol. 1, page 30, I say that I am not of 
that opinion, and that the opening of the Nicaragua Canal 
will cost just as much as that of the Panama Canal and 
probably more. 

I am still of the same opinion. 

In 1892, their was another debate in the Senate at 
Washington about the Nicaragua Canal Bill. The pro- 
moters asked from the Government of the United States to 
guarantee a minimum interest of three per cent, I believe, on 
all the capital subscribed, during the completion of the work, 
but again the Senate adjourned without having come to any 
decision. 

I do not know what will be the next move ; but I am 
always of the same opinion as already expressed in the 
Humming Bird, that one day or another, not far distant, 
not only the Nicaragua Canal will be opened ; but also the 
Panama Canal. In a very short time the opening of both 
of them will be an absolute necessity, and both will rank 
amongst the most magnificent and most remunerative works 
of the Twentieth Century. 

From the beginning, I have been in favour of the 
Nicaragua Canal, and in the Geogrophical Congress of Paris, 
1878, at which I assisted as a Member of the Congress and 
as the Delegate of the Republic of Guatemala, I supported 



136 NICARAGUA. 

the opening of the Nicaragua Canal, in preference to that of 
Panama ; but it was not so much because I considered the 
difficulties of the undertaking to be less, but more especially 
for philanthropic purposes, my belief being that loss of life 
would be less in Nicaragua than in Panama, in consequence 
of the better resources of Nicaragua with regard to all the 
commodities of life. 

Having resided in both countries, I was able to form an 
opinion on the subject, and I regretted very much at the time, 
that the majority of the Delegates of the International Con- 
gress held in Paris in 1879, did not vote for that route. But 
as I said in the Hum?ning Bird, January, 1892, and in other 
notices which I wrote on the Panama Canal, now that this 
last one is already half done, it would be better to complete 
the Panama Canal first, and to begin the Nicaragua Canal 
soon after the opening of the former, because twenty or 
thirty years hence, I doubt whether even if the two Canals 
will be adequate to the traffic of that time. 

Furthermore, it is absolutely necessary that all nations 
should leave behind all idea of monopoly on these routes and 
abandon their keen competition about it. Such enterprises 
must be quite international, the work of all the nations 
grouped together hand in hand, and contributing, each one, 
according to its means, to the realization of this gigantic and 
admirable work of men, which once opened will be a great 
factor to the future and greatness of the world at large. 

It is also imperative that the Republics of Colombia, 
Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, should renounce entirely to 
their exigencies. The members of the Governments of 
these countries must give all facilities and help the Com- 
panies in every way. They must think of the great future 
of their countries, which depend greatly on the success of 
these grand undertakings. 

I conclude with that part of the message of President 
Harrison about Nicaragua, sent and read in the Congress 
of the United States on the 6th of December, 1892, 
and with that of President Cleveland read at the opening 
of the Session of 1893. 

THE NICARAGUA CANAL. 

"The President then repeats with great earnestness 
his recommendation that prompt and adequate support should 
be given to the American company engaged in constructing 
the Nicaragua Canal. It is, in his opinion, impossible to 



MARITIME CANAL COMPANY' OF NICARAGUA. 137 

overstate the value of this enterprise from every standpoint, 
and he hopes that there may be time even in the present 
Congress to give it an impetus which will ensure the early 
completion of the work and secure to the United States 
their proper relations to the enterprise when it is com- 
pleted." 

In the message presented by President Cleveland to 
Congress on the 4th of December, 1893, there is a passage 
concerning the Nicaragua Canal, which seems to indicate 
that the American Government is willing to give a helping 
hand to the Promoters of the Nicaragua Canal Company. 
If the measures proposed by President Cleveland pass, there 
are some probabilities that the completion of the Nicaragua 
Canal may take place before that of the Panama. 

I hope that this news will stimulate somewhat all persons 
interested in the Panama Canal, and that means will be soon 
found permitting to continue the works, so as to be able to 
complete and open the two Canals at the same time, the one 
being the completion of the other. 



138 GRANADA. 



CHAPTER XIII. 




GRANADA. 

Departure from Granada — The Lake — River San Juan — San Juan del 
Norte — Sailing from San Juan del Norte — At Sea — Arrival in New 
York — New York in 1853- 1854 — International Exhibition of New 
York — Adelina Patti — Natural History of New York — Humming 
Birds — The English Sparrow — Population — Climate — Industry 
Commerce. 

EFORE leaving Granada, I may say a few words about 
its inhabitants. I found them always sociable and 
sympathetic to strangers. Once admitted in a family, you 
could depend on a hearty welcome, and soon was considered 
as one of the family. Distractions being scarce, it was the 
custom to make frequent visits one to another, principally at 
night. Chocolate and cigarettes were usually offered to the 
guests in the course of these visits. It is there that I saw, for 
the first time, ladies smoking cigarettes. Among the people, 
who were a mixture of Indians and Negroes, with all their 
half-breeds, women used to smoke cigars. 

One of the most extraordinary objects which attracted 
my attention during the passage of a religious procession was 
to see Jesus Christ represented black. The majority of the 
inhabitants being of that colour, hence the probable reason of 
such a thing. 

On the 1 8th of May, 1853, I embarked in a large boat 
waiting for me on the lake. Excepting a small covering of 
palm leaves, erected at the back part of the boat, it was open 
on all sides. It was crammed with goods, forming an elevated 
floor. On each side was a large board on which the water- 
men walked, when pushing the boat with palancas (long 
poles). The boat was manoeuvred by ten rowers and one at 
the helm, all of them black and totally naked. 

On that day, they only rowed to some small islands close 
by, where they usually make their provisions of plantains, 
which is their principal and sometimes sole food. 

The plantations were in the midst of the primeval forests 
which cover these islands. It was a grand sight, quite 



GARAPATAS. 1 39 

animated by an extraordinary number of birds and mammals 
— chiefly parrots and monkeys. We saw many howling mon- 
keys, and killed two of them. 

But in doing so, I was invaded by thousands of 
garapatas, an insect classified among the Arachnidae, or 
spiders. They were of two sorts, one brownish very large, 
and another reddish, so minute that it could hardly be seen. 
I got rid of the large ones easily, but I was not so fortunate 
with the others, so that with the mosquitoes which were very 
numerous, I passed one of the most wretched nights possible. 

These garapatas are flat, and introduce themselves in 
all parts of your body, incrusting their mandibles in your 
flesh, and remain there until they are fully grown. Then 
they leave, but meanwhile they literally devour you, causing 
all the time an insupportable itching. 

I did not get entirely free of them until on board of the 
steamer on which I embarked for New York. 

The men went on land and made themselves happy, 
drinking spirits. 

I did not see them until the next day at twelve, and it 
was half-past two when we really started on our voyage. 
For a time we sailed amongst the islands. It was a scene of 
the most magnificent beauty. Animal life was exuberant. 
Birds, monkeys, crocodiles, fishes, could be seen in plenty 
on all sides. Showers were frequent but short. Our men 
were so lazy, that when unfortunately there was no wind, we 
scarcely advanced at all. We kept close to the shore, and 
we stopped every day at breakfast and dinner time. After 
dinner they remained for hours basking in the sun. 

On the fifth day, one of them fell ill, and we were obliged 
to leave him in a small village. Another, with a bad leg, 
was also left there. Now the eight remaining, did not want 
to go on, and refused to move. It was only after having lost 
one day, and paid them £2 extra, that I induced them to go 
as far as the Castillo, the fort of San Carlos, which com- 
mands the entrances of the River San Juan and the Lake. 
Besides the fort, there were scarcely thirty houses, all of them 
built on the margin of the lake. It is a very picturesque 
site. I landed and made a visit to the Commandant of the 
fort, who was a very nice man. I told him about my men 
refusing to go forward. He had the kindness to settle that 
matter, and to supply me with two soldiers. From that 
moment all went well. We left San Carlos at one p.m., 
the men had scarcely anything to do, the current was strong 



140 NICARAGUA. 

and propelled the boat at an average of three miles per 
hour. 

The margins of the river, for a long while, are charming. 
It was a repetition of what I saw from San Juan del Sur 
to la Virgen, but even more picturesque on account of the 
river. For miles and miles the river flows on through 
primeval forests, rich in beauty and ever changing variety. 
Eye and ear are alike charmed by the luxuriant foliage of 
the trees, creepers, orchids, and many other parasitical 
plants. 

Numerous animals give much animation to the beautiful 
scenery, many coloured birds fly about, flocks of parrots 
scream with all their might, monkeys of several kinds chatter 
or gambol in the trees, some of them are so fearless, that they 
stand quite close, looking at you when passing by. I was 
very much amused with an incident which took place at the 
time. So many monkeys were standing on the same branch, 
that when we passed, in the hurry of their flight, the branch 
broke, and nearly all of them fell in the water, but they easily 
swam back on land, none the worse for their involuntary bath, 
except for a piteous appearance. 

Crocodiles are quite numerous, swimming lazily in the 
river, scarcely showing the end of their nose above the water, 
others basking in the sun on the margins of the river, not 
deigning to move at our approach. They had the appearance 
of fallen trunks. I had several shots at them, but without the 
least effect. They scarcely moved at all. I recommend the 
River San Juan to industrials in search of crocodile hides. 
At a very small cost, they could establish nurseries of these 
animals, and make money. Besides the crocodiles hides, they 
could also gather large quantities of Iguanas, a. large species 
of lizard, over one yard in length from end to end, also much 
used for industrial purposes. The Iguana is a very peaceful 
animal, usually seen on the branches of the trees on the 
banks of rivers. They remain quite still at the same place 
for hours. They are usually green or brown sprinkled with 
dark spots. They are quite harmless, and can be easily 
domesticated. They feed on insects ; they are oviparous and lay 
a large number of soft eggs, which, when boiled, are very good 
eating. They contain scarcely any albumen. The flesh is also 
very good to eat, and I made many good meals with them. 
Jaguar and Puma (Felis onca and concolor), Danta (Tapirus 
dowi), Jabali (Dicotyles labiatus), a kind of small wild boar 
Venado (Cariacus rufinus), Cotuza (Dasyprocta punctata), 



DANTA OR TAPIR. 141 

and a quantity of squirrels (Sciurus) inhabit the forests of the 
River San Juan and were occasionally seen. 

The Danta, or Tapir, is one of the most curious animals 
found in Central and South America. It belongs to the order 
Ungulata, or Hoofed Animals, sub order Perissodactyla, 
closely allied to the Elephant and still more to the Rhinoceros. 
It is an antideluvial form. The fossil species which have 
been found in different parts of the world scarcely differ from 
the living species known. These animals are characterized 
by having the muzzle prolonged into a small mobile trunk, a 
very short tail, three pairs of cutting teeth, and one pair of 
small canines. They have four toes on the anterior and three 
on the posterior feet. They are swamp-loving animals, 
excellent swimmers and divers. The species found in 
Nicaragua, Tapir us dowi, dedicated to the well-known 
Captain Dow, is very closely allied to Tapirus bairdi, found 
in Mexico and in Central America. It is about three-and-a- 
half feet long. The skin is very thick, and covered with a 
scanty coat of very short hair. The colour is uniform dark 
gray. It inhabits the inmost recess of forests. It is a 
powerful animal, and a good match to the Jaguar. It lives on 
vegetable matter, fruits, etc. When young it is easily domes- 
ticated. The flesh somewhat resembles that of the bull, and 
the skin can be used for many industrial purposes. 

If it were not for the mosquitoes and garapatas, a trip 
along the River San Juan could be remembered as one of the 
most delightful and pleasant excursion in the Tropics. Next 
to the unpleasantness of these insects, there are the risks to 
which you are exposed in consequence of the dangerous 
currents of the river, especially at the rapids, where the river 
is densely besprinkled with rocks, leaving only a narrow and 
dangerous passage for boats. 

Eight of these rapids have to be passed from San Car/os 
to San Juan del Norte. The first, and one of the worst, lies 
close to another fort, also called El Castillo, where a small 
village has sprung up since the starting of the American 
Company from New York to San Francisco. 

When we arrived at that village, an American steamer 
was there expecting the passengers from San Juan del Sur. 
In consequence of these rapids the passengers have to be 
transhipped here to smaller steamers, and are sometimes kept 
waiting two or three days. 

The Castillo is on the summit of a pyramidal hill. It 
was built by the Spaniards soon after the conquest of the 



142 GRANADA. 

country. In 1747 it was thoroughly repaired. The site is 
well selected and fully commands the river. It is the 
celebrated place carried off by NELSON, in 1780, when 
Commandant of the Hichinbrook. With the troopscommanded 
by Colonel Poison, he attacked the Spaniards, and took 
possession of the fort. The garrison made a stout and 
valliant resistance, but were soon compelled to surrender. 

NELSON remained there several months, and lost nearly 
all his men from sickness, and he had himself a very narrow 
escape. In 1781 the place was evacuated. 

The outside of the fort had a good appearance, but 
nearly all the inside was completely ruined, and was trans- 
formed into a small forest, all available spaces being occupied 
with trees and bushes. However, a small garrison occupied 
part of it. 

We passed successfully all the rapids, and on our way 
saw many wrecks ; among them, one of the American 
steamers, lost only a few days before. It was one of the two 
running between El Castillo and San Juan del Norte. 

About three miles from the Castillo, we passed the small 
island Bertola, on which, remains of fortifications could be 
seen. The fort which existed on this island was the first 
taken by Nelson in 1780. On this island were buried the 
English, who died from the results of the war or from sickness. 
At a short distance from Bertola are the rapids of Machuca, 
one of the most dangerous. It was here that the American 
steamer was stranded. 

The River San Juan, with its shoals of gravel, its rapids, 
rocks, and its numerous islands, which in many places scarcely 
leave a passage for boats or vessels, can be considered as very 
dangerous, and it is always a matter of congratulation when 
this voyage can be made without accident. At the end of 
our second day, from San Carlos, we arrived at San Juan 
del Norte. We had been twelve days on our way from 
Granada, a voyage usually made in six. So I was glad to see 
the end of it. 

I stopped at an hotel kept by an Italian, at a cost of 
eight shillings per day, for board and lodging. San Juan del 
Norte, or Greytown, was at that time the centre of a great 
activity in consequence of the International transit. From 
twelve to twenty ships were usually anchored in the bay, 
which is fine, but very badly protected from the winds. 
Nevertheless, being at that time the only port on the Atlantic, 
and its peculiar position as the head of a railway or a canal,. 



SAN JUAN DEL NORTE. 143 

it had a far greater importance than could be attributed to it 
from what I saw of the town. 

Since 1848, it had been occupied by an English agent, 
acting and governing the country in the name of the King of 
the Mosquito Indians. Two English warships remained 
permanently here. 

The town consisted of about two hundred houses and 
huts inhabited by several hundred people of all colours, blacks 
and mulattoes being the most conspicuous. Several hotels 
had been recently built and shops opened, all of them kept 
bv foreigners, chiefly English, American, and Italians. The 
principal governmental appointments were occupied by blacks, 
or mulattoes from Jamaica. 

Duties are paid on all goods landed here. When I 
arrived, the steamer for New York had just gone, so I was 
obliged to remain two weeks in San Juan. 

During that time, I made several excursions in the neigh- 
bourhood ; but I collected very little, because the country is 
flat, damp, and devoid of trees. The best species of birds 
which I secured was a beautiful crimson and dark red tanager, 
Ramphocaelus dimidiatus, which was plentiful. 

At night, the moisture w T as so great, that in the morning 
the soil was soaked as if it had rained hard, and it was dangerous 
to start for hunting excursions before nine a.m. Showers 
were frequent, and in the intervals it was very hot. When 
fine, a sort of northern breeze began to blow about 4 p.m., and 
lasted part of the night. It was rather enjoyable. 

The connection of the Lake of Nicaragua, with the 
Atlantic by the River San Juan, was discovered in 1529, and 
during the last quarter of the Sixteenth Century a consider- 
able commerce w r as carried on, by this route between Granada 
and the Lake Nicaragua, and the cities of Nombre de Dios, 
Carthagena, Havana, and Cadiz. It is probable that the 
establishment of that port, and the construction of the forts 
along the River San Juan were made at that time. In 1665, 
after an invasion of that country by the English, the port of 
San Juan w T as fortified. 

At the end of May, the passengers from San Francisco 
began to arrive and also those from New York, so that the 
place was crowded to excess for a day or two, and on the 3rd 
of June, I embarked on the fine steamer, PROMETHEUS for 
New York, where I arrived on the 15th of June, after a very 
fine passage. On board, I met an American whom I had 
known in San Francisco as a greengrocer. In four years he 

14 



144 NEW YORK. 

had made such a fortune in that trade, that he was able to 
retire from business altogether with a very respectable income. 
On our way, we stopped several hours at Habana, but I shall 
leave the history of that pearl of the Islands, for another 
occasion, when I visited the town and its neighbourhood. 

NEW YORK. 

I entered the magnificent port of New York, on the 15th 
of June, 1853. Entering from the Atlantic Ocean, you cannot 
be less than struck by the peculiar manner of the formation 
of the bay. On each side of this admirable bay there is 
a large and fertile Island. Long Island on the right, and 
Staten Island, on the left. After having passed the Narrows, 
where the distance between the two is narrow, the coasts 
widen suddenly, and give access to a large and deep sheet of 
water, which could contain easily all the vessels of the world. 
This is the port of New York. This magnificent position has 
greatly contributed to the rapid growth of the Imperial city. 

New York itself is built on the Island of Manhattan, and 
a portion of the mainland. 

I remained in New York from the 15th of June, 1852, to 
the 1 2th of July, 1854. 

New York, the chief city of the United States is located 
at the mouth of the Hudson River in the southern part of the 
State of New York, and the city occupies the county of the 
same name. It is bounded on the south by New York Bay, 
on the west by the Hudson River, on the north by the city 
of Yonkers, and on the east by the river Broux. Spuyten 
Duyvil Creek and Harlem River divide the City into two un- 
equal portions, and make the northern boundary of Manhattan 
Island. The city is 16 miles long, and varies in width from a 
few hundred yards to 4^ miles on the north part. Its area is 
about 41-^ square miles or 26,500 acres, of which 12,100 are 
on the mainland. Its location is both beautiful, healthful, and 
very advantageous to commerce. Its large and commodious 
bay, the Hudson River, navigable for 150 miles, the neigh- 
bouring sea, and the diversified country about it, contribute to 
its attractiveness, while its varied surface and extensive 
water front conduce to its general healthfulness. Its position 
in the centre of the northern part of the coast, makes it a 
natural entrepôt for the Middle States. The Erie Canal and 
several lines of railroads place the city within reach of the 
great West, and on the East, New England joins the city. 
The State and city of New Jersey fringe the opposite bank of 



NEW YORK. 145 

the Hudson, and along the east, the city of Brooklyn and its 
neighbouring towns form a continuous city upon the eastern 
side. A few years ago, was completed the gigantic and 
wonderful bridge connecting Brooklyn with New York. From 
the Battery, which formerly was a very fine promenade, the 
view of the Bay, the Islands, Brooklyn, Staten Island, Jersey 
City, and the entrance of Hudson River present one of the 
most animated and beautiful pictures to be found. The upper 
part of the city lies opposite the Palisades, and is remarkable 
for its rural and picturesque scenery. The lower part, from the 
Batterv for about three miles north, is rolling and sandy. It 
then rises slightly and becomes rocky. At Central Park, 
near the centre of the city now, but outside it in 1853, it rises 
into broken hills, and nortrnvard along the river, the land rises 
to a height of 238 feet at Washington Heights. 

Above the island the land is hilly and rough. The lower 
part of the city has been much altered by filling and grading, 
and the original width has been materially increased by filling 
in the river on both sides. The city is compactly built up to 
59th street, at the southern end of Central Park, and on the 
east of the park, it extends some three-and-a-half miles 
further to the Harlem River. All the villages on the north 
and west sides are now included in the city, which is so 
rapidly spreading up that it promises to be one of the largest 
and most populous in the w T orld. Indeed, few cities in the 
world can vie with New York in the beauty and convenience 
of its site. 

The port is defended by the strong fortress of Fort 
Tompkins on the west, and Fort Hamilton on the east, while 
old Fort Lafayette stands in the bay a short distance from the 
shore. At the confluence of the east and Hudson River is 
Governor's Island, distinguished by the circular fortress on its 
northern shore. Piers are numerous, the principal being the 
great pier of Jersey City, where the Cunard line of steamers 
lands its passengers, the Hoboken pier of the Hamburg and 
German lines, and the large piers on the Hudson River, 
where the Inman, White Star, Anchor, National and French 
lines land their passengers. 

To give an idea of the extraordinary development of 

New York, I subjoin several dates which speak for themselves. 

In 1653, the population was 1,120 

J 753 » ,, 10,256 

1800 ,, - Jt 60,000 

1820 ,, „ 123,000 



1 46 NEW YORK. 

1840, the population was 312,000 

1850 „ „ 5*5, 000 

i860 „ ,, 813,000 

1870 „ ,, 942,000 

1880 ,, „ 1,200,000 

1890 ,, ,, 1,500,000 

Very likely it will be over 2,000,000 in 1900, and there are- 
no reasons why it should not continue to accrue in the same 
proportions, during the Twentieth Century. With Brooklyn, 
Jersey City, and Hoboken, which can be considered as parts 
of New York, the population exceeds 3,000,000. New York 
at first spread its streets and avenues in any direction that 
seemed most convenient, and the result was that the lower 
and older part of the city is more or less irregular. But 
when the City began to increase considerably, new streets 
and avenues were laid at right angles, and improved greatly 
the appearance of the City. North and South of the Island, 
there exist twelve fine and long avenues extending its entire 
length. Many others, although smaller, extend from West 
to East. Magnificent buildings have been erected along 
these avenues, and present a very imposing appearance 
which is not surpassed by the finest Boulevards of the princi- 
pal Capitals in Europe. 

The oldest and the most important one is the well-known 
Broadway y one of the finest thoroughfares in the world. It 
runs from the Battery to the Eighth x\venue and the 59th 
Street West. It ends at the Circle and at the Boulevard. Here 
is one of the entrances to Central Park. For nearly its whole 
length it is filled up with magnificent buildings and retail or 
wholesale shops, some of which are splendidly got up, and 
can compete with those of the Boulevards and Rivoli Street 
of Paris. In fact, Broadway is the centre of everything, 
Banks, Theatres, Hotels, Churches, are to be seen all along the 
route. Omnibuses, tramways, and vehicles of all descriptions 
a : re constantly passing by, and the animation which it gives 
to that fine thoroughfare is equal at least to that of Piccadilly, 
Strand, Holborn, and City in London ; but the aspect of 
Broadway is infinitely better than that of these London 
thoroughfares in consequence of its width, which nearly equals 
that of the Paris Boulevards. The footpaths, which are wide, 
are crowded with people, day and night. The shops are very 
fine, the goods well exhibited, and thronged with lookers-on. 
Among the many fine buildings fronting Broadway, I 
shall mention the Post Office, a magnificent building, the 



PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS OF NEW YORK. 147 

largest of the city. It has a frontage of about 260 feet on 
Broadway ; Trinity Church, opposite Wall Street. It has a 
tower 284 feet high, from which visitors can enjoy a very fine 
view; the American Banknote Company, at the corner of 
Liberty Street; the gigantic and splendid palace of ^he 
Western Union Telegraph Company, at the corner of Dey 
Street; St. Paul's Chapel, built in 1766; the City Hall, 
facing the south side of City Hall Park. It is a fine and 
imposing building of the Italian style ; the beautiful and large 
marble building of the New York Life Insurance Company, 
one of the most successful institutions of that class in New 
York ; the sumptuous hotels of San Nicholas and Metro- 
politan, the first on the east, and the second on the west. 
Both are first-class hotels, very large and with marble 
frontages, if my remembrance is correct. I have been staying 
in both. The price was twenty shillings per day, for a single 
room and board, but all first class, and with a very good 
service. Close by, is the Grand Central Hotel, and a host of 
others, just as large and fine, but too numerous to mention 
here. 

Among the commercial houses, I shall mention the New 
York Stock Exchange, in Broad Street, Kemp's Building, 
American Watch Company Building, Lord and Taylor's 
Store, Stewart's Store, an immense iron building, Dey lin and 
Company Store, Sewing Machine Company, Tiffany and 
Company, the well-known firm of jewellery and precious 
stones, Arnold Constable and Company, the great dry goods 
establishment, etc., etc. There are so many more that it is 
quite impossible to mention them in such a limited work. 

The Evening Post and the Staats Zeitung buildings 
are also very fine, and the centre of great activity. 

At 23rd Street, Broadway crosses Fifth Avenue and 
skirts one side of Madison Square, which is well supplied 
with trees and lawns, and one of the most attractive and 
striking features of New York. 

From this point, Broadway continues to the Boulevard 
already mentioned. This Boulevard is a wide avenue con- 
tinuing west of the city, and over the heights of the Hudson 
into Westchester County. 

Before reaching the Boulevard many fine hotels are met 
with, the principal of w T hich, is Steven s Family Hotel, a very 
large establishment, more like a palace than anything else. 
Further on, is the Fifth Avenue Theatre, the Grand Hotel, 
the Wood' s Museum, the Broadway Tabernacle, a very 



148 NEW YORK. 

imposing structure, and lastly the Circle Hotel, which ends 
this remarkable thoroughfare. 

Next to Broadway, the most important street is Fifth 
Avenue, extending over four miles in length, and entirely 
occupied with palatial private residences and hotels, among 
which are the Fifth Avenue Hotel, and the Albermale Hotel, 
frequented by the aristocracy. There are also many line 
churches, art galleries, clubs, music halls, etc., etc. The most 
wealthy families have their costly or palatial residences here. 
That of Mr. A. Stewart is a large and magnificent marble 
palace. 

Among the other fine monuments scattered everywhere in 
the city, I shall mention the Cooper Union, an Institute founded 
by the late Mr. Cooper for the advancement of Science and Art; 
the German Savings Bank Building, the New York College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, the Hippodrome, the Grand 
Ceniral Depot, the Columbia College, the Bible House, the 
Masonic Temple, the Metropolitan Museum of Art at 128 west, 
14th street, founded about 1874, which contains a very fine 
collection of paintings, drawings, works of art, and ethnologi- 
cal objects. In 1875, the Trustees of the Museum bought 
the celebrated collection of Antiquities from the Island of 
Cyprus, known as the Cernolia Collection, from its discover, 
at a cost of $49,360.72 or ^10,000. This interesting and 
magnificent Collection was in London in 1873- 1874. The 
well-known firm of M. M. Feuardent and Company had it 
exhibited at that time in their house in Great Russell-street, 
W.C., where I saw it. Afterwards during a visit that I made 
in New York in 1876, I had the pleasure to see it again in 
tjie Metropolitan Museum, where they made a grand show. 
My friend, the late Mr. Bland, a celebrated Conchiologist, who 
was for many years Assistant Secretary to the Museum, and 
who had assisted in the arrangement of the collection took me 
there, and I spent several agreeable hours in admiring again 
these beautiful statuettes, heads, vases, etc., quite unique in 
their way. 

If I remember well, the British Museum had the first 
refusal of this Collection, and I have always wondered why 
it had not purchased it. Lastly comes the Menagerie, and 
the Natural History Museum of New York in Central Park ; 
the great pleasure ground of New York. Lately, great 
progress have been made in the Menagerie and in the 
Museum, and both are taking a front rank amongst the 
Zoological Gardens and Museums of America. Since the 



CENTRAL PARK. 149 

purchase of the well-known collections of bird skins, made 
by M. M. Elliot and Lawrence, this department is acquiring 
a great reputation among Scientists, and no place could be 
more convenient than its present location in the magnificent 
grounds of Central Park. The site of this park, which on 
my first visit to New York, was one of my hunting grounds 
for collecting Insects, occupies now nearly the centre of the 
city, so it is easy to have an idea of its extension on that 
side since 1853. 

It is impossible to give a full description of all its 
beauties ; but I remember that in my last visit, in 1877, k 
was one of my daily excursions, and I passed many agree- 
able and useful hours in the grounds. 

The length of the park is about two-and-a-half miles by 
half-a-mile width. It contains about 862 acres of lawn, 
garden, wood drives, footpaths, etc., with a very fine lake 
and brook. It takes about half-an-hour to row round 
the lake. 

There are carriages running at frequent intervals round 
the park. It takes about one-hour-and-a-half to make the 
entire circuit, and it costs one shilling. 

There are fifteen miles of carriage roads, eight miles of 
bridle paths for riders, and over twenty-five miles of walk. 

It is extremely picturesque, the engineers having made 
good use of the rough hills and tangled woodland which 
originally stood there. 

By walking, all the sights are better seen, the bridges, 
the belvedere, the cave, the springs, the lake, the hills, all are 
worth seeing. Dairy, Restaurant and Casino have been built 
inside the park, and are very well patronized, as also the 
Carousel, where are swings and all sorts of amusements for 
children. 

One of the peculiar features of New York, which attract 
more especially the attention of the European, are the railways 
running parallel to the streets. They are in New York what 
the Metropolitan underground railways are to London, except- 
ing that the latter ones run underground, while those of New 
York are constructed in the streets at the height of the first 
floor. They are running frequently and always full, and 
they must certainly be an annoyance to the dwellers of the 
houses situated along their route. 

I passed two u Fourths of July," the anniversary of the 
Independence of the United States, in that country. 

If not seen, it is impossible to have any idea of the 



150 NEW YORK. 

animation and excitement occasioned among the people by 
this event. From the end of June to the 4th of July, it can 
be easily seen that something unusual is going to happen. 
Numerous sandwich men are seen in the streets with 
circulars on their backs, informing the public where the best 
flags and crackers can be bought. The sale of these goods 
is fabulous during several days. On all sides are seen men 
and children carrying flags, banners, and crackers. On the 
3rd of July begins the decorations of houses. All the flags of 
the world, but more especially that of the United States, are 
displayed with such profusion that nothing else can be seen. 
From one street to another not a single space remains with- 
out a flag, banners cross the streets from one side to the 
other. It is by hundreds of thousands that they are seen, 
and the houses disappear entirely under this exuberant dis- 
play of flags of all colours. The next thing is the Torch- 
Light Procession, which always takes place on the night of 
the third of July. 

All the windows of the houses are crammed with specta- 
tors, eager to see the procession, and many are those who 
cannot secure a place for that purpose. 

At about 10 p.m. the procession, composed of many 
thousands of people, bearing torches, Chinese lanterns of all 
colour and descriptions, flags, banners, etc., begin their march, 
of which the itinerary is known by all, beforehand. 

The procession usually lasts from twelve to one or two 
in the morning, and for hours you see them pass by, 
Societies with their banners and cars, Soldiers, Members of 
Clubs, Citizens of all descriptions, women, children, 
masks, fancy dressed people, including even repre- 
sentatives of wild Indians, all of them with their bands 
of music, follow one another, and all the while Bengal 
fires are lighted in the corners of the streets, pistol shots 
are freely fired, rockets and crackers are fired in all directions, 
without caring where they go, and what mischief they may 
cause. Add to that the continuous vociferations and hurrahs 
of the spectators and of the members of the procession, and 
you will have a feeble idea of what a Torchlight Procession is 
in the United States. Europeans especially Italian and 
French cannot have a better idea of what it is than by sup- 
posing that they assist at a Monster Carnival, with the 
addition of shots, fuses, and crackers fired at random in all 
directions. How many hundred weights are fired in the 
United States during the third and fourth of July every year 



4TH OF JULY AND PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. 151 

would be an interesting problem to solve. Of course many 
accidents always take place at these times ; but that does not 
count for anything. The next celebration will be even more 
animated than the preceding one. 

On the 4th, the celebration is more solemn, at least in 
that part of the town where the official ceremony takes place, 
and to which assists the President of the Republic, the Senators 
and deputies, high dignitaries, the Diplomatic body, and a 
very large number of guests. There is always an address 
read, a prayer said, a lecture of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, poetry recited, speeches made, good music, and 
-everything done according to programme. It is really 
grand and imposing. Meanwhile the citizens continue their 
monster processions through the town, shooting, firing their 
guns and pistols, fuses and crackers, eat, drink, walk, con- 
gratulate themselves, and make such an infernal disturbance 
during the whole day and night, that those who have delicate 
health must be sure to go away from the city a day or two 
before, if they wish to escape madness. 

The day ends with many private and official fireworks, 
illuminations, Bengal fires, and the like. 

In a certain way this celebration of the day of indepen- 
dence is a very good thing. All men require holidays and 
■changes, and what day could have been better chosen than 
this, the day which made them all free. 

During the elections, which take place every four years, 
and lasts several weeks, processions with all sorts of flags and 
banners, with their bands of music, decorations of houses, etc., 
are indulged in as on the fourth of July, with the only 
•difference that sometimes two rival processions meet, and a 
free fight takes place ; but of late it has seldom come to that. 

As soon as the nomination of the President is made, all 
is quiet again, and everyone returns to his occupation. 
Although it is expected that all the offices will be given to 
the supporters of the new President, it is accepted by all as 
an accomplished fact without mental reservation. 

The citizen who was yesterday a President, a Minister, 
a Postmaster, etc., will return to his ordinary occupation, and 
will be replaced by the new one. 

I only wish that in Europe, in Central and in South 
America, and in other parts of the world, all those who 
occupy governmental offices had the same philosophy. 

Fires used to be frequent enough during my stay in New 
York, and have contributed to the formation of several brigades 



152 NEW YORK. 

of Firemen, who are always ready to reply to the call of the 
fire-bell. 

This useful institution consists of Volunteers, who buy, 
not only their uniforms, but also the fire engines with all their 
accessories, and keep them in the very best order. Some of 
their engines are golden outwardly, and shine brightly. 
There is a keen competition between the several brigades to 
display the best horses, best engines, best of everything, and 
this competition is not only seen in these displays, but also 
in their splendid way of extinguishing fires. 

In 1853, there were six distinct companies of firemen, 
all rivals. As soon as the City Hall bell was heard, it was a 
positive contest between all the firemen to be the first in 
bringing their engines to the scene of the fire, and to attack 
it strenuously, and generally with success. 

This rivalry between the firemen in such circumstances 
is a fact worth imitating in other countries. In 1853 they had 
no horses, so they had to drag the fire engines on foot. 

In the greatest heat of the summer, or in the bitterest 
cold of the winter, you could see them always running and 
dragging their machines at a prodigious speed. The only 
distinction in their costume was a woollen red shirt, and a 
broad, varnished tin helmet. It was a point of honour between 
the various Companies to arrive first on the scene of the 
fire and to extinguish the same before the others arrived. 

At night, the sight of the firemen is worth seeing. Each 
company is preceded by several tall fellows bearing lighted 
torches. One in the middle has in his hand a large speaking 
trumpet, with which he continually encourages the men by 
energetic shouts of '■ Go-ahead! Go-ahead ! " which at the same 
time serves as a warning to the crowd to keep the place clear. 

The running of these red costumed men drawing their 
engines at full speed, the lighted torches, the blowing of the 
trumpet, and the vociferous cries of Fire ! Fire ! by the 
crowd who run behind the firemen, the fire itself, the whole 
thing has an extraordinary aspect well worth seeing. 

The crowds as a rule are very well regulated, and, if 
necessary, help as much as it is in their power to do ; and 
as soon as the conflagration has been put out, many are 
the hurrahs in favour of those who have distinguished 
themselves. 

If salvage of people has taken place, those who have 
done these more or less heroic actions are applauded in the 
most vigorous manner, and in all the morning papers their 



THEATRES, COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. 153 

praises and names appear in big letters and they are the 
heroes of the day. 

Of course these institutions are supported by many 
philanthropists, and gifts of all descriptions are occasionally 
sent to them. They are very useful bodies of men, and it 
is considered a great honour to belong to one of them. 

Of places of amusement, there are about forty between 
Theatres, Music Halls, Hippodromes and others, the princi- 
pal being the Grand Opera House, Fifth Avenue, Lyceum, 
Metropolitan, Olympia, Niblo's Theatres, etc. The Niblo's 
Theatre is attached to the Metropolitan Hotel, so that you 
can go from one to the other without going out. The last 
time that I was in New York, I went there and saw a very good 
comedy, entitled " Our Poor ; or the Poor of New York." 

It is needless to say that Americans are very fond of 
theatres, and they manage to attract in their country all the 
artistic stars, which they pay liberally. Patti, Irving, and 
many other artistic celebrities have made long stays in the 
United States. Americans are also very fond of lectures, 
and a good lecturer is certain to make a rich harvest. 

One of those who has been very successful that way is 
the celebrated du Chaillu, the well-known African Explorer. 

They are also great readers of newspapers, and all sorts 
of literary works. The large number of daily, weekly, and 
monthly papers that are printed in the United States is quite 
astonishing. In New York alone they exceed one hundred, 
among which are the well-known Evening Post, the Daily 
Express, the Daily Tribune, Daily Times, Daily Sun, and 
the famous New York Herald, so well-known in Europe 
since Mr. Bennett, regardless of cost, sent Stanley in Africa 
with the special mission of finding the great Livingstone. 

As to Commerce and Industry I shall say little, because 
it is a well-known fact that that it is so enormous, that all the 
other nations do not know what to do to keep their supremacy. 
The Americans are so industrious, and so quick in finding the 
merit and utility of new inventions, that no time is lost in the 
manufacture of new machines and their application to 
industry, and they will soon contend successfully with 
similar articles of European make. Even at this moment 
Paris and London stores are crowded with American machines 
of all descriptions. As to natural products, Europe would 
famish if it were not for the corn sent from that country. 

Cotton, sugar, pork, meat, are amongst the principal 
articles of exportation. In consequence of its great area 



154 NEW YORK. 

of territory comprising all the climates, from very hot, as in 
Louisiana and Florida, to the extreme colds of the Northern 
States, America can grow everything in its own territory, 
and can dispense entirely with all the commodities of the rest 
of the world. This is an immense advantage for that 
country. 

In New York, the summers are excessively hot, and 
many are the deaths produced by sunstrokes. In winter 
the cold is sometimes very hard to bear, and lasts 
long ; but nevertheless, the climate may be considered as very 
healthy, especially for persons who inhabit the central and 
northern parts of Europe. 

Its population is cosmopolitan, English, especially Irish, 
German, Italian, Spanish and French, being the more con- 
spicuous. In fact, we may say that the North American 
belongs to a new race, formed by the mingling of nearly 
all the European races, and what is very remarkable, is the 
type of this new race, by which, it can be easily recognised 
anywhere. 

This mingling has produced a robust, active, intelligent 
new race, better fit to resist the struggles of life than the 
old ones. 

Even the first settlers change in manners and 
-character after a stay of some years in that free country. 
Their children are not recognisable, and the second genera- 
tion constitutes the new race. I believe that this is 
due, not only to the distinct mode of living, the different 
climate, but also partly to the institutions of the country, 
which contribute greatly to the development of the active 
faculties. The same thing is going on in Australia ; and I 
am certain that is also due to the same causes. In the old 
European and Asiastic countries, these modifications would 
require a much longer time, which somewhat tends to prove 
that without liberty, the progress and development of the 
active faculties in men is slow. 

The French, Italian, and Spanish usually live near one 
another, the Irish are not very far off, and the Germans have 
also their special quarters, so that it is very amusing, when 
walking about, to hear all the principal European lang- 
uages spoken there. But this lasts only for a time. It 
is true that these parts of New York are always occupied by 
the same representatives of these nationalities, but most of 
them are new arrivals. After a time, if they remain and 
marry in the country, the evolution soon takes place, and they 



EMIGRANTS. 155. 

become Americans. It is all these people who have made 
the United States what it is, one of the first countries of 
the world, and it is for that reason that I believe that it is 
wrong to stop the emigration of Irish, Italians, or others as 
they have done lately. You can never know if amongst these 
paupers of to-day, may not be present some members who, 
at a given time, will contribute to the greatness and prosperity 
of their adopted country. 

The United States possesses immense territories, where 
hundred of millions can live easily. Therefore it would be 
much more rational that the American people, some of whose 
ancestors were in no better position, when they arrived in 
that wonderful country, than the new emigrants, should assist in 
every way in their power, with money and otherwise, all those 
who emigrate to their countrv. It is a sort of merchandise which 
has no market value, and when wanted, it cannot be had at 
any price ; the Central and South American Republics would 
give much for such a supply of voluntary emigrants in their 
countries. The fact alone of having selected the United States 
as the place of their migration speaks in their favour. If they 
have done so, it is because of the great fame that the United 
States have in Europe. They consider it as the free country 
open to all. 

Possibly among these pauper emigrants may be found 
some bad seeds of no value to the country, but they are sure 
to disappear quickly, and only useful members will remain. 

In a country like the United States bad seeds cannot 
prosper, the competition is too keen, and only the more active 
and industrious succeed. 

If I am permitted to give my humble advice to the great 
country, I shall say to its inhabitants : — 

Do not make any distinction between rich emigrants or 
paupers who select your country as their own. Receive them 
all alike and with kindness. The rich ones, help them with 
your experience ; the poor ones, help them with money and 
clothes. Send them to the West, grant them lands, supply 
them with all the requisites necessary for them and their 
families, to keep their lives and spirits in good condition, until 
they can subsist by themselves. By so doing, you will benefit 
them and yourselves. In due time, these families, in one way 
or another, will repay you fully the kindness lavished upon 
them, will become faithful American citizens, and will 
contribute to the further development of your grand country. 

Another advice, which I shall take the liberty to give to 



156 NEW YORK. 

the North Americans, and to all others who may care for it, 
is that Free Trade ought to be the motto of all its inhabitants. 

Excepting Spirits, Tobacco and Cards, or the like, which 
ought to produce enough to defray all the expenses necessary 
to the development of the country, and for maintaining 
internal peace and order, all the rest ought to be FREE. Even 
Justice ought to be free, the salaries of Judges, Barris- 
ters, and others, paid from the revenues produced by the 
three above-mentioned dutiable articles.- 

Everything free, excepting those three articles, which 
are luxuries, and from which all the sums required for the 
administration of the Government ought to come. // is a 
trial well worth making, by the great American nation. 

I am perfectly certain that all those who smoke, drink, or 
gamble, would submit to the change with good grace. Even 
if the price of these commodities was forcibly raised, these 
persons would still be benefited by it ; because if the sale of 
these commodities was made by agents of the Government 
they would be more certain to get a better quality for their 
money, than what they get at the present moment. 

There is also another American question of great 
interest ; that of the Indians, the former possessors of the 
soil. I think that all means ought to be taken for the 
education and preservation of what remains of this interest- 
ing race of people. By experience I know that these pure 
Indians possess many good qualities, and if instruction was 
freely given to them, it is probable that they could fill with 
honour and merit the most exalted positions. Benito Juarez, 
a pure Indian, born in Istlan or Villa Juarez, a small 
mountainous town at about thirty miles from Oaxaca, from 
pure Indian parents, can be cited as an example. Don 
Porfirio Diaz, the clever President of the Republic of 
Mexico, is another. Mejia, the celebrated faithful General of 
Maximilian, was a pure Indian. Hundreds more of eminent 
men, dead or alive could be mentioned ; but these three are 
sufficient, and no reasons exist why a great many more of 
them should not turn out so. Therefore, as I said before, 
everything ought to be done to educate the children of these 
Indians at the cost of the country, for their benefit, as well as 
for that of the country. 

Now I shall leave these digressions, and return to my 
general subject, that of New York. 

What attracted my attention in that city, was the large 
number of Bar rooms which exist in all parts of the city. I 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1854. 157 

was quite surprised to see that in all these places, many- 
dishes containing bread, cheese, pickles, and other articles of 
food were placed on the counter. 

I saw the people freely partaking of them without any 
payment asked. I inquired how it was, and the reply was 
that it was the general custom to do so, and that it was a lure 
to excite customers to drink. Nevertheless many had the 
habit to have a good lunch at a cost of a few pence, for the 
glass of beer or whiskey in which they indulged at the 
time, and I thought that it was not such a bad thing for 
the poor. 

In 1854, there was a Great International Exhibition in 
New York. If I remember well, the Exhibition took place in 
a fine Crystal Palace somewhere, where now stands CENTRAL 
Park. I have still in my possession a water colour of 
the Palace. Many times I went there. The price was 
fifty cents. Being the first International Exhibition that 
I saw, I w r as much delighted with the innumerable good 
works of arts and industry which I saw there. The machines, 
which were also very numerous, attracted my attention. 
Many new ones were exhibited. One of them, a miniature 
electric boat, exhibited by a Frenchman, Mr. Verges, was one 
of the greatest attractions. It was exhibited in the middle of 
a small artificial lake, and every day the inventor worked his 
model round the lake as long as he wished. It was con- 
sidered a great success, and I believe that a Company was 
formed for the building of a real ship, which was done in 
due time ; but the results were not quite satisfactory, and it 
was abandoned. However, the idea has not been lost, and 
electricity is now used as a motor for steamers and for many 
other purposes. The same inventor also established some 
electric baths as a remedy to nervous diseases, but it also 
turned out a failure. 

I visited also the Barnum Museum. At that time it was 
not what it has been afterwards ; but, nevertheless, it was 
very interesting. It contained a large menagerie, collections 
of natural history, Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Insects, and the 
like ; also a fine collection of Chinese curiosities. The price 
of entrance was one shilling. Attached to the Museum was a 
theatre, for which an extra fee had to be paid. 

From that time to his death, Barnum, of celebrated 
memory, augmented his Museum and Menagerie in a re- 
markable manner, and made a large fortune. Several times 
the Museum was burned ; but shortly after a new and larger 



158 NEW YORK. 

one was rebuilt. Everyone in London will surely remember 
his visit to that city. 

I also made the acquaintance in New York of the world- 
renowned celebrated artist, Madame Adelina Path'. At that 
time she was a charming young girl, aged twelve, and 
was already known as a great pianist. She had the fresh 
voice of a nightingale and was very much courted for private 
concerts. Great expectations were expected from her, which 
have been fully realized as everyone knows. 

I had the pleasure to hear her very often, and, of course r 
I appreciated and enjoyed immensely the hours spent in 
her company. Later on, I have enjoyed many charming soirées 
in Paris and in London, where I saw her in all her principal 
characters, in the Somnambula, Marta, la Traviata, etc., etc. r 
but I never forgot the happy time of our first acquaintance. 

In my several visits to New York, I visited all the 
Museums, I assisted to the meetings of several scientific 
Societies, either at New York or in Brooklyn, and I made 
the acquaintance of many good men. Professor Schaup, 
Entomologist, Mr. C. Bland, Conchiologist, Mr. George 
Lawrence, Ornithologist, Captain Dow, Explorer, Professor 
Baird, and many others, with whom I have passed some 
delightful hours. 

I also made the acquaintance of many dealers in objects 
of natural history, Bell, Wallace, and several others in New 
York, Akhurst, in Brooklyn, Alexander in Hoboken ; and I 
made some valuable purchases in bird's skins and insects in 
their stores. I secured some rare species of birds from 
Ecuador and British Guiana ; also some very rare Coleoptera 
from Columbia. 

In the vicinity of New York I collected many insects 
and a few birds, among which, the beautiful humming-bird, 
Trochilus colubris, a very important species so far, as being 
the one on which the genus, Trochilus, of Linné, is based, 
which has been employed by Naturalists for the family of 
TROCHILIDAE, and which I have also employed for my order 
TROCHILI, for these birds. 

It is a beautiful creature, only 3^ inches in length,, 
bronzy-green on the upper surface, with the chin black,, 
the throat metallic ruby-red, and the rest of underpart white. 
It has been put in five distinct genera, but is now universally 
known as Trochilus colubris ; Red-Throated Humming 
Bird, and Red-Throated Honey Sucker, in English, Rubis, 
Petit Rubis, Petit Rubis de la Caroline, etc., in French Its 
nests are in the neighbourhoods of New York. 



ENGLISH SPARROWS. 159 

In the centre of the city is Union Square, a lawn en- 
closure shaded by trees. Here the great attraction was the 
large number of English sparrows imported a few years before 
1852. These birds have propagated so rapidly, that I think 
they are considered now as a nuisance, but at that time they 
were the pets of the New Yorkers, who had small wooden 
boxes fixed to the trees, for their special use. In several parts 
of the country I have seen similar boxes, but larger, fixed on 
trees, for squirrels. 

Many were the excursions that I made during my stay 
in New York. 

Brooklyn, usually called the City of Churches, was the 
first that I visited. Ferry boats are constanty crossing from 
New York to Brooklyn. It is a matter of several minutes, 
and the cost is one penny. These boats are very large, the 
centre is reserved for cars, carriages, and horses. Two lateral 
galleries with benches run along the sides, and are reserved 
for pedestrians. One of them is reserved for the special use 
of ladies. 

Brooklyn is a large town, which now contains over 
900,000 inhabitants. In 1853 it was the meeting place of the 
Irish, and I have witnessed several fights between many 
thousand of them, and as many Americans. 

» Many churches and cemeteries exist in Brooklyn. The 
United States Navy-yards, Barracks for the Marines, and 
Hospital are also situated here. It is the residence of many 
merchants of the City, also of many Germans and Irish. 
Numerous detached Villas, built in the English fashion, are 
seen in all directions. 

Prospect Park is a fine ground, well laid and much 
frequented. 

Another favourite place where I went fishing, was 
Governor's Island, not far from the Battery. Fort Columbus, 
Castle William, Fort Lafayette, and Fort Richmond are all 
built on this Island, and defend the entry of the bay. 

On the other side of the port, or Hudson River, are the 
two large connected towns of Jersey City and Hoboken,. 
which in 1853 were only small villages. 

Ferry boats take you there in about twelve minutes, and 
start every fifteen minutes. The fares are very cheap, 
averaging one-and-a-half pennies. These annexes of the 
Imperial City are increasing prodigiously, and are beautifully 
laid out. They are great resorts for holiday makers. On 
Sundays, the ferry boats are crowded with passengers. Many 

15 



IÔO NEW YORK. 

other neighbouring places can be reached by these boats : 
Astoria, Bay Ridge, Blackwell's Island, David's Island, 
Greenpoint, Harlem, Hart's Island, Hunter's Point, 
Randall's Island, Staten Island, &c, &-'c. Charming ex- 
cursions can be made in all of them, and the scenery is very 
picturesque, but the best of all, is to ascend Hudson River 
as far as the precipitous rocks known as the Palisades. It is 
a delightful trip. I remember an excursion which I made on 
the river in autumn. It is impossible to describe adequately 
the wonderful aspect of the trees on the margins of the river. 
What a variety of colours, with their foliages, from dark preen 
to gold and silver. When lighted by the sun, the aspect of 
this autumn vegetation is fairy-like. The boats which ascend 
the river are large, comfortable, and magnificent! v ornamented. 
A very good restaurant is installed on board, and supplies 
excellent dinners. Bands of music plav alternately, and 
dances are improvised. In fact, they can boast of all the 
comforts unimaginable for passengers, and I have never seen 
the like in England or in France. 

At night, the aspect of these boats ascending or descend- 
ing the rivers, with all their windows brilliantly lighted, the 
bands of music playing, the young folks dancing, is so 
beautiful, that they leave a most pleasant and never-to-be- 
forgotten impression. • 

From all that precedes, it may be supposed that life is 
very expensive in New York ; but it is not so. Many are the 
second-rate hotels, very good of their kind, kept by French, 
Italian, German, and others, where board and food can be had 
from four to six shillings a day. They are much patronized 
by persons of these nationalities, and are sometimes preferred 
for their cooking to the most expensive. 

Now, if you live in your own house you can do so, at a 
moderate [.rice, provisions of all kinds being usually abundant 
and cheap. You can enjoy all the luxuries of life with about 
the same income as that required in Europe. Some things may 
be somewhat dearer, but it must be remembered that the 
wages are also higher than in Europe. A good workman will 
always command wages from two to four dollars per day. 
One dollar is usually paid to new or inferior workmen. 

In the streets, it is impossible to distinguish a manual 
workman from a lawyer, banker, merchant, or the like. All 
of them dress with frock coats and chimney-pot hats, as they 
are called in London. 

In the offices, or yards, they don their work clothes. 



INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE. l6l 

When their work is clone they leave these in the offices, or 
workshops, wash themselves, and put on their frock coats and 
hats. I do not mean to say that there are no exceptions, but 
then they are new arrivals, passengers, or vagabonds. Of 
these last, many are to be seen in New York as anywhere 
else ; but it is due chiefly to their idleness, and I advise all 
travellers to let them alone. It is not prudent to make any 
acquaintances in the street. 

The aspect of the City on week-days is that of febrile 
activity, resembling somewhat that of the City of London. 
Everyone seems to be very busy, and running more than 
walking. Even in Broadway , the traffic is so dense, that the 
loungers cannot stroll about at will. Now with the men or 
women offering their ware for sale, the cries of the news- 
paper boys, the clerks hurrying on their errands, and not 
caring whom they jostle, it seems as if you were in a City 
inhabited by madmen, and if you do not keep your eves wide 
open, a knock-down, or the loss of some objects of value will 
be probably your fate. 



IÔ2 NORTH AMERICA. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



Is America part of the Atlantis of the Ancients ? — The first 
European Discoverers of that Continent — Prophecy of Tasso 
of the Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus — 
European Expeditions in North America — Discovery of Labrador 
by Sebastien Cabot — John Verrazani, the first Discoverer of 
North Carolina and the harbours of New York and Newport — 
Discovery of Virginia by Captain Philip Amidas and Arthur 
Barlow, acting for Sir Walter Raleigh — Colonization of North 
America by the English. 

S|§S America part of the Continent known by the Ancients 
glfl as Atlantis, or is it a separate Continent? To that 
question it is impossible to reply satisfactorily, and it is also 
very difficult to say if America is a very old Continent, or was 
formed later on, than the one we know, as Europe, Asia, and 
Africa. But many geological facts tend to prove that if 
America is not entitled to be called the Old Continent, it is 
unquestionably as old as the other one, and the name of new 
Continent can only be applied to it, with the meaning, that 
its discovery is relatively new to Europeans, Asiatics, and 
Africans. 

Many are the probabilities that the actual America formed 
part of the Atlantis, or was at least very close to it, and that 
communications existed between the two. 

Many are the suppositions that have been made about 
that wonderful part of the World. 

The Reverend Father Charlevoix thinks that Noé himself 
landed in America. Old Spanish authors were of opinion that 
the fleet, which brought a rich cargo of gold to Palestine in 
the year 996 before Christ, had come direct from the Island 
of Santo Domingo, the same island that Christopher Colon 
discovered in 1592, and which he thought was the Ophir OF 
Solomon. 

Seneca himself, one of the great philosophers among 
the Ancients, in one of his writings, made the following 
remarkable prediction : — 

Venient annis. 

Saecula seris, quibus Oceanus. 

Vincula rerum laxet et ingens. 

Pateat tellus, Typhisque novos. 

Detegat orbes nee sit terris. 

Ultima Thule. . . . (Medea). 



FIRST DISCOVERERS OF AMERICA. 163 

" One day will come, after many centuries, when the 
Ocean, breaking its bonds, Typhis will show to men a new 
universe, then Thule will be no more the last land found in 
the West. . . ." m 

What a singularity that the name Thule, cited by Seneca, 
should coincide so well with the celebrated Tullan, or Tula, 
founded by the great Quetzacoatl of the Mexicans, and 
adored by them as a god after his death. If Seneca meant 
Iceland, by Thule, which is always the traduction given of it, 
it is not less singular that the Islanders have also been con- 
sidered as the first European discoverers and settlers of North 
America, and what is more natural that they should have been 
the builders of that celebrated city of Tullan, or Tula. Now 
the Chinese also claim to be the discoverers of America. One 
of their historians, Vossius, mentions the fact in his writings. 
Nothing more easy, when we consider that they knew the 
compass 150 years before our Era. 

Then, if we come to epochs nearer to us, we have positive 
dates about the voyages made to several parts of North 
America by Leif, son of Erick the Red. This was at the 
beginning of the eleventh century. He and his brothers dis- 
covered several countries, which they named Helluland, 
Markland, and V inland. 

The widow of Thornstein, the third son of Erick the Red, 
married a rich Iceland merchant, and went with him to 
V inland in 1007. 

In 1 1 12, Erick Upsi, was nominated Bishop of Iceland, 
Greenland, and Vinland. 

Up to 1347, constant communications existed between 
these countries, but in consequence of the cholera, which 
reduced the population of Norway from two millions to three 
hundred thousand inhabitants, the emmigration to the new 
countries ceased entirely, and the communications between 
them stopped ; but the tradition of these lands was faithfully 
kept by the Norvegians, as mentioned in the Saga OF 
King Olaus. 

In 1570, Madok, Prince of Wales, son of the King Owen 
Guyneth, after the death of his father, threw up his share of 
succession, made several voyages of discovery, and landed 
in America. He established a colony at ACAZUMIL, supposed 
to be situated somewhere in the north of America. 

In 1390, according to Matthias Quadius and Antonio 
Maginus, two historians of the epoch, Antonio Zeno, a 
patrician of Venetia, is said to have landed in that part of 



1 64 NORTH AMERICA. 

America known as Labrador. It was inhabited by people 
who traded with Greenland and Iceland. They sowed corn 
and made beer. There is a tradition that they had some 
knowledge of the latine tongue, and that several books in 
that language were found in the library of one of their kings. 

The Basques and Bretons have also been considered as 
frequenters of North America at about the same time. 

Now, I quote under, the following stanzas of TASSO, in 
which, speaking of Hercules, he prophesies the discovery of 
America by Christobal Colon : — 

Non oso di tentar l'alto Oceano 

Segno le mete en troppo breve chiostri, 

U ardir ristrinse dell ingegno umano, 

Tempo verra che fian d'Ecole i segni 

Favola vile ai naviganti industri 

Un nom delta Liguria, avra ardimento 

All incognito cor so esporsi in prima. 

Tasso xv. 25, 30-31. 

It is impossible to name Christobal Colon more ex- 
plicitly than this. 

In August, 1492, Christobal Colon embarked at Palos 
(Spain), and on the 12th of September of that year discovered 
Hayti, one of the islands of the Antillae. 

That great discovery, which revolutionized the world, 
was considered of such importance that Spain, Portugal, 
France, England, Holland, and other countries sent numerous 
expeditions to the Continent discovered by Colon, and called 
New World. 

Cabot, Vespuci, Pinzon, Nino, Cortereal, Hogeda, 
Nicuesa, Ancisus, Colmenares, Pedrarias Davila, 
Nunez, Fernandez, Caizedo, Morantes, Igniguez, 
Grifalva, Ponce de Leon, Magaglian, Cortez, Al- 
varado, Quartier, Gutierrez, Pizarro, Almagro, 
Ribald, Forbisher, Drake, Candish, Smith, Raleigh, 
Mahu, Cordes, Hudson, Spilbergen, Corneliszon, 
Lemaire, l'Hermite, Schapenham, Brewer, and many 
others, explored AMERICA, and contributed greatly to our 
knowledge of that Continent. 

Among all these distinguished travellers, SEBASTIEN 
CABOT is the one mentioned by all authors as the first who 
landed on the coast of Labrador (North America), on the 
24th June, 1497 ! but ft must always be remembered that 
Lief Erickson visited that land five hundred years before. 

The claim of England to her North American possessions 



FIRST DISCOVERERS OF AMERICA. 165 

is founded upon Cabot's discoveries. These discoveries of 
Cabot induced the King of Portugal to send an expedition 
of discovery to America. The command was given to 
GASPAR CORTEREAL, from the Azores. This was in 1500. 
Cortereal explored the coast of Labrador. From a second 
voyage, which he made in 1501, he never returned. 

In 1508, a mariner of Dieppe, Aubert, sailed to Newfound- 
land and brought home with him a native of thai country, 
who was presented at the Court of France. 

In 1524, John Verrazani was sent to America by 
Francois 1er. He reached the shores of North Carolina, and 
coasted north to the latitude of fifty degrees, exploring on 
his way the harbours of New YORK and NEWPORT. THERE- 
FORE HE MUST BE CONSIDERED AS THE FIRST DISCOVERER 
OF THAT PART OF AMERICA. 

In 1534, Jacques Cartier, or Quartier, explored the 
coast of Newfoundland. In 1535, he entered the gulf of 
St. Lawrence, and he may be considered as the DISCOVERER 
OF CANADA ; but the first that made an effective settlement 
in that country was SAMUEL CHAMPLAIN. 

The settlement of Nova Scotia was made by Mr. DE 
MONTS, who founded Port Royal. The first expedition to 
Florida was made by PONCE DE LEON, in 15 12. He was 
appointed by the Emperor, Governor of that country. 

After him, Perez DE ORTUBIA, VASQUEZ DE AYLLON, 
Pamphilo de Narvaez, Alvaro Nunez, Ferdinand de 
SOTO, and Tristran DE Luna, also visited Florida. They 
fought many battles with the Indians, and sustained con- 
siderable losses, resulting in the abandonment of the country 
for a considerable period, during which the French made 
repeated attempts to form settlements on the western coast. 
Ribault built the fort of Carolina on the site of Port Royal, 
and found the Indians peaceful and ready to help him. Under 
the reign of the Spanish KiNC, Philipp IL, Pedro Malendez 
de Avila was sent to dispute the possession of Florida to the 
French. He commanded a fleet of eleven vessels and 2600 
men. He sailed from Cadix the 29th of June, 1565, and 
succeeded in recapturing Florida. 

The Spaniards were then the only occupants of American 
soil, but the English had not abandoned their claim, founded 
on the discovery of Cabot. 

In the reign of HENRY VIII. , Mr. Robert Thome, a 
Bristol merchant, left the Thames on the 20th of May, 1527, 
but nothing came out of that expedition. 



l66 NORTH AMERICA. 

In 1536, another gentleman named Hore was not more 
successful. 

In 1553, Sir Hugh Willoughby , commanding three ships, 
sailed for America, but with the exception of the ship com- 
manded by the pilot, Richard Chancellor, they all perished 
miserably from the effects of cold and hunger on a barren and 
uninhabited part of Lapland. 

Richard Chancellor was more fortunate, and reached 
Archangel, from whence he went to Moscow, in Russia, and 
returned to England. 

Forbisher was the next who sailed on the 1 ith of July, 
1576, and reached Labrador, where one of his seamen 
discovered gold accidentally, and was the means of inciting 
the Government and private individuals to undertake new 
voyages of discoveries. 

Forbisher undertook several voyages, more in search of 
gold than for making new discoveries ; but he did not 
succeed. Later on, he accompanied Drake in his expedition 
to America and round the world. 

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert sailed with five ships, 
and reached Newfoundland on the 30th of July. On entering 
St. John, in the Queen's name, he took possession of the 
harbour and two hundred leagues each way, and he established 
a sort of colony there. Then he proceeded on a voyage of 
discovery to the south ; but he never reached England again. 
Near the Azores his small frigate, the Squirrel, and all 
within, were swallowed up by the sea, and never more 
heard of. 

In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh, a relative of Sir Humphrey, 
procured the renewal of the patents conferred to Sir 
Humphrey by Queen Elizabeth, and sent out two ships, 
commanded by Captains Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow, 
for the purpose of discovery. They discovered a new land, 
on the coast of Florida, which was named Virginia, in 
honour of Queen ELIZABETH, and a colony was established 
there, but nothing came of it. 

The next attempt at colonization was made by Captain 
Gilbert in 1602. He reached the northern part of Massachusets. 
He continued southwards and came to a promontory, which 
he named Cape Cod. More south, he arrived at a point which 
he called Gilbert's Point, and he discovered an Island which 
he named Elizabeth' s Island, in which he built a house and 
a fort, leaving twenty men there ; but they soon abandoned 
the place and returned to England. 



EUROPEAN EXPEDITIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 167 

In 1605, the Earl of Southampton and Lord 
Arundel equipped a ship and sent her to New England, 
under the command of Captain George Weymouth. He 
explored the coast from the Penobscot to the Hudson. Not 
far from the mouth of the latter river, he entered a good 
harbour, which was called Pentecost Harbour. He then 
returned to England. 

The colonization of North America by the English com- 
menced in the beginning of the seventeenth century, under 
the reign of James I. Hakluyt, Sir Ferdinand Gorges, Sir 
John Pop ham, and Captain John Smith, were all, and at the 
same time, directing their efforts to the same object. They 
united together, inviting others to join them in petitioning the 
King for a patent to raise a Company for the settlement of 

colonies in Virginia. 
... 
This petition was favourably received, and on the 10th 

of April, 1606, letters patent were issued, granting them all 

the territories in America lying on the sea coast between the 

34th and 45th degrees of latitude. The patentees were 

divided into two companies, the southern comprising Londoners, 

and the northern composed of adventurers from Plymouth 

and Bristol. 

The London Company fitted three small vessels, under 
the command of Captain C. Newport, who sailed on the 19th 
of December, 1606. The squadron, after four months' voyage, 
w T as driven into Chesapeake Bay. Here he discovered and 
named Cape Henry. After coasting about for some time, 
they entered a river, called by the natives Powhatan. They 
made a settlement there, which they called Jamestown, in 
honour of their King. This town is the oldest English settle- 
ment in America. 

Captain Smith, one of the adventurers, a member of the 
Council of Administration, and whose name will ever be 
associated with the establishment of civilized society in 
America, descended from a respectable family of Lincolnshire, 
and was wealthy. Entering upon the direction of affairs 
he fortified Jamestown. Supplies being cut off from England, 
and the savages refusing to supply them with more, he put 
himself at the head of a company of his people and advanced 
into the country. By his affability to the well disposed 
tribes, and by repelling vigorously the others, he obtained 
abundant supplies for the colony. But in the midst of his 
success he was made prisoner, and would have been executed 
by the Indians if it had not been for Pocahontas, the King's 



l68 NORTH AMERICA. 

favourite daughter, who threw her arms round the prisoner 
and declared she would save him or die with him. Smith 
was released and returned to Jamestown. 

After a certain time spent in discoveries and visits in 
every inlet and bay, on both sides of the Chesapeake, from 
Cape Charles to the river Susquehannah, he came back, 
bringing an ample and accurate account of his researches, and 
a map which has been the groundwork of all posterior ones. 

By his liberality, wisdom, and courage, Smith inspired 
the Indians with the most exalted opinion of himself and of 
his country. 

Subsequently, he received a dangerous wound from the 
explosion of some gunpowder, which obliged him to proceed 
to England for surgical aid, and he never returned to 
Virginia ; but the honour of having been the true leader 
w r ho planted the Anglo-Saxon race in North America rests 
with him. 

From .1610 to 1756, the colony continued to grow, 
favoured by several circumstances, as the increasing use of 
tobacco in Europe, its remoteness from the Spanish and 
French settlements in Florida, and in Canada, and its central 
position, which protected it from savage incursions. The 
soil being fertile, the natural productions, both animal and 
vegetable, being abundant, and the means of existence easy, 
the people enjoyed unusual prosperity. The same can be 
said of the English settlements of Maryland, Maine, New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, Providence and Rhode 
Islands, Connecticut, etc. 



169 



CHAPTER XV. 




First Settlements in New York by the Dutch — Wars between the Dutch 
and the English — Old Description of New Netherland and 
New Amsterdam — Of the Country and its Natives — Inhabitants 
— Their Customs — Vegetable and Animal Life — Mineral Ore — 
Definitive Occupation of New Netherland and New Amsterdam 
by the English — War of Independence — Treaty of Peace signed 
by the English and the North Americans — Declaration of 
Independence of the United States — George Washington 
elected President of the United States. 

J HE first who entered the harbour of New York was 
lH John Verrezani, in 1524, as I mentioned before. In 
1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman, in the service of the 
Dutch East India Company, sailed from the Texel in the 
frigate, Half Moon, with instructions to seek for a passage 
from America to China. He landed first at Newfoundland, 
and from that place, he continued southward and arrived at a 
great river (the Hudson of to-day), which he ascended to a 
good distance. On its banks, he met some men robed with 
buffalo skins. From there, he returned safelv to Amsterdam. 
The narrative of his expedition determined many Dutch 
merchants to prepare several expeditions, with the object of 
establishing firm settlements in that part of America, for 
which purpose they obtained letters patent in 16 14, granted 
to them by the States in the Hague : — That they might only 
traffic to New Netherland, as the place was called by the 
Dutch Government. In that same year a colony was sent 
and a fort was erected on the western bank of the river, near 
Albany, and its government was entrusted to Henry 
Christaens. This feeble settlement was scarcelv established 
when Sir Samuel Argal, Governor of Virginia, came to 
dispute them possession of the land. And although they 
pleaded that they had bought all Hudson's rights and interests 
in the country, as well as all his maps, they obliged the Dutch 
Governor to surrender his command, and pay a tribute to 
the government of Virginia. The States of Holland, fearing 
to offend a new and powerful ally, submitted to those terms 
for a while ; but soon after, a new governor, Jacob Elkin, was 



170 SETTLEMENTS OF THE DUTCH IN NEW YORK. 

sent, and from that time, they not only failed to pay the 
promised tribute, but constructed a second fort on Long 
Island, and subsequently two others, one on the Connecticut 
River, the other at Nassau. They also built the town of 
New Amsterdam, and for a series of years, being unmolested, 
they increased in number, and by the exertion of their 
peculiar national virtues of patience and industry, they 
subdued all the difficulties inherent to the making of a new 
colony. 

In 1620, the States of Holland established the West 
India Company, and committed to it the administration of 
New Netherland. This determination was carried out the 
following year, and under the management of the Company 
the new settlement was soon both consolidated and extended. 
Their capital was New Amsterdam, built on Manhattan 
Island. 

The extent of territory claimed by the Dutch, as has 
been represented by some of their own writers, was from 
Virginia to Connecticut. Whatever might have been its 
titular extent, the planters hastened to enlarge their occupa- 
tions far beyond their immediate use, and by their intrusions 
into the Delaware and Connecticut countries, laid the founda- 
tion of their future disputes with the colonists of these parts. 

Complaints having been made to KlNG CHARLES, by his 
Ambassador, he represented to the States to disown the 
whole business, and to declare that it was only a private 
undertaking. Whereupon a Commission was granted to Sir 
George Calvert to take possession and plant the southern 
parts, lying towards Virginia, by the name of Maryland, and 
to Sir Edmund Loyden to plant and do the same with the 
northern parts by the name of Nova Albion, which makes the 
Dutch, for the second time, willing to compound, and for the 
sum of two thousand and five hundred pounds sterling they 
offered to go away and leave all their chattels. 

But in consequence of the troubles which began and 
continued for a time in England, they not only rescinded their 
first proposition but made higher demands. 

In May, 1664, after the Restoration, the King con- 
sidering that the territory called New Netherland belonged 
rightfully to England, designed four Commissioners, COLONEL 
Richard Nichols, SirRobert Carr, George Cartwright, 
and Samuel Mawrick, to settle that affair. They had three 
ships of war to effect their purpose. First they landed at 
Boston, and from that place went to New Netherland. 



OLD DESCRIPTION OF NEW YORK. 171 

They soon reduced the town and fort of New Amsterdam 
upon conditions advantageous to his Majesty and easy for the 
Dutch. 

I subjoin here a very old description of that country and 
of New Amsterdam. 

" It is placed upon the neck of the Island Manhattan, 
looking towards the sea, encompassed with Hudson's River, 
which is six miles broad ; the town is compact and oval, with 
very fair streets, and several good houses ; the rest are built 
much after the manner of Holland, to the number of about 
four hundred houses, which in those parts is held considerable. 

Upon one side of the town is James 1 Fort, capable of 
lodging three hundred soldiers and officers ; it has four bastions, 
forty pieces of mounted cannon ; the walls of stone have a thick 
rampart of earth ; well accommodated with a spring of fresh 
water. Distant from the sea seven leagues, it affords a safe 
entrance even to unskilful pilots ; under the town side, ships of 
any burthen may ride secure against any storms, the current 
of the river being broken by the interposition of a small island, 
which lies a mile distant from the town. 

About ten miles from the town is a place called Hell's 
Gate, which being a narrow passage, there runneth a violent 
stream both upon flood and ebb, and in the middle lie some 
rocky Islands, which the current sets so violently upon, that it 
threatens present shipwreck, and upon the flood is a large 
whirlwind which continually sends forth a hideous roaring, 
enough to fright any stranger from passing further, and to wait 
for some Charon to conduct him through, yet, to those that 
are well acquainted with the place, there is little or no danger. 
It is a place of great defence against any enemy coming 
that way, which a small fortification would absolutely prevent 
and oblige them coming in, at the west of Long Island, 
by Sandy Hook, where Nutten Island forces them within the' 
command of the Fort, at New Amsterdam, which is one of the 
best pieces of defence in the north parts of America. The 
inhabitants havea considerable trade with the Indiansfor beaver, 
otter, and racoon skins, with other furs, as also for bear, deer, 
and elk skins, and are supplied with venison and fowl in the 
winter, and fish in the summer, by the Indians from whom they 
buy these commodities at an easy rate. 

The Manhattan, Great River, being the principal, having 
two mouths, wash the mighty island Watonwaks , and falls into 
the Ocean. The southern mouth is called Port May , or Godnys 
Bay. In the middle thereof lies an Island called the Staten 



172 OLD DESCRIPTION OF NEW YORK. 

Island, and a little higher the Manhattan, so called by 
the natives which dwell on the east side of the river. They 
are a cruel people and enemies to the Hollanders, as also the 
Sanhikans, which reside on the western shore. Farther up are 
the Makwaes, and Mahicans, which continually war one against 
another. In like manner all the inhabitants on the west side of 
the river Manhattan are usually at enmity with those that 
possess the eastern shore. 

This country has many remarkable w T aterfalls descending 
from steep rocks, large creeks and harbours, fresh lakes and 
rivulets, pleasant fountains and springs, some of which boil 
in the winter, and are cold and delightful to drink in summer. 
The sea coast is hilly, and of a sandy and clayey soil, which 
produces abundance of herbs and trees. 

The oak grows there from sixty to seventy feet, for the 
most part free from knots, which makes it the better fit for 
shipping. The nut trees afford good fuel. Some plants 
brought hither, grow better than in Holland itself, as apples, 
pears, cherries, peaches, apricots, strawberries and the like. 
The vines grow wild in most places, and bear abundance of 
blue, white, and muscadine grapes. Sometimes since, the 
inhabitants have made wine of them, which is not inferior to 
either Rhenish or French. 

All manner of plants known in Europe grow in their 
gardens. Water Melons, Calabasses and Pumpkins are very 
abundant. The wheat, though six feet high, grows very 
speedily. Peas are gathered twice a year, barley springs 
above a man's height. Medicinal herbs, and Indigo grow 
wild in great abundance. In some places also, is store of 
mountain Crystal, and that sort of mineral which is called 
Muscovia Glass. Others afford marble, serpentine stone, gold 
and silver. 

V/hen Captain William Clieff, in 1645, employed the 
Indian Interpreter, Agheroense, to decide the differences which 
arose between the West India Company and the wild people 
called Makwaes, he observed him to paint his face with a yellow 
glittering colour, which he judged to be of some rich mineral, 
whereupon, buying some, of the said Agheroeuse, he put it into 
a crucible, and gained two small pieces of gold out of the same, 
valued at six shillings, but keeping it private and purchasing a 
great quantity of the said mineral, he extracted from it a good 
store of gold, which he sent to Holland in the Arent Cor sen, of 
New Haven, but the ship was lost, and was never heard of after- 
wards, and the Princess Pink, in which Captain Clieff was 



OLD DESCRIPTION OF NEW YORK AND ITS INHABITANTS. 173 

with a large store of the new found mineral, being cast away 
also, it has always remained a mystery to the present time if it 
was really gold, and the exact place from where it came. 

The inhabitants, though divided into several nations, agree 
in many things, as also in painting their bodies. Their shields, 
clubs, and other utensils are alike. They obtain the colours 
wherewith they paint themselves from a small plant, not unlike 
the myrtle, or of certain stones, ground into very hue powder. 

The forests are inhabited by a large variety of animals, 
as hogs, black bears, harts and stags, deers, lions, musk-cats, 
beavers, otters, etc., etc. Towards the south of New Amster- 
dam are many buffaloes. 

Fowls, turkeys, geese, ducks, pigeons, hawks, kites, 
cranes, storks, ravens, owls, swallows, goldfinches, quails, 
pheasants, and the like, are very abundant. Moreover, New 
Amsterdam breeds a strange bird, about a thumb long, full of 
glittering feathers ; it lives by sucking of flowers, like the 
bee. (This is the humming bird Trochilus colubris) . 

The rivers and lakes produce sturgeon, salmon, carp, 
perch, barbils, all sorts of eels, and many other. The sea 
affords crabs, with and without shells ; sea-cocks, sea-horses, 
cod, whiting, ling, herring, mackerel, flounders, turbots, 
tortels, and oysters, of which some are one foot long, and 
have pearl, but these are a little brownish. 

Amongst the poisonous creatures which infest New 
Amsterdam, the chief and most dangerous is the Rattlesnake. 

The inhabitants have their hair black as jet, coarse like 
horse-hair ; they are broad shouldered, small waisted, have 
brown eves, their teeth exceedingly white. With water they 
chiefly quench their thirst ; their general food is flesh, fish, 
and Indian wheat, which stamped, is boiled to a pap, by them 
called sappaen. They eat at any time when they have 
appetite. Beavers tails are amongst them accounted a great 
dainty. When they go to hunt, they live several days on 
parched corn, which they carry in little bags tied about 
their middle, a little of that corn thrown into water swells 
exceedinglv." 

Henrv Hudson relates : — " That sailing- in the river 
mountains he saw the Indians make strange gestures in their 
dancing and singing ; he observed that they carried darts 
pointed with sharp stones soddered into the wood, that they 
slept under the sky on mats or leaves, took much tobacco and 
this very strong, and that though courteous and friendly they did 
not inspire him with confidence. Farther up he met with an old 



174 DESCRIPTION OF THE NATIVES OF NEW YORK. 

Indian commander of forty men and seventeen women, dwelling 
in one house, artificially built of the bark of oak trees, round 
about it. lay above three ship-loads of corn and Indian beans 
to dry, besides the plants which grew in the fields. No 
sooner had Hudson entered the house than he was received on 
two mats spread on the ground, and two men immediately 
were sent to shoot venison or fowls, and instantly returning 
brought two pigeons and a fat hog, which they nimbly fleeced 
with shells, and was also laid down to the fire. They also made 
other preparations for Hudson's entertainment, but not willing 
to venture himself amongst them that night, tasted not of it, 
notwithstanding the Indians breaking their darts, threw them 
into the fire, that thereby they might drive away all fears and 
jealousies from him. 

The women are more neat than the men, and though the 
winter pinches them with excessive cold, yet they go naked 
till their thirteenth year. Both men and women wear a girdle 
of whale-fins and sea-shells ; the men put a piece of cloth, 
half an ell long and three quarters broad, between their 
legs, so that a square piece hangs behind below, and 
another before the belly. The women wear a coat, which 
comes half way down their legs, so curiously wrought with 
sea-shells that one coat sometimes cost many pounds. More- 
over, their bodies are covered with deer-skins, the lappets or 
ends of which hang full of points, a large skin buttoned on 
the right shoulder, and tied about the middle serves for an 
upper garment, and in the night for a blanket. Both men and 
women go for the most parts bare headed ; the women tie 
their hair behind in a tuft, over which they wear a square cap 
wrought with sea-shells, with which they adorn their foreheads, 
and also wear the same about their necks and hands, and 
some about their middle. Before the arrival of the Hollanders, 
they wore shoes and stockings of buffalo-skins, some likewise 
made shoes of wheaten-straw. The men grease their bodies 
and paint their faces with several colours, black, white, red, 
yellow, or blue ; the women put here and there a black spot ; 
both of them are very reserved. Their houses are most of 
them built of one fashion, only differing in length. They 
build after this manner : They set peeled boughs of nut- 
trees on the ground, according to the size of the place which 
they intend to build, then joining the tops of the boughs 
together, they cover the walls and the top with bark of cypress, 
ashen and chestnuts trees, which are laid one upon another, 
the smallest side being turned inwards according to the size 



CUSTOMS OF THE NATIVES. 1 75 

of the houses ; several families, to the number of fifteen, dwell 
together, everyone having his apartment. 

Their fortifications are built on steep hills near rivers; the 
access to them is only at one place. Within, they generally 
build twenty or thirty houses, of which some are one hundred 
and eighty feet long, all of them full of people. In the summer, 
they pitch their tents along by the riverside to fish. In winter, 
they remove into the woods, to be near their game of hunting, 
and also of fuel. 

They generally have only one wife, but for the least 
offence the man can turn her out, and marry another. On 
breach of marriage, the children follow the mother. The 
women are very fond of their offsprings, and take great care 
of them. They make great lamentation at their death, 
especially for sons. They cut off the hair of their heads, 
which at the funeral is burnt in the presence of all their 
relations. They also perform the same when their husbands 
die ; and besides, they blacken their faces, and putting on a hart- 
skin shirt, mourn a whole year. They bury the dead with a 
stone under the head ; near it, they set various utensils, as 
pot, kettle, dish, spoons, money, and provisions, to use in the 
other world. When it is a chief, they build a conical hill on 
the grave. 

The language of this country is varied. The principal 
tongues are the Mannhatan, Wappanoo, Siavanoo, and 
Minqua, which are all very difficult for strangers to learn. 
Their money is made of the innermost shells of a certain 
shell-fish, cast up twice a year by the sea. These shells they 
grind smooth, and make a hole in the middle, cutting them of 
an exact size, and so put them on strings, which then serve 
as money. 

They have scarcely any religion ; they suppose the moon 
to have great influence on plants. The sun is called to 
witness whenever they swear. They stand in much fear of 
the Devil, and make offerings to propitiate in their favour, to 
the Evil One. They burn the first of what they hunt or fish, 
in his honour. They acknowledge the residence of a God 
above the stars; but they say they know him not, because 
they never saw him. 

Concerning the souls of the deceased, they believe that 
those w T hich have been good in their lifetime, live southwards, 
in a temperate country, where they enjoy all manner of 
pleasure and delight ; as to the wicked, they wander up and 
down in miserable condition. The cries of wild beasts in 
16 



176 CUSTOMS OF THE NATIVES. 

the night are supposed to be the spirits of souls transmigrated 
into wicked bodies. 

At their dancing matches, where all persons that come 
are freely entertained, their custom is, when they dance, for 
the spectators to have short sticks in their hands and to 
knock the ground, and sing altogether, whilst they that dance 
sometimes act war-like postures, and then they come in 
painted for war, with their faces painted black and red, or all 
black, or all red, with some streaks of white under their eyes, 
and so jump and leap up and down without any apparent order, 
uttering many expressions of their intended valour. 

When their King or Chief sits in Council, he has a com- 
pany of armed men as body guards, great respect is shown 
him by the people, which is principally manifested by their 
silence. After he has declared the cause of their convention, 
he demands their opinion, ordering who shall begin. The 
person ordered to speak after having declared his mind, tells 
them all that he has done, no man ever interrupting any 
person in his speech, nor offering to speak, though he make 
ever so many long stops, till he says that he has done. The 
Council having all declared their opinions, the King after 
some pause, gives the definitive sentence, which is commonly 
seconded with a shout from the people, everyone seeming to 
applaud and manifest their assent to what is decided. 

When New Amsterdam surrendered to the English Com- 
missioners, it contained about 3,000 inhabitants, of whom 
nearly one half preferred to return to Holland. The remain- 
der continued in the Colony, and among them, the noble 
Governor, Stuyvesant, who survived a few years the fortune 
of his little empire, and left descendants, who held high rank 
in the city for many years after, and were also frequently 
elected to the Magistracy of New York. 

The name of New Netherlands was changed into that of 
Yorkshire, and New Amsterdam into that of New York, Fort 
Orange into Fort Albany, etc., etc. 

All the country having been conferred by patent upon 
His Royal Highness, the Duke of York and Albany, His 
Royal Highness appointed Colonel Nichols, Governor of New 
York. He was the first Governor of that country, and his 
administration was wise and beneficial. 

In 1666, Holland being at war with England, it was feared 
that the Dutch would try to recover New York, and Colonel 
Nichols was advised to put the city in a state of defence, which 
he did thoroughly, but the Dutch never attempted to recover 



TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN ENGLAND AND AMERICA. 1 77 

their former possession, and, in July 1667, it was formally ceded 
to England in exchange for their colony of SURINAM. 

Colonel Nichols resigned soon after, and was succeeded 
by Colonel Lovelace, who successfully administered the 
country during six years. 

The second war with Holland in 1672, together with the 
news of the Duke of York's piofession of the Catholic faith, 
produced a discontent in the colony, which led a large number 
to abandon the city and settle in Carolina. 

A small fleet sent out from Holland approached New 
York at a time when the Governor was absent, the city was 
under the command of Colonel Manning, who surrendered the 
place to the Dutch without firing a single gun. The Dutch 
inhabitants were elated with triumph, and the English had no 
cause of resentment, but in the conduct of their pusillanimous 
commander. The Dutch were not long in regaining their 
former supremacy, but the triumph of the one, and the 
mortification of the other did not endure long. Early in the 
spring of 1674 the controversy was terminated by the treaty 
of Westminster, by which New York was restored to the 
English. From that time to the 19th of April, 1775, the day 
of the battle of Lexington, the English retained possession of 
the country, which developed immensely under their rule. 

From the 19th of April, 1775, to 19th of April, 1783, 
exactly eight years since the shedding of the first blood in the 
revolution at Lexington, the war of Independence continued 
with more or less fury during that time, and ended by the 
treaty of peace, signed at Paris on the the 3rd of September, 
1783, by David Hartley on the part of GEORGE III., and by 
John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay, on the 
part of the UNITED STATES. 

By the first article of this treaty his Britannic Majesty 
acknowledges the United States to be free, sovereign, and 
independent states, that he treats with them as such, and 
relinquishes for himself and heirs all claims to the government, 
propriety and territorial rights of the same. The second 
article defines the boundaries of the states, and the third 
secures them the right of fishing on the Grand Bank, and 
other banks of Newfoundland, and other places in the 
possession of the British, formerly used by the Americans 
for fishing-grounds. The fourth article secures the payment 
to creditors the debts heretofore contracted ; whilst the fifth 
recommends to Congress the restitution of estates formerly 
belonging to British subjects which had been confiscated. 



178 FORMATION OF A FEDERAL CONSTITUTION. 

The sixth article prohibits any future confiscations. The 
seventh provides for firm and perpetual peace ; the eighth 
secures the navigation of Mississippi to both Englishmen and 
Americans ; the ninth orders all conquests made after the 
treaty of peace to be restored ; the tenth provides for the 
ratification of the treaty within six months, which was duly 
done. 

The different courts of Europe had already acknowledged 
the Independence of the United States. 

A federal Constitution was formed, but not without 
opposition, and even insurrection. It took six years before 
it was ratified by the different States of the Union. Con- 
ventions were assembled in the several States to consider its 
provisions, and it took nearly a year before the requisite 
number had decided in its favour, and thus enabled Congress 
to take measures for organizing the new Government. At 
last it was done, and the illustrious and successful commander- 
in-chief of the American armies, GEORGE WASHINGTON, who 
had resigned and retired to his private seat, at Mount Vernon, 
was elected President of the United States. 



WASHINGTON. 179 



CHAPTER XVI. 



Presidents of the United States since the declaration of its Independ- 
ence :— Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James 
Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, 
Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, James H. 
Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James 
Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses S. Grant, 
Rutherford Hayes, James Garfield, Chester Arthur, Grover 
Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison. 

WASHINGTON. 

^OTaS election, as President of the United States, was 
|ASl| formally announced to him on the 14th of April, 1789. 
He accepted the office with unfeigned reluctance, occasioned 
by his love of retirement, and by tenderness for his reputation. 
As his presence at New York, then the seat of the Govern- 
ment, was immediately required, he set out from Mount 
Vernon on the 16th, the second day after he received notice 
of his appointment. His journey was a triumphal procession, 
such as no conqueror can boast. Since leaving his house, 
he was accompanied by a company of gentlemen from 
Alexandria, who entertained him in that town. The people 
gathered to see him as he passed. When he approached the 
towns the most respectable citizens came out to meet and 
welcome him, he was escorted from place to place by com- 
panies of militia, and in the principal cities, his presence was 
announced by the firing of cannon, ringing of bells, and 
military display. A committee of Congress, consisting of three 
members of the Senate, and five of the House of Representa- 
tives, was appointed to meet him in New Jersey, and attend 
him to the City of New York. 

To Elizabeth-town Point, came many other persons of 
distinction, and the heads of several departments of the 
Government. He was there received in a barge, splendidly 
fitted up for the occasion, and rowed by thirteen pilots in 
white uniforms. This was followed by vessels and boats, 
fancifully decorated, and crowded with spectators. When the 
President's barge approached the city, a salute of thirteen 
guns was fired from the vessels in the harbour, and from the 
battery. At the landing, he was again saluted by a discharge 



ICO WASHINGTON. 

of artillery, and was joined by the Governor and other officers 
of the State and the Corporation of the city. A procession 
was then formed headed by a long military train, which was 
followed by the principal officers of the State and City, the 
clergy, foreign ministers, and a great concourse of citizens. 
The procession advanced to the house prepared for the 
reception of the President. The day was passed in festivity 
and in joy, and the city was brilliantly illuminated during the 
evening. 

On the 30th of April, Washington solemnly swore that 
he would faithfully execute the office of President of the 
United States, and that he would, to the best of his ability, 
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United' 
States, and the oath of office was administered to him on the 
balcony, in front of the Federal Hall, by Mr. Livingston, the 
Chancellor of the State of New York, in the presence of both 
branches of the National Legislature, and thousands of specta- 
tors. During the ceremony a profound silence prevailed 
throughout the whole of the assembled multitude, but no 
sooner had the Chancellor proclaimed him President of the 
United States, than he was answered by the discharge of 
thirteen guns from the battery, and the deafening cheers of 
thousands of grateful and affectionate hearts. Washington , 
then retired to the Senate Chamber, and in an impressive 
speech addressed to his " Fellow-citizens of the Senate and 
House of Representatives," declared his reluctance to accept 
the high office which the people had thought fit to bestow upon 
him, his incapacity for the mighty and untried cares before 
him, and offered his fervent supplications to that Almighty 
Being, who rules over the universe, — who presides in the 
councils of nations, — and whose Providential aids can supply 
every human defect, that his benediction might consecrate to 
the liberties and happiness of the people of the United States, 
a Government instituted by themselves for these essential 
purposes, and might enable every instrument employed in its 
administration to execute with success the functions allotted to 
his charge. 

At the conclusion of his remarkable address, Washington 
went to St. Paul's Church, where the service was read by the 
Bishop, and the ceremonies of the day closed. Tokens 
of joy were exhibited throughout the city, as on the day of 
his arrival, and in the night the whole place was illuminated, 
and fireworks displayed in almost every quarter. 

At the first session of Congress, a law was passed 



WASHINGTON. l8l 

imposing duties on imported merchandise, and taxes on 
tonnage of vessels. Congress then proceeded to complete 
the Government by instituting an executive cabinet to be 
composed of heads of the different departments, of the 
treasury, of war, and of state. Alexander Hamilton was 
appointed Secretary of the Treasury, General Knox Secretary 
of War, and Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State. John Jay 
received the office of Chief Justice ; the associate judges were 
John Routledge, James Wilson, John Cushing, Robert 
Harrison, and John Blair. These were the first officers of 
Washington, and they raised for themselves a monument of 
fame, inferior only to that of their chief, and they are still 
gratefully remembered by an admiring country. 

The second session of the first Congress commenced on 
the ist of January, 1790. The President recommended 
several subjects as claiming their consideration, among which 
were : a provision for the common defence, the arming and 
disciplining of the militia, laws for the naturalization of 
foreigners, an uniformity in the currency, weights and 
measures, the advancement of agriculture, commerce and 
manufactures, the encouragement of new and useful inven- 
tions, the establishment of post offices and post roads, the 
promotion and patronage of science and literature, and the 
adoption of effective measures for the support of the public 
credit. 

During this session, it was also decided that the seat of 
Government should be removed for ten years to Philadelphia, 
and then be established permanently at some place, on the 
Potomac River. The next year, during his southern tour, 
Washington selected the position for the future Capital, the 
duty devolving on him as President. Under his direction the 
territory was surveyed, the city planned and laid out, and the 
sites of the public buildings designated. The territory has 
since been called District of Columbia, and to the city was 
given the name of its illustrious founder. 

In the year 1791, the first census of the United States 
was taken, when it appeared that the whole number of 
inhabitants was three millions, nine hundred and twenty-one 
thousand, three hundred a?td twenty-six, of whom 695,655 
were slaves. 

At the meeting of the second Congress at Philadelphia, 
the President congratulated them on the prosperous condition 
of the country, on the great success of the bank scheme, and 
on many other reforms made. The principal laws passed at this 



l82 JOHN ADAMS. 

session were those for establishing a uniform militia system,, 
increasing the army, and apportioning the Representatives. 

During the year 1792, Washington expressed a wish to 
retire from the cares of government, and proposed to decline 
a re-election. He had even prepared a farewell address to 
the people, but he was, however, persuaded by Jefferson, 
Hamilton, Randolph, and others, to relinquish his design, 
and was a second time elected President of the United States 
by the unanimous vote of the electors. John Adams was 
nominated Vice-President. From 1792 to 1796, several wars 
and rebellions took place, but by treaty or otherwise, peace 
was restored, and in September, 1796, Washington announced 
to the people of the United States his irrevocable decision of 
retiring from public life, and spending the remainder of his 
days in his peaceful and quiet retreat of Mount Vernon, 
w r here he died on the 14th December, 1799, aged sixty-eight 
years. Mount Vernon is situated- at about fifteen miles from 
the capital, and is a place of pilgrimage to Americans and 
others. No one pass there without saluting the mausoleum 
containing the mortal remains of him who was called by the 
people "The Father of the Country/' by which name 
he is and will ever be known all over America. 

JOHN ADAMS, 1797—1801. 

John Adams, the candidate, of the Republicans, was 
elected President of the United States at the election of 
November, 1796, with Mr. JEFFERSON as Vice-President. 

They were installed, in the presence of Washington, on 
the 4th day of March, 1797, and forthwith entered on the 
duties of their respective offices. 

Ability of a very high order, an unsullied character, and 
important services rendered during the progress of the 
Revolution, entitled Mr. Adams to the dignified office to 
which he was elected. He published in 1765 his Essay on 
the Canon and Feudal Law, in which he expresses the boldest 
and elevated sentiment, in language most vigorous and 
animating, and says that America must be unoppressed or 
must become independent. 

In June, 1774, he was elected Member of the Continental 
Congress, of which body, from the first, he was a distinguished 
leader. 

In June, 1775, when he could have secured for himself 
the appointment of Chief Commander of the American armies,, 



JOHN ADAMS. 183 

he recommended George Washington to that all important 
post. Mr. Adams was one of the most earnest and influential 
advocates of the declaration of Independence. 

During his time of office, war was declared between the 
United States and France, and various naval battles were 
fought, but an honourable peace was soon concluded between 
Napoleon Bonaparte and the envoys of the President, M . M . 
Oliver Ellsworth, Patrick Henry, and William Van-Murray. 

In 1800, Congress met for the first time in Washington. 
In his address, the President, after congratulating the people 
upon having a permanent seat of government, continued : 
M It would be unbecoming the representatives of this nation 
to assemble for the first time, in this solemn temple, without 
looking up to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, and im- 
ploring his blessing : — May this territory be the residence of 
virtue and happiness ! In this city may that piety and virtue, 
that wisdom and magnanimity, that constancy and self-govern- 
ment which adorned the great character whose name it bears, 
be for ever held in admiration ! Here and throughout our 
country, may simple manners, pure morals, and true religion 
flourish for ever." 

The first term of Mr. Adams, as President, being about 
to expire, a new election was held. 

It was not until the thirty-fifth ballot, that the friends of 
Mr. Jefferson succeeded in electing him. 

THOMAS JEFFERSON, 1801— 1809. 

Thomas Jefferson, elected President of the United 
States, took office on the 4th of March, 1801. His inaugural 
address is one of the most celebrated state papers which has 
ever proceeded from the pen of its writer. Here are some 
passages from it: — Equal and exact justice to all men of what- 
soever state or persuasion, religious or poetical, peace, 
commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling 
alliances with none, the support of the state governments in 
all their rights, as the most competent administrations of our 
domestic concerns, and the surest bulwarks against anti- 
republican tendencies, the preservation of the general 
government in its whole constitutional vigour, as the sheet- 
anchor of our peace at home and safety abroad, a jealous care 
of the right of election by the people, a mild and safe 
corrective of abuses which are lopped by the sword of 
revolution where peaceable remedies are unprovided, absolute 
acquiescence in the decision of the majority, the vital principle 

17 



184 THOMAS JEFFERSON. 

of republics, from which there, is no appeal, but to force, the. 
vital principle and immediate parent of despotism, a well 
disciplined militia, 'our best reliance in peace and for the, 
moments of war till regulars may relieve the supremacy of 
the civil over the military authority, economy in the public 
expense, that labour may be lightly burdened, the honest 
payment of our debts, and sacred preservation of the public 
faith, encouragement of agriculture, and of commerce as its 
handmaid, the diffusion of information, and arraignment of all 
abuses at the bar of the public reason, freedom of religion, 
freedom of the press, and freedom of the person under the- 
protection of the habeas corpus, and trial by juries impartially 
selected. These are the essential principles of our govern- 
ment, and those which ought to shape its administration. 
These form the bright constellation, which has gone before us 
and guided our steps through an age of revolution and - 
reformation. The wisdom of our; sages and blood of ,our 
heroes have been devoted to their attainment, they should be 
the creed of our political faith, the text of civic instruction, 
the touchstone to try the services of those we trust, and should 
we wander from them in moments of error or alarm, let us 
hasten to retrace our steps, and to regain the road which alone 
leads to peace, liberty, and safety. . . 

During the year 1801, a second census of the United 
States was completed,, showing a population of five millions, 
three hundred and nineteen thousand, seven hundred and 
sixty-two, an increase of 1,400,000 in ten years. The enor- 
mous increase of exports, from 19 to 99 millions of dollars, 
and the corresponding augmentation of the revenue, from 
90,000 to nearly 13 millions, can only be attributed to the 
liberal institutions of the country. 

During his term of office, Ohio was admitted into the 
Union, and Louisiana was bought from the French at a cost" 
of twenty millions of francs, or £800,000. 

The Tripolitan war was also fought during the presi- 
dency of Mr. Jefferson. 

On the 4th of March, 1805, Mr. Jefferson entered upon 
his second term of office. Aaron Burr was succeeded in 
the Vice-Presidency, by GEORGE CLINTON of New York. 
In 1808, the President announced his determination to retire 
from office at the close of the term, and James MADISON was 
nominated by the republican party to succeed him. Jefferson 
retired to his seat at Monticello, and passed the remainder of 
his; life in literary pursuits. 



JAMES MADISON. 185 

It was during Jefferson's presidency that a measure 
proposed by him to Congress, on the 18th of January, 1803, 
was sanctioned: That of exploring the river Missouri from 
its mouth to it source, and crossing the highlands by the 
shortest passage, to seek the best water communication, 
thence to the Pacific Ocean. This exploration was suc- 
cessfully made by Captain Meriwether Lewis, assisted by 
Lieutenant Clarke. 

They entered the Missouri on the 14th of May, 1804, and 
on the 1st of November took up their winter quarters near the 
Mandan towns, 1600 miles above the mouth of the river, in 
latitude 47 ° 21' 47" north, and longitude 99° 24' 56" west 
from Greenwich. On the 8th of April, 1805, they proceeded 
up the river in pursuance of the object prescribed to them. 
During his stay among the Mandans, Captain Lewis was able 
to lay down the Missouri according to courses and distances 
taken on his passage up, corrected by frequent observations 
of longitude and latitude, and to add to the actual survey of 
this portion of the river, a general map of the country, between 
the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean, from the 33 to the 54 
degrees of latitude. He also observed the customs, language, 
commerce, and other interesting facts respecting the Indian 
tribes inhabiting the territory of Louisiana, and the adjacent 
countries to its northern and western borders. 

This was the first voyage of discovery made in the 
West, by order of the Government of the United States. 

JAMES MADISON, 1809— 1817. 

James MADISON, the fourth President of the United 
States, took office in March, 1809. George Clinton being 
elected Vice-President. 

One of the first acts of the Congress was to repeal the 
embargo law ; but at the same time prohibiting all intercourse 
with France and England, in war at the time. In consequence 
of repeated hostilities committed by the English, war was 
declared against that country on. the 1 8th of June, 1812. It 
was fought with great bravery on both sides, on land and at 
sea, and lasted during the whole of the first and part of the 
second term of office of President Madison. 

After the repulse of the British troops from Baltimore and 
Plattsburg, and the capture of the English squadron on Lake 
Champlain, a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent, on the 24th 
of December, 18 14, and was ratified by the Prince Regent of 



l86 JAMES MONROE. 

England, on the 28th of the same month, and by the President 
of the United States, with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, on the 17th February, 18 15. 

A treaty, regulating the commerce between the United 
States and Great Britain, was signed in London on the 3rd of 
July, 18 15, and ratified by the President on the 22nd of 
December, in the same year. 

There was also a war between the Bey of Algiers and 
the Republic of the United States, which ended in 18 15, in 
favour of that Republic. 

The territory of Indiana was made into a State and 
admitted into the Union in 18 16. In that year, the Republic 
prospered immensely, — canals were opened in various states, 
a national bank was instituted, and many thousands of 
emigrants — chiefly from Great Britain — arrived in the country. 

In 1816, Mr. Madison's second term of office being" 
about to expire, JAMES MONROE was elected to succeed him. 

JAMES MONROE, 1817— 1824. 

JAMES MONROE, the fifth President of the United States,, 
entered upon the duties of his office on the 4th of March, 
1817. 

During the year 18 17 the territory of the Mississippi was 
enacted into a State, and admitted into the Union. In 18 19, 
another accession was received in the State of Alabama, and 
Congress created Arkansas into a territorial government. In 
1820, Maine was separated from Massachnssets, made into 
a State, and admitted into the Union. In 18 19, a treaty was 
made with Spain, by which Florida was ceded to the United 
States. This treaty was not finally ratified by the King of 
Spain till the year 1821. On the 1st of July of that year,. 
General Jackson, who was governor of the West Florida, 
issued a proclamation, declaring the Spanish Government in 
that province ended, and that of the United States of America 
established. 

On the 7th of July, the keys of the town of Pensacola, the 
archives, documents, and other articles mentioned in the 
inventories, were transferred to General Jackson, by the 
Spanish Commander. In this year James Mo?iroe was 
nominated President for a second term of four years. 

In 1824, two important treaties were concluded; one 
between the United States and Russia, determining the north- 
west boundary of the two countries, at the line of fifty-four 



JAMES MONROE. 187 

degrees and forty minutes of latitude north. The second, 
with England, for the suppression of the African slave trade. 
It was signed in London by plenipotentiaries specially 
appointed for the purpose. 

The year 1825 was also signalized by the visit of the 
celebrated French General, Lafayette, to America. He 
arrived in New York harbour on the 13th of August, and 
proceeded to Staten Island, the residence of DANIEL D. 
TOMKINS, Vice-President of the United States. A committee 
of the New York City Corporation, and many distinguished 
citizens proceeded thither, to welcome him to their capital. 
Steamboats with thousands of passengers, and decorated with 
flags of all nations, escorted him to the city, where the 
whole population was waiting to welcome him : he who had 
perilled his life in the cause of their liberties. He was re- 
ceived by the civil officers of their city, and an address was 
delivered by the Mayor. 

During the few days that he remained in New York 
deputations poured in, from all the principal cities of the 
Middle and Northern States, inviting him to visit them. 

From New York, he proceeded to Boston, Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, Savannah, New Orleans, Saint Louis, and 
back to Boston. This journey of five thousand miles was 
performed in the course of the year, and the same extraordi- 
nary marks of respect and attention were paid him throughout, 
as in the great cities. The whole nation joined in wishing 
health, happiness, honour, and long life to America's favourite 
adopted son. 

He reached Washington during the session of Congress, 
and that body voted him the sum of two hundred thousand 
dollars (£40,000) and a township of land, six miles square, to 
be located in any of the unappropriated lands, where the 
President should direct. A suitable acknowledgment for such 
an immense and unexpected gift, added to former and 
considerate bounties was made by the General, describing 
himself as an old American soldier, and an adopted son of 
the United States, two titles dearer to his heart than all the 
treasures of the world. 

On a second visit to Boston, he listened to an address 
from the lips of the eloquent Daniel Webster. Wherever he 
went, the people rose in a mass to welcome him to their 
homes, and when he wished to return to France, a new 
American frigate, the Brandywine, was fitted out for his 
accommodation. In this vessel, he set sail on the 7th of 



l88 JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. 

September, 1825, for his native country. The authorities of 
Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria, the principal 
officers of the Government, civil, military, and naval, members 
of Congress, and other citizens assembled on that day at the 
President's house to take leave of the General. President 
Adams addressed him with dignity, but with evident emotion, 
and bade him adieu. 

At the usual term of office an active canvass was com- 
menced for the election of the successor of Mr. Monroe. 
Four candidates were proposed : Messrs. Jackson, Adams, 
Clay, and Crawford. Mr. Adams was elected, and Mr. Monroe 
retired. 

The principal event of Mr. Monroe's term of office was 
the celebrated doctrine preached by him, and known as 
Monroe's doctrine, in which he says : AMERICA TO THE 
Americans, and to no one else, and advising the 
inhabitants to unite and to repel all foreign invasion in 
America. 



JOHN QUINCY ADAMS, 1825— 1829. 

JOHN QUINCY Adams, the sixth President of the United 
States, entered upon the duties of his office in March, 1825. 
In his inaugural address he insisted on the discarding of every 
remnant of rancour against each other, to be all friends, and to 
work harmoniously for the welfare and prosperity of the 
country. 

During his administration, an important treaty was 
concluded with the Indian tribe of the Creeks. By this treaty 
the Creeks ceded all the lands lying within the boundaries 
of the State of Georgia, inhabited by them, in exchange for 
others situated westward of the Mississippi, on the Arkansas 
River. A treaty was also concluded with the Indian tribe of 
Kandas, ceding all their lands, within and without the limits 
of Missouri, excepting a reservation on the Kansas River, 
thirty miles square, including their villages. For these lands, 
the United States agreed to pay them, 3,500 dollars yearly, 
during twenty years, to provide for their education and civili- 
sation, and to furnish them with a specified quantity of agri- 
cultural stock. 

Another treaty was also concluded with the Great and 
Little usages, for their lands situated in Arkansas and else- 
where, for an annuity of 7,000 dollars for twenty years, and 
other provisions. 



ANDREW JACKSON. 189 

General conventions of peace, amity, navigation, and 
commerce were made during the years 1825- 1826 with the 
Republics of Columbia and Central America, and with the 
King of Denmark. 

The Tariff Bill, which was enacted by Congress in the 
Session of 1828, produced the most violent commotion in the 
Southern States, and was passed only by a very small majority. 

On the anniversary of American Independence, 1826, 
two of the ex-presidents of the United States departed this 
life. JOHN Adams died at Quincy in the ninety-first year of 
his age ; THOMAS JEFFERSON, at Monticello, Virginia, in his 
eighty-third year. 

In November, 1858, Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee, was 
elected to succeed Mr. Adams. 

ANDREW JACKSON, 1829— 1837. 

ANDREW JACKSON, the seventh President of the United 
States, was installed in his office in March, 1829. John C. 
Calhoun taking the seat of Vice-President. 

The principal topic of discussion upon the assembling of 
Congress was the Tariff Act, which had been, from the 
moment of its passing, a subject of violent contention and 
popular irritation between the Northern and Southern States ; 
but General Jackson in his message carried the doctrines of 
protecting home productions, till they could compete with 
foreign importation, to their utmost length. An Act was 
passed, opening the American ports for the admission of 
British vessels from the colonies with the same cargoes which 
might be brought, and at the same duties that were payable 
by American vessels, suspending the alien duties on British 
vessels and cargoes. In consequence of this Act, the United 
States were allowed the benefit of the Act of Parliament of 
1825, which, upon certain terms, allowed foreign nations a 
participation in her colonial trade. 

In 1832, an act was passed which lowered the duties upon 
some articles, but it was far from meeting the wishes of 
Georgia and Carolina. A convention assembled at Columbia 
from all parts of the State of South Carolina, and declared the 
tariff acts of 1828 and 1832 null and void, and not binding, 
and that if the United States should attempt to force them, 
threatened to form a separate government for South Carolina. 

Whilst civil war and a dissolution of the Union seemed 
thus to be approaching, General Jackson, his four years 



190 MARTIN VAN BUREN. 

having expired, was re-elected President. In his message after 
his re-election, he announced that he would not hesitate to 
bring the Southeners back to their duty, by force if necessary. 
He also attacked the solvency of the United States Bank, 
intimating that it was no longer a safe depository for the 
public funds. 

Towards the close of December, 1832, a bill was intro- 
duced into Congress, by which it was proposed to reduce the 
duties. This did not meet the views of either party. At last 
these difficulties were overcome by the introduction of a bill by 
Henry Clay, of Kentucky /known hereafter as the Compromise 
Bill. By it, all duties were to be gradually reduced till 1842, 
when they were to reach the minimum of twenty per cent. 
ad valorem. This bill was carried through both houses of 
Congress, and received the sanction of the President. 

At the expiration of the Charter of the United States 
Bank, a large number of State banks were created, which pro- 
duced and nourished all manner of wild speculations, particu- 
larly in appropriated public lands. 

During the winter session of 1835, a bill was brought 
before Congress recognising the Independence of Texas, but 
it was postponed. The Indian war was continued in Florida 
during the year 1836, and many plantations and settlements 
in the neighbourhood of St. Augustine were ravaged, 
inhabitants slain, and negroes taken away by the enemy. 
There was also a war with the Indians of the north-western 
frontier called Black Hawk's war, which resulted in the 
capturing and deposing of that chief. 

In the early part of 1837, General Santa Anna, the 
President of the Republic of Mexico, was made a prisoner by 
the Texans, and subsequently set at liberty. He visited 
Washington, whence after a short stay, he returned to Mexico. 

Moore's Electric Telegraph was discovered in 1832. 

On the nth of November, 1836, elections for the 
nomination of a new President took place, and MARTIN 
Van Buren, was elected. 

MARTIN VAN BUREN, 1837— 1841. 

Martin Van BUREN, the eighth President of the 
United States, took possession of the chair on the 4th of 
March, 1837. The New President was scarcely seated when 
a severe commercial crisis burst all over the country. It was 
at New Orleans that the first failure of consequence was 



WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. ICI 

declared. New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Albany, 
and many others followed suit. The banks ceased their pay- 
ments in specie. Even the mammoth bank of the United 
States bent to the fierce tempest and imitated the example of 
the rest. One sentiment pervaded all classes: the anticipation 
of universal ruin, and individual beggary. All works were 
stopped. A Bill was passed suspending the payment of the 
fourth installation of the surplus revenue to the States until 
the 1st day of January, 1839. Bills were passed authorising the 
issue of treasury notes, for the extension of the payment of 
revenue bonds for a short period, authorising the warehousing 
in bond of imported goods for a term of three years, organ- 
ising a sub-treasury system, whereby the nation should 
become its own banker, but this last Bill w T as postponed. 

When the Congress re-assembled on the 4th of December, 
the Sub-Treasury Bill was ultimately rejected in 1838. During 
this year the banks generally resumed specie in payments, the 
effects of the commercial catastrophe were rapidly subsiding, 
and the harvest was abundant. 

A convention for fixing the boundaries of the United 
States and Texas was concluded at Washington, on the 25th 
of April. Great dismay was created in the commercial 
world towards the close of the year by the suspension of 
specie payments on the part of all the principal banks. 

Negotiations were opened respecting the boundaries of 
the United States and the British provinces. 

The first Transatlantic trip was done in 1832, by an 
American steamer. 

In November, the time of the election of a new President 
being arrived, William Henry Harrison was elected to the 
post, and John Tyler, of Virginia, as Vice-President. 

WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, 1841. 

William Henry Harrison, the ninth President of the 
United States, entered on duty in March, 1841 ; but his 
inaugural address was the only act of his administration, 
having died on the 4th of April, within one month of his 
inauguration. He was the first President who died in office. 

General Harrison was in the sixty-ninth year of his age. 

The funeral took place on the 7th of April. The order 
of the ceremony was very imposing ; the procession extended 
over two miles, and was the longest ever witnessed in 
Washington. A sentiment of the profoundest grief pervaded 



IÇ2 JOHN TYLER. 

every part of the Union on this melancholy occasion. A 
national fast was proclaimed, and the affection and respect of 
the people were testified by all sorts of public demonstrations. 

JOHN TYLER, 1841— 1845. 

According to Constitution, M. Tyler now became 
President. He arrived at Washington on the 5th of April, 
1841, and was immediately sworn into office. Air. Southard, 
President of the Senate, became Vice-President. On the 8th, 
the new President issued an address suited to the occasion, in 
which, after lamenting the decease of General Harrison, he 
expressed his intention of carrying into practice what he con- 
ceived to have been that gentleman's principles. The Cabinet 
chosen by General Harrison was retained in office. 

On the 31st of May, the twenty-seventh Congress assem- 
bled at Washington. A message from the President was read, 
His views with regard to foreign policy were of a pacific 
character. He stated that the census showed the population 
to be seventeen millions, and that it had doubled in twenty- 
three years. It is during this administration that Colonel 
Freemont's Expedition to the West and to California was 
sanctioned. 

A Bill for the establishment of a new Bank of the United 
States was presented, but was defeated twice. 

A Bill was passed for the distribution of the proceeds of 
the public lands. 

On the 9th of August, 1842, a new treaty was made 
with England, concerning the north-eastern boundaries 
between the two countries, but more especially for the 
suppression of the slave trade. 

During the Session of Congress which closed June, 1844, 
the principal subjects of attention were the modification of 
the Tariff, and the annexation of Texas to the United States, 
but the treaty negotiated to that effect by the Secretary of 
State and the Texan Commissioners, and signed by the 
President, was rejected by the Senate. 

One of the most remarkable events during this adminis- 
tration is the deliberate repudiation by several of the States 
of the public engagements which they had contracted by 
bonds, on the faith of which, private individuals had advanced 
money to them. 

At the expiration of office of M. Tyler, James K. Polk, 
of Tennessee, was elected President. 



JAMES K. POLK — ZACHARY TAYLOR. 193 

JAMES K. POLK, 1845— 1849 

JAMES K. POLK, the eleventh President of the United 
States, entered upon the duties of his office on the 4th day of 
March, 1845. 

President Polk had always been unfavourable to the 
establishment of a National Bank, or to the abolition of 
slavery. He was of opinion that each State had the exclusive 
power to regulate this subject according to its own judgment, 
and that the general Government had no power to interfere 
with, or to act upon the subject of domestic slavery, the 
existence of which, in many of the States, was expressly 
recognized bv the Constitution of the United States. 

It was during this administration that war was declared 
between the United States and Mexico, resulting in the 
capture of the Capital by the North Americans, and the treaty 
passed between the two countries on the 2nd February, 1848. 
By that treaty, which was ratified on the 16th of March, 1848, 
by the American Congress, and on the 30th of May of the 
same year by the Mexican Congress, Upper California was 
ceded to the United States on payment of fifteen millions of 
dollars, or (£3,000,000). 

The name of Polkos, from Polk, was given to the 
Mexicans, who pronounced against the legal government of 
Mexico in 1847. 

In November, 1848, ZACHARY Taylor was elected 
President to succeed to Mr. POLK. 

ZACHARY TAYLOR, 1849. 

ZACHARY Taylor, the twelfth President of the United 
States, took possession of the chair on the 4th of March, 1849. 
It was during this administration that the rich gold placers of 
California attracted the general attention of the world, and 
attracted such a large number of immigrants of all nationalities 
with the extraordinary result that, in a few years, a magnificent 
new State was created, in a place which for centuries had 
only been known as a wilderness. 

Zachary Taylor was born in the county of Orange, 
Virginia, on the 24th of September, 1784. At the early age 
of twenty-four, he was nominated lieutenant, and in that 
capacity, he took part in the war against the English, and also 
against the Indians. He was made a colonel in 1834. In 
1836, he took part in the Florida wars. In 1845, he was 
sent to Texas, and intrusted uith the defence of the frontier 



194 MILLARD FILLMORE — FRANKLIN PlERCE. 

of this new State. He occupied Corpus Christi until the 
1 2th of March, 1846, when he took the offensive against the 
Mexicans, whom he routed. 

He died at Washington, on the 1st of July, 1850, after a 
little over one year of office. He was succeeded by the then 
Vice-President, Millard Fillmore. 

MILLARD FILLMORE, 1850— 1853. 

Millard Fillmore, the thirteenth President of the 
United States, succeeded General Taylor in July, 1850, and 
remained in office till 1853, Millard Fillmore was born at 
Summer Hill (New York) on the 7th of January, 1800, of a 
poor English family. He was educated in the parish school. 
At the age of nineteen, he was articled as clerk with Barrister 
Wood, and during the time that he remained with him, he 
studied assiduously and took his degree. In 1829, he began 
his political career as the representative of the county of 
Eric (New York). He was nominated Member of the Congress 
in 1832, and was re-elected several times in the same capacity. 
In 1848, he was elected Vice-President. He died at Buffalo, 
the 10th of March, 1874. 

FRANKLIN PIERCE, 1853— 1857. 

Franklin Pierce, the fourteenth President of the United 
States, entered upon the duties of his office in March, 1853, 
shortly before my arrival in that country. During his adminis- 
tration was held the first American International Exhibition, 
that of New York, which was a great success. The handsome 
Central Park of New York was also begun during his ad- 
ministration. 

Franklin Pierce was born at Hillborough, New Hampshire, 
on the 23rd of March, 1804. At first he worked as a farmer, 
but this work being uncongenial to him, at the age of twenty 
he left farming, and went to study law at Northampton School, 
Massachussets, and in the office of Judge Parker, in Amherst. 
He took his degree of Barrister-at-Law in 1827, and went 
to practice in his native town, which elected him two years 
afterwards as their representative in the Legislative Assembly 
of the State. He remained in that post from 1829 to 1832. 
In 1833 he was elected Member of the Congress, and in 
1839 Senator. In 1842 he retired to Concordia, New Hamp- 
shire, and practised as a barrister. In 1847, a ^ the time of 



JAMES BUCHANAN. 195 

the declaration of war with Mexico, he took service in the 
armv, was wounded, and appointed colonel. After the suc- 
cessful attack of Vera Cruz, he was appointed General. In 
November, 1852, he was elected President, with a large 
majority. He died in September, 1869. 

JAMES BUCHANAN, 1857— 1861. 

" JAMES BUCHANAN, the fifteenth President of the United 
States, took possession of the Presidency on the 4th of March, 
1857. He had occupied the post of Secretary of State during 
the administration of President Polk. During his term of 
office, his chief ambition was the enlargement of the United 
States. He was always very prudent, and was considered a 
good administrator. 

James Buchanan was born at Stony-Battes, in the county 
of Franklin, Pennsylvania, on the 23rd of April, 1795. His 
father was Irish, and the possessor of a farm. At the age of 
14, Buchanan was sent to the College of Dickinson, Carlisle, 
where he took his degrees. In 1809, he was articled to 
Lawyer James Hopkins, of Lancaster, and under his direction 
he studied law. In 18 14, he was elected a Member of the 
Legislature of Pensylvania. Six years after, he was elected 
Member of the Congress of the United States, where he 
remained up to 183 1. After this, he entered the diplomatic 
career, and was sent to Russia by General Jackson. He came 
back to the United States in 1853. ^ n I ^56 he was elected 
President. He died at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of 
June, 1868. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN, 1861. 

Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth President of the 
United States, succeeded Mr. Buchanan, and entered upon 
the duties of office in March, 1861. 

It was during Lincoln's administration that one of the 
most bloody civil wars (1863 — 1865) took place between the 
Northern and Southern States, in consequence of the abolition 
of slavery. In that short time, 740 millions of pounds sterling 
were spent, and 656,300 men were killed. 

The beginning of it, was the attack of Fort Finter by the 
Sudists, who wanted to separate themselves from the North. 
To this, Abraham Lincoln replied by the raising of 75,000 
men, the blocus of the ports of the Carolinas, Virginia, etc. 
Everyone remembers the gigantic exertions made by each side 



196 ABRAHAM ; LINCOLN. 

to attain its purpose, and the heroic deeds achieved by both 
during this long and sanguinary ; war, resulting in the complete 
victory of the North, and the lamentable death of Abraham 
Lincoln. :, ; 

The war of secession was, just ended, peace was restored, 
and business was progressing actively everywhere, when this 
foul act was perpetrated. 0n r the 14th of April, 1865, the 
President and his wife assisted for the first time, since the 
war, to a theatrical representation, accompanied by Mrs. 
Harris and Mr. Rashburri. They occupied the front of the 
stage on the left of the theatre. The play represented, was 
a gay one, Our American Cousin. The President leaning 
forward, his head between his hands, was entirely absorbed 
with the play, when a shot was heard, and at the same time 
a man was seen jumping in the front of the stage, a dagger in 
hand, and crying Sic semper tyrannise All the spectators 
rose, the murderer ran away in the lobby, pursued by a lawyer, 
Mr. Stuart, who very nearly overtook him, but the murderer 
escaped by shutting a door in his face. 

The President had been shot in the head. He was 
carried immediately into a house, close by the theatre, where 
he died the next morning at 7.20. 

As to the murderer, who had been able to make his escape 
on horseback, he had been recognised by another actor, one of 
his comrades, as one named John Wilkes Booth. This Booth 
had been mixed up in many political events. He was an 
enthusiastic Sudist ; he declared that he murdered President 
Lincoln to avenge the defeat of the Sudists. He was dis- 
covered hy the police in a hut near Port Royal, Maryland, 
where he had taken refuge with one of his accomplices. 
Summoned to deliver themselves up, the two criminals wavered. 
The accomplice, Harold, surrendered, but Booth decided to 
resist. Then the police set fire to the hut, and when Booth 
appeared, trying to escape, he was shot. The corpse was 
deposited on board a monitor, from where it disappeared 
several days after. This dreadful drama ended in absolute 
mystery, and the slavery, to the maintenance, of which Booth 
had sacrificed President Lincoln, was nevertheless definitely 
abolished. 

On the morrow of the assassination of President Lincoln, 
Minister Seward was also i murdered. , . • 

Abraham Lincoln was born the .12th of February, 1809, 
in the State of Kentucky. Son of a pioneer, from the early. 
age of seven, he took part in the hard labour of clearing land. 



ANDREW JOHNSON. 197 

Without a regular instruction, and obliged to work for his 
living, At the age of nineteen, he made a voyage to New 
Orleans, working on board of " a boat to pay his passage. 
Then he turned carpenter^ grocer, etc., and, lastly, a soldier, 
fighting the Indians, after which he began to study alone, and 
succeeded so well, that he was able to pass his examination as 
a lawyer. From that date, he began his political career. 

During four sittings, he took part in the Legislature of 
Illinois. From 1847 to I ^49> ne was a Member of the Congress. 
In 1852, he joined the Abolitionists, and in November, i860, 
he was elected President of the United States. He placed at 
the head of his Cabinet Messrs. M. Seward and Cameron. In 
1 86 1, he started from Springfield to Washington, where he 
was enthusiastically received ; but it has been said that even 
then, notwithstanding the triumphal reception made to him, he 
had already misgivings about his security. 

In 1864, he was re-elected for the second time with an 
immense majority. 

The Atlantic Telegraph, connecting Europe and America, 
was completed in 1862, during his first term of office. 

ANDREW JOHNSON, 1865— 1869. i 

The consequence of the atrocious act committed by 
Booth, was that Andrew Johnson became the seventeenth, 
President of the United States according to Constitution. He 
took office in April 1865, and during the whole of his term he 
was in contest with the other powers. The functionaries 
proposed by him, were not accepted by the Senate, and even 
his Ministers were hostile to him. He was also put on his 
trial, but discharged. 

Andrew Johnson was born in Raleigh, Carolina, on the 
29th of December, 1806. 

He lost his father at the early age of four. At ten, he 
was apprenticed to. a tailor, and remained with him seven 
years without having ever been to school, but in learning his 
trade, he made up his mind to learn at all cost, and so he did, 
taking several hours out of his sleep for that noble purpose. 
When he left his master, he worked for a while at day wages, 
soon after he went West, taking with him. his mother, whom he 
maintained from his work. He stopped at Greenwich, 
Termessee, where he worked as a journeyman. He married 
there, and after a time he worked on his own account. With 
the help of his wife, he learned to, write, and acquired some 



198 ULYSSE SIMPSON GRANT. 

elementary knowledge. In 1828, he was elected Alderman of 
his village. In 1830, he was elected Mayor. In 1843, ne 
was elected Member of the Congress, and in 1863, Governor 
of Tennessee. In 1864, he was elected Vice-President, hence, 
his re-emplacing President Lincoln, when this last was 
murdered. 

President Johnson died the 31st of July, 1875, in the 
county of Carter. 

ULYSSE SIMPSON GRANT, 1869— 1877. 

Ulysse Simpson Grant, the eighteenth President of the 
United States, entered upon the duties of his office in March, 
1869. He was so popular and so esteemed by all parties that 
at the end of his first term, in 1873, he was re-elected without 
opposition. It was during his second term of office that the 
Centennial Exhibition of Philadelphia, which was such a great 
success, was decided upon, and successfully organized. 

This Exhibition was the first step of reconciliation between 
the Northern and Southern States. General Grant's peaceful 
administration will always be remembered as that of re- 
conciliation, peace and progress. In 1869, the Pacific Railway 
was opened during his administration. 

Ullysse Simpson Grant was born at Point Pleasant, Ohio, 
on the 27th of April, 1822. At the age of seventeen, he 
entered at the Military School of Westpoint. He left in 1843 
as a Second Lieutenant in the Infantry. In 1848, he took a 
distinguished part in the Mexican War, was promoted 
Lieutenant after the battle of Molino del Rey, and Captain 
after that of Chapultepec, in September, 1847. 

He left military service in 1854, and took the direction of 
a tanyard, established by his father ; after which he started as 
a farmer, in the county of San Luis, Missouri. In i860, he 
went away to Galena, Illinois, where he was busy in the same 
pacific business when the war was declared between the North 
and the South. In the month of April, 1861, the Governor of 
Illinois appointed him Aide-de-camp to the Chief Commander 
of the State Militia. Soon after, he was nominated Colonel 
of the 20th Regiment, then General of the Illinois Volunteers, 
He assisted in that capacity to many sanguinary battles, and 
achieved great success, especially at the battle of Wickbury, 
which made him famous among his countrymen. His popularity 
was so great after the battle of Richmond, that he was unanimously 
elected President of the United States. He received numerous 



RUTHERFORD B. HAYES — JAMES GARFIELD. 199 

addresses from all parts of the country. In his short inaugural 
address on the day of his installation as President, he manifested 
that he did not belong to any particular political party. On 
the 6th of November, 1872, he was re-elected for another term 
with a great majority. At the end of his second term, he 
visited Europe, where he was welcomed by all. A suitable 
pension was voted him, when he retired from office. 

RUTHERFORD B. HAYES, 1877— 1881. 

RUTHERFORD B. Haves, the nineteenth President of the 
United States, entered into possession of the presidential 
chair in March, 1877. 1 was in Philadelphia when the election 
took place, and I have previously given a description of what 
these elections are in the United States. If not seen, one 
could hardly believe what expenses and what excesses are 
occasioned by the election of a President in that country ; but 
what is admirable is the way how every one retires to his own 
business when the election is over. The Phonograph was 
invented by Edison, in 1877, during Hayes' term of office. 

Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born on the 4th of 
October, 1822, in Delaware, Ohio. He went first to the 
College of Kenyon. From that place, he went to the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, where he studied law. In Cincinnati he 
acted as solicitor and acquired fame as a lawyer. When the 
war of secession was declared, he engaged himself as a 
private soldier, but quickly distinguished himself, and was 
successively promoted from Lieutenant to General. At the 
end of the war, he retiredfrom the service, but soon after he was 
sent to Congress, where he represented his county. After 
that, he was appointed twice Governor of Ohio. In 1876 he was 
chosen as a candidate by the Republicans, and was elected 
President of the United States. 

JAMES A. GARFIELD, 1881. 

James A. Garfield, the twentieth President of the 
United States, entered upon the duties of the office in March 
1 88 1, but he occupied that post only for a few months, having 
been shot at the railway station by the murderer, Charles 
Guitteau, a fanatic, on the 5th of July, 1881. He was 
successively transported to Longbranch and elsewhere, and 
for a little time it was thought that he would recover, but on 
the 19th of September, he died at Longbranch from the con- 
sequences of his wounds. A national subscription was made 

18 



200 CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 

in favour of his widow. Two millions five hundred thousand 
dollars were raised for that purpose. James Abraham Garfield 
was born the 19th of November, 1831, at Orange, Ohio. At 
an early age, he had to work for his living and that of his 
mother, which he always helped as much as he could. He 
worked as a journeyman carpenter, and also as a steersman on 
a boat. In the evening, he used to go to a primary school, and 
learn all that he could. In 1849, he entered the College of 
Chester, Ohio, and one year after he obtained his brevet as 
Schoolmaster. In 1880, he was elected President of the United 
States. 

CHESTER A. ARTHUR, 1881— 1885. 

According to Constitution, Mr. Chester A. Arthur, Vice- 
President, became the twenty-first President of the United 
States. 

Chester A. Arthur was born in Fairfield, Franklin County, 
Vermont, on the 5th of October, 1830. His father emigrated 
from Ireland to the United States in his eighth year, and died 
in Newtonville, near Albany, in October, 1875. Chester A. 
Arthur was educated at Union College, and was graduated in 
the class of 49. After leaving college, he taught a county 
school during two years in Vermont, and then having managed 
by rigid economy to save about $500 he started for New York, 
and entered the law office of ex-Judge Culver as a student. 
After being admitted to the bar, he formed a partnership with 
his friend, Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practising 
in the West, but in the end they returned to New York, where 
they entereduponasuccessful career almost from the start. Soon 
after he married the daughter of Lieutenant Herdon, United 
States Navy, who was lost at sea. Chester A. Arthur ren- 
dered great services in the emancipation of slaves, and won 
several cases in their favour. Previous to the outbreak of the 
Secession War, Chester A. Arthur, was Judge Advocate of 
the 2nd Brigade of the New York State Militia, and Governor 
Edwin D. Morgan, soon after his inauguration, selected him to 
fill the position of Engineer-in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he 
held the post of Inspector-General, and soon afterwards was 
advanced to that of Quartermaster-General, which he held 
until the expiration of Morgan's term of office. No higher 
encomium can be passed upon him than the mention of the 
fact that although the war account of the State of New York 
was at least ten times larger than that of any other state, yet 



CHESTER A. ARTHUR. 201 

it was the first audited and allowed in Washington, and with- 
out the deduction of a dollar, while the Quartermaster's 
accounts from other States were reduced from §10,000,000 to 
§1,000,000. When Mr. Arthur became Quartermaster-General 
he was poor. When his term expired he was poorer still. 

He had opportunities to make millions unquestioned. His 
own words in regard to this matter amply illustrate his 
character. " If I had misappropriated five cents, and on 
walking down town saw two men talking on the corner to- 
gether, I would imagine they were talking of my dishonesty, 
and the very thought would drive me mad." 

At the expiration of Governor Morgan's term, Mr. Arthur 
returned to his law practise, and the firm of Arthur and 
Gardiner prospered exceedingly. Gradually he was drawn 
into the arena of politics. He nominated, and, by his efforts, 
elected the Hon. Thomas Murphy a State Senator. When 
the latter resigned the collectorship of the Port of New York, 
November 20th, 1871, President Grant nominated General 
Arthur to the vacant position, and four years later when his 
term expired re-nominated him, an honour that had never 
been shown to any previous collector in the history of the 
Port. 

When James A. Garfield was elected President of the 
United States, in 1880, General Arthur was unanimously 
elected Vice-President. On the 4th of March, 188 1, he 
delivered a brief but eloquent. inaugural address and assumed 
his place as the second officer of the Republic. 

Immediately after the death of President Garfield, 
General Arthur took the oath of office as President of the 
United States. The administration of the oath was followed 
by the President's brief inaugural address. 

During Arthur's term, efforts were made to strengthen 
the relations of the United States with the other American 
nationalities. Representations were made by the Administra- 
tion with a view to bringing to a close the war between Chili 
and the allied States of Peru and Bolivia. 

President Arthur advised the establishment of a monetary 
union of the American' countries to secure the adoption of a 
uniform currency basis. Provision for increased and improved 
consular representation in the Central American States was 
made. Negotiations were conducted with Colombia for the 
purpose of renewing and strengthening the obligations of the 
United States as the sole guarantor of the integrity of 
Columbian territory, and of the neutrality of any interoceanic 
canal to be constructed across the Isthmus of Panama. 



202 CHESTER A. ARTHUR — GROVER CLEVELAND. 

From the British Government, a full recognition of the 
rights and immunities of naturalized American citizens of 
Irish origin was obtained, and all such that were under arrest 
in England or Ireland, as suspects, were liberated. 

The reduction of letter postage from 3 cents for each 
half-ounce to 2 cents for one ounce was adopted. The fast 
mail and free delivery system were largely extended. 

The act to regulate and improve the civil service of the 
United States was passed January 16th, 1883. 

It was declared at the following Presidential Convention 
that " in the administration of President Arthur we recognize 
a wise, conservative, and patriotic policy, under which the 
country has been blessed with remarkable prosperity, and we 
believe his eminent services are entitled to and will receive 
the hearty approval of every citizen." 

Mr. Arthur died suddenly of apoplexy, at his residence, 
No. 123, Lexington Avenue, New York City, Thursday morn- 
ing, November 18th, 1886. President Cleveland, and his 
Cabinet, Chief-Justice Waite, ex-President Hayes, James G. 
Claine, Generals Sherman, Sheridan, and Schofield, and the 
surviving members of President Arthur's Cabinet, were in 
attendance. 

GROVER CLEVELAND, 1885—1889. 

Grover Cleveland, the twenty-second President of the 
United States, took possession of the chair in March, 1885. 
It was during his administration that it was decided to co- 
operate officially to the Paris International Exhibition of 1889, 
and it was a great success for that country. Their display 
was conspicuous, and courted the attention of all visitors. 
General Franklin, the Chief Commissioner, by his energy and 
affability, contributed greatly to that end. 

Four new States were added to the Union by Congress, 
that of North Dakata, South Dakota, Washington, and 
Montana. Electricity was adopted for traction on 436 
tramways, on 3,522 miles of track. 

Stephens Grover Cleveland was born at Caldwell, New 
Jersey, on the 18th of March, 1837. He studied at Clinton's 
Academy. After that, he entered as clerk in a commercial 
house at Fayetteville. When in Buffalo with his uncle, he 
studied law, and was admitted to the Court of that town in 
1859. I n I ^>7°> ne was elected sheriff of the County of Eric, 
and at the expiration of his office, he took the direction of a 



BENJAMIN HARRISON — GROVER CLEVELAND. 203 

lawyer's office under the name of Cleveland, Biosel & Sicard, 
which prospered immensely. In 188 1, he was elected Mayor 
of Buffalo, in which capacity he acted so honourably and so 
satisfactorily that, in 1882, he was elected Governor of the 
State of New York. In 1884, he was elected President of the 
United States. 

BENJAMIN HARRISON, 1889— 1893. 

Benjamin Harrison, the twenty-third President of the 
United States, entered upon the duties of office in March, 1889. 
His administration will always be remembered as that of the one 
during which was decided the celebration of the four-hundredth 

O m 

anniversary of the discovery of America, by Christopher 
Columbus, in the form of a gigantic International Exhibition, to 
be held at Chicago in 1894, which official dedication took place 
the 21st of October, 1893. Inconsequence of Mrs. Harrison's 
illness, the President could not preside at the ceremony, and 
was replaced by Vice-President Morton. Another great event 
was the celebration of the centenary of Washington, which 
took place with great solemnity on the 30th of April, 1889. 

The administration of President Harrison will also be 
remembered as that of the passing of the memorable 
McKinley Tariff, which has caused much dissatisfaction, not 
only amongst many classes of society in the United States, but 
also in all foreign countries, and which has probably been the 
chief cause of his not having been re-elected for a second term 
of office, as many thought he would be. 

Two new States were added to the Union, that of 
Wyoming and Idaho. Benjamin Harrison was born at North 
Bend, Ohio, on the 20th of August, 1833. He is the grand- 
son of William Henry Harrison, the ninth Président of the 
United States, who died in 1881. He studied at the University 
of Miami, Oxford, and practiced as a barrister at Indianopolis, 
his place of residence. In 1862, he entered in the federal 
army, first as Lieutenant. He fought in many battles and at 
the end of the war, he was elected Senator and remained so 
during six years, 188 1 — 1887. In 1884, he supported the 
candidateship of Blaine against Cleveland. In 1888, he was 
elected President of the United States. 

GROVER CLEVELAND, 1893. 

Grover Cleveland, the twenty-fourth President of the 
United States, was elected in November, 1892, with Mr. A. E. 



204 GROVER CLEVELAND. 

Stevenson, as Vice-President. He entered upon the duties of 
his office for the second time in March, 1893. 

On the first of May, 1893, he opened the World's 
Columbian Exhibition, the greatest manifestation ever held in 
honour of PEACE AND LABOUR. 

As everyone knows it has been a great success. 

Many grand things are expected from President 
Cleveland's Administration, such as the Repeal of the Mc 
Kinley Tariff, replaced by a fair trial of Free Trade ; the help 
of the United States to conclude an International treaty for 
the completion of the Panama and Nicaragua Canals. And we 
hope that President Cleveland will be successful in his- 
endeavours, and that his name will ever be remembered as 
the one who will have greatly contributed to the completion 
of these great undertakings. Future will tell ! 



PARDY & SON, PRINTERS, THE TRIANGLE, BOURNEMOUTH. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 107 

Thalurania Jclskii, Tacz. P.Z.S., 1874, p. 138. 

Black banded Wood Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. \\. y 
p. 103. 

Tschudi's Wood Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii. p. 103. 

La Thaluranie à bande noire, Muls., Hist, Nat. Ois, Mou., 
1876, vol. iii., p. 75. 

Jelshy's Wood Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch, Suppl., 1886, 

P- 39- 

Habitat. — Peru, Columbia, and Ecuador. 

Male. — Head and neck bronze, rest of upperside shining 
green. Throat emerald-green, extending to the breast, 
bordered by a narrow black band. Shoulders and rest of 
underside Prussian blue, under tail-coverts and tail steel-blue. 
Wing-coverts bronze-green. Wings purple-brown. Bill and 
feet black. 

Total length, 4^in. Wing, 2\. Tail, i-|. Culmen, |-. 

Female. — Upperside shining grass-green, bronzy on the 
head. Underside gray. Median rectrices green, lateral green 
with bluish tips and a very small gray tip, the two uttermost 
ones brown at base, then bluish with gray tips. 

I have some specimens from Columbia, Ecuador, Amazons, 
and Peru, collected by Messrs. Buckley, Whitely, and 
Hanxwell. 

148. Thalurania boliviana, N. Sp. 

Bolivian Wood Nymph. 

La Thaluranie de Bolivie. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Male. — Exactly the same in colouration as the preceding 
species, except that the emerald of the throat does not extend 
so much on the breast, and is not separated from the breast by 
a black band. The colour of the breast and abdomen is 
purplish in this species. 

Total length, 4^in. Wing, 2-|. Tail, i|-. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Like the preceding species, but darker on the 
underside. 

My specimens of this new species, w r ere collected in Bolivia 
by Buckley. 
N 



io8 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Genus XLIX. Gmelinius, n.g". 



^ 



ORNISMYIA, Lesson, Hist. Nat., Ois. Mou., Tab. 10. 

TYPE: T. bicolor, Gmélin. 

Bill straight, graduating to a point, slightly longer than the 
head. Tail slightly forked. Rectrices gradually longer from 
the medium to the outermost ones, pointed. Wings long, 
reaching the end of tail. Tarsi clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Dominica (West Indies). 

I dedicate this new genus to the memory of Gmélin. 

149. Gmelinius, bicolor, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 1788, p. 496. 

Ornismyia bicolor, Gmel. Svst. Nat., 1778, p. 496. 

Ornis?nyia wagleri, Less., Hist, des Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 203. 

Hylocharis wagleri, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 114. 

Caeligena wagleri, Riech., Troch. Enura., 1855, p. 3. 

Thalurania wagleri, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., p. 109. 

Wagler's Wood Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., p. 109. 

La Thaluranie de Wagler, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, t. iii, p. 81. 

Habitat. — Dominica (West Indies) not Brazil. 

Male. — Entire head and throat deep blue, slightly metallic. 
Upperside dark shining green. Tail steel-blue. Tail-coverts 
greenish-blue. Underside metallic grass-green, golden on 
sides of breast and flanks. Wings dark purplish-brown. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour tipped with black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2§. Tail, if. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Uppertail-coverts 
bluish-green. Underside dull white spangled, with green on 
the sides of breast and flanks. Outer-tail feathers tipped 
white, rest of tail-feathers green, broadly marked with blue on 
the terminal part. 

It is a rare species, and it is only since a short time that we 
know with certainty that this species is not Brazilian, as all 
former authors have constantly told us, but a native of 
Dominica, West Indies. I think Mr. Ober, who has collected 
largely in the West Indies, is the naturalist to whom we are 
indebted for the exact habitat of this species. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 109 

The differences between this species and all those included 
amongst the genus Thalurania, are such, that I have not 
hesitated in proposing a new genus for it. 

Genus L. Phaeoptila, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 169. 
Doleromyia, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., t. i, p. 207. 

Type : P. sordida, Gould. 

Bill longer than the head, slightly curved, nostrils exposed, 
wings long, nearly reaching the end of tail. Tail short, 
slightly forked, medium rectrices shorter, lateral and outer- 
most ones, slightly and gradually longer, all of them J^road. 
Tarsi clothed. Sexes unadorned, nearlv alike. 

Habitat. — Mexico. 

150. Phaeoptila sordida, Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
1859, p. 97. 

Uranomitra sordida, Cab. and Heine., Mus. Hein, i860, t. 
iii., p. 41. 

Doleromya sordida, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. 
i., p. 207. 

Dusky Humming-bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. 5, p. 338. 
La Doleromye sordide, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 207. 

Habitat. — Puebla, Oaxaca, (Mexico). 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green, brownish on forehead. 
Underside gray, washed with bronzy-green feathers on sides 
•of breast and flanks. A tuft of white feathers on each side 
of lower part of vent. A white spot behind the eyes. 
Tail bronzy-gray. Wings silky-brown. Bill flesh colour, 
with black tips. Feet black. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2^. Tail, if. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Same plumage as that of male, but paler gray 
on underside, with just a few bronzy-green feathers on sides 
-of breast. Lateral rectrices largely tipped with pale grav. 

I discovered this species in Oaxaca, South Mexico, and for 
a long time, Gould himself thought that it was the female 
of another species ; but having dissected a good many speci- 
mens of both sexes, there is no doubt about it now. The 
types of this species are now in the British Museum. (Ex 
Gould Collection.) 



no Genera of Humming Birds. 

GENUS LI. Iache, Elliot, Syn. Hum. Birds, p. 234. 
CiRCE, Gould, Int. Troch., p. 168. 
TYPE: C. latirostris, Swainson. 

Bill longer than the head slightly curved. White spot 
behind the eyes. Wings long, reaching nearly the end of 
tail. Tail short, slightly forked, rectrices broad. Tarsi 
clothed. Feet small, hind toe short (Gould, I.e.). Sexes 
unlike. 

Habitat.— Mexico. 

151. Iache latirostris, Sw., Phil. Magas, 1827, p. 441. 

Omismya lessoni, Del., Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 15. 
Cyanophaia lazula, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, P- I0 - 
Amazilia latirostris, Reich., Aufz der Col., 1853, P- I0 - 
Hylocharis lazula, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, P- 77°- 
Circe latirostris, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 338. 
Circe, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., page 338. 

La Circê, à large bee, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875 t. 
ii, p. 47. 

Habitat. — Mexico. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green, brownish on top of head. 
Throat bright sapphire-blue. Breast, abdomen and flanks 
shining green, washed with gray on flanks. Undertail coverts 
gray, with bronzy-green in centre of feathers. Tail steel 
blue, tipped w T ith gray in young males. Wings pale brown. 
Bill flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 3-fin. Wing, 2 J. Tail, i§. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside dark gray. 
Tail bronzy-green at base, rest bluish-black, lateral feathers 
tipped with gray. 

Rather a rare species. I collected some specimens near 
Mexico, the capital of the Republic. 

^"152. IACHE MAGïCA, Muls., and Verr., Ann. Soc. Lin. Lyon., 

1872, t. 18, p. 1 10. 

Circe magica, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, t. ii, 
p. 49. 

La Circê 7nagicienne , Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. M., 1875, t. 
ii, p. 50. 



Gene i a of Humming Birds. ill 

Mazatlan Humming-bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 
1886, p. 96. 

Habitat. — Mazatlan, Lower-California. 

Male. — Upperside reddish-bronze. Throat and upperpart 
of breast metallic bluish-green. Underside bronzy-green, with 
a coppery lustre. Undertail-coverts white. Wings pale 
brown. Tail brownish-black, lateral feathers slightly tipped 
with gray. Bill red, tip black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, i-|. Tail, 1^. Culmen, J. 

The Type (from Elliot's collection) is now the property of 
the Museum of Natural History, New York. 

*I53. Iache doubledayi, Bourcier P.Z.S., 1847, P- 4-6- 

Hylocharis doubledayi, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 114. 
Thaumatias doubledayi, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i. ; 

P . 78. 

Cyanophaia doubledayi, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 10. 

Sapphironia circe, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool, 1814, p. 156- 

Circe doubledayi, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 339. 

Doubleday's Humming Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 
P- 339- 

La Circê de Doubleday, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
vol. ii., p. 45. 

Habitat. — Chihuitan (S. Mexico). 

Male. — Top of head metallic bluish-green. Upperside and 
abdomen dark bronzy-green with a bluish shade on the 
abdomen. Throat brilliant blue. Undertail-coverts dark 
brown, edged with gray. Wings pale brown. Tail steel-blue 
tipped with gray. Bill red, tip black. 

Total length, 3y<]-i n - Wing, i|. Tail, i T 5 ^-. Culmen, \\. 

Bourcier's specimen is in Elliot's collection. 



¥r 



154. ÏACHE NITIDA, Salv. and Godm. Ibis., 1889, p. 240. 



Dark blue Humminçr-bird . 



V Oiseau mouche bleu foncé. 

Habitat. — Guerrero (Mexico). 

Male. — Closely allied to /. doubledayi, but the whole throat 



112 Genera of Humming Birds. 

and breast are of a richer blue, and the head also is shining" 
blue, not green. 

The type of this fine species is in the collection of Mrs. H. 
H. Smith. 

•^155. lACHE LAWREXCEI, Ridgw, Mon. N.A. Birds., p. 320. 

I ache Lawrenceij Berlepsch, M.S. 

Lawrence 1 s Humming-bird. 

L'Oisean mouche de Lawrence. 

Habitat. — Tehuantepec, (S. Mexico). 

Male — Above metallic bronze-green, including upper tail- 
coverts, the hind neck more grass-green, and the forehead 
brilliant metallic greenish-blue, passing into shining green on 
crown ; entire chin and throat deep metallic blue with a 
purplish cast in certain lights ; remaining under parts bronzy- 
green or greenish-bronze. Tail forked. 

Length of wing, 1-90. Tail, 1-50, Culmen, 0-65. 

This genus forms the natural passage, from Thaluranid/E 
to CHLOROLAMPID/E. 

With the genus Phaeoptila, I have placed both in this 
family, because they are very closely allied to my new genus 
Gmelinius. 

FAMILY VIL CHLOROLAMPID^. 

or Family of Emeralds. 

Bill flesh colour with black tips, as in genus Chlorolampis, 
gradually passing to black, as in the genera Prasitis and 
Panychlora, about the same length as the head, straight, 
rather wide at base, and terminating to a sharp point. Body 
small. Wing long and narrow. Tail varying from very deeply 
forked to even, rectrices rounded in some genera, narrow and 
pointed in others. Sexes unlike ; the underside of males are 
always brilliantly coloured ; that of the females dull whitish- 
gray. Tarsi clothed. 

Type Chlorolampis, Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii. 

P- 47 



Genera of Humming Birds. i [3 

Genus LII., Chlorolampis, Cab., Mus. Heine, i860, 1. iii., 

P- 47- 
TYPE : Trochilus auriceps, Gould. 

Bill about as long as the head, straight, rather wide at base, 
and terminating to a sharp point. Wangs long. Tail long 
and forked, two of the median rectriees very short and even, 
the next one, one-third longer, the two outermost ones narrow 
and long, the last one twiee as long as the median reetrices, 
all of them being semi-rounded at the points. Feet small. 
Tarsi clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Mexico. 

156. Chlorolampis AURïCEPS, Gould, Jard, Contr., Orn., 

1852, p. 137. 

Spo radians auriceps, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool, 1854, p. 
223. 

Chlorostiibon auriceps, Gould, Mon.Troch, vol. v., p. 350. 

Long-Tailed Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. v., p. 350. 

Le Chlorolampe à tête d'or, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, to ii, p. 80. 
Habitat. — Mexico. 

Male. — Crown metallic golden. Upperside golden-green. 
Throat metallic yellowish-green. Breast and abdomen 
metallic golden. Vent white. Wings purplish-brown. 
Tail long, deeply forked, bluish-black, all but the outermost 
feathers tipped with large gray spots. Maxilla flesh colour at 
base, rest black. Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3fin." Wing, ij. Tail, i~. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside dull gray. 
Median rectriees shining green ; lateral green at base, then 
black with gray tips, outermost ones green at base, then gray, 
then black with grayish tips. 

This very rare species was discovered by Mr. Floresi d' 
Arcais. 

I have only one male specimen, Ex Coll Costa de 
Beauregard. 

157. Chlorolampis forficata, Ridgw. Pr. U.S., Nat. Mus. 

vol. viii., p. 574. 

Forked Tail Emerald. 



ii4 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Le Chlorolampe à quene fourchue. 

Habitat. — Yucatan, Mexico. 

Male. — Crown of head golden. Upperside bronze-green. 
Underside bright metallic green. Wings purplish-brown. 
Tail steel-blue with a broad bluish-gray spot at tips of the 
four central rectrices. Vent white. Bill flesh colour with 
black tips. 

Total length, 3-fin. Wing, i-|. Tail, i-|. Culmen. \. 

Female. — Upperside shining green with bronzy reflections, 
especially on the head. Underside gray with green feathers 
on sides of breast and on flanks. Vent white. Wings bluish- 
black. Median rectrices green at base, rest steel-bluë, lateral 
green at base, then steel-blue with grayish tips, outermost 
bluish-black, with gray in the middle internally, and a large 
white tip. 

Total length, 3-Jm. Wing, ij-. Tail, i-|. Culmen, \. 

My specimens were collected by Mr. Gaumer in Yucatan. 

158. Chlorolampis caniveti, Less. Ois. Mouch, 1829, 

pp. I74-I77- 
Hylocharis caniveti, Gray, Gen., Birds, vol. i. p. 114. 

Thaumatias caniveti, Bon., Consp., Gen., Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 78. 

Riccordia caniveti, Reich. Aufz. der Colib., 1853, p. 8. 

Sporadinus caniveti, Bon. Rev. and Mag, Zool., 1854, p. 224. 

Chlorestes caniveti, Reich., Troch., Enum, 1855, p. 4. 

Chlorolampis caniveti, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., t, iii., 

P- 47- 

Canivet's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v. p. 351. 

Le Chlorolampe do Canivet, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 82. 

Habitat. — Mexico. 

Male. — Crown metallic gold. Upperside bronzy-green. 
Underside metallic golden-green, with greenish reflections on 
throat and breast. Wings, purplish-brown. Tail, bluish-black. 
All the feathers with grayish tips, but more conspicuous on the 
three median. Maxilla flesh colour for half its length, rest 
black. Mandible flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, i|-. Tail, i\. Culmen, ^ 6 . 



Genera of Humming Birds. 115 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green, greenish on upper tail- 
coverts. Underside «ray, tinged with bronze feathers on sides 
of breast and flanks. Middle pair of rectrices bronze-green, 
the next three green at base, then steel-blue with white tips, 
the outermost black at base, then gray with a large subter- 
minal bluish-black bar, and white tips. Ear-coverts black. A 
narrow line of whitish-gray behind the eve. 

This pretty species is common in Mexico. I have killed 
many specimens at Tospam, near Cordoba. It was discovered 
by Delattre, and dedicated by Lesson to Mr. Canivet, a French 
naturalist. 

159. CHLOROLAMPIS OSBERTI, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, 

P- m 
Osbert's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 352. 
Le Chloralampe d'Osbert. 

Habitat. — Guatemala, Nicaragua. 

The only difference between this species and the preceding 
one, consists in the colour of the underside, which is metallic 
emerald-green on the throat and breast, and the colour of its 
rectrices which are steel-blue with a narrow bronze tip on 
central feathers, the tail is also shorter. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, if. Tail, if. Culmen, f. 

I have one specimen from Bourcier, collected by Delattre 
in Nicaragua, labelled Clorestes adnsta, which is precisely 
alike. 

160. CHLOROLAMPIS SALVINI, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 

[860, t. in, p. 48. 

Salvin s Emerald. 

Le Chlorolampe de Salvin. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica. 

Male. — Crown golden. Upperside golden-green. Under- 
side metallic emerald-green. Wings purple-brown. Tail 
steel-blue with a narrow bronze band at tips of central 
feathers. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour for two- 
thirds of its length, rest black. 

Total length, 3?in. Wing, 2. Tail, i-J. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Exactly like the female of C. caniveti, excepting 
the mandible w T hich is flesh colour at base only, the rest black, 
and the tips of rectrices, which are slightly more rounded. 



1 16 . Genera of Humming Birds. 

The specimens which I have of this species were collected, 
by me at San José, Costa Rica, which lays on the Atlantic 
slope. I think the great difference in the colouring of the 
underside and bill entitles it to be considered as a species. 

Genus LUI. Sporadinus, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool, 1854, 

P- 255. 
RiCORDiA, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 10. 

Sporadicus, Cab. et Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., p. 25. 

ERASMIA, Heine, Journ fur Ornith, 1863, p. 91. 

Marsyas, Muls., Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 13. 

Type : S. ricordi, Gervais. 

Bill as long as the head, straight. Nostrils naked. Wings 
long, reaching near the end of the tail. Tail long, deeply 
forked, tips of rectrices semi-rounded. Throat metallic. 
Tarsi partly clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — -West Indiae Islands. 

161. Sporadinus ricordi, Gerv. Rev. and Mag. Zool, 1835, 

pi., 40-42. 

Ornismya parzudaki, Less., Rev. Zool, 1838, p. 315. 

Orthorhynchus ricordi ', Delia, Sagra. Hist. Cuba, 1840, 
p. 128. 

Hylocharis ricordi, Gray. Gen. Birds, vol. i., p, 114. 

Ricordia raimondi, Reich., Aufz. der Col, 1853, p. 8. 

Chlorestes raimondi, Reich. Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Sporadicus ricordi, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. 
iii. p. 25. 

Sporadinus bracei, Lawr, Ann. N.Y. Acad, Scien, 1877, p. 
50- 

Ricord's Humming-bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 
34«- 

Le Sporadin de Ricord, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
vol. ii., p. 75. 

Habitat. — Cuba and Bahamas. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside metallic, 
emerald-green, bronzy on flanks and abdomen. Wings 
purplish-brown. Median rectrices bronze, lateral purplish- 



Genera of Humming Birds. 117 

black, with bronze on outer webs. Undertail-coverts white. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with black tip. In one 
specimen, collected by Mr. Gaumer in Cuba, the mandible 
has only the base flesh colour. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Oilmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green. Underside grayish 
white, washed with green on side of breast and flanks, the 
outermost rectrices have bronze tips. 

Same size as male. 

This species was discovered by Mr. Alexandre Ricord, and 
it was dedicated to him by Mr. Gervais. It is rare in the 
collections. 



162. SPORADIXUS ELEGANS, Vieill, Ois. Dor., 1802, vol. v., 

P- 3 2 - 

Ornismya swainsoni, Less., Ois., Mou., 1829, p. 197. 

Trochilus swainsoni, Nat. Lib. Hum. Birds, 1833, vol. ii., 
p. 132. 

Hylocharis elegans, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1844-49, v °l- ' l -t P- 1 1 4- 
Lampornis elegans, Bon. Consp., Gen. Av., 1850, vol. \. r 
p. 72. ' 

Ricord ia elegans, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 8. 
Chlorestes elegans, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 
Sporadicus elegans, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. 
ni-, p- 25. 

Sto. Domingo Humming-bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v. r 

P- 347- 

Le Sporadin élégant, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., vol. ii. r 
p. 72. 

Habitat. — Haiti and San Domingo. 

Maie. — Upperside bronze-green. Throat bright metallic 
green. Centre of breast black. Rest of underside shining 
dark green. Wings purplish-brown. Tail dark brown, with a 
bronze lustre on tips. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour 
with black tip. 

Total length, 4^in. Wing, 2§. Tail, 2. Culmen. -§-. 

Female.— Upperside bronze-green, grayish on head. Lender- 
side brownish-gray. Central tail feathers bronze-green, rest 



ii8 Genera of Humming Birds. 

gray, with subterminal black bars, some of the feathers glossed 
with green. 

I have only one male specimen of this very rare species. 
Ex Costa de Beauregard's collection. 

^"163. Sporadinus maugei, Vieill., Diet. Hist. Nat., 1817, 

t. vii., p. 568. 

Ornismyia maugei, Less. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 194. 

Thaumatias ourissia, Bp. Consp., Gen. Av., 1850, p. 79. 

Trochilus maugei, Sund. Oefv. K. Vet. Akad. For., 1869, 
p. 600. 

Cho restes gertrudis, Gundl. Journ. fur. Ornith., 1874, 
P- 3 r 5- 

Marsyas maugei, Muls., Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 13. 

Chlorolampis maugeus, Gundl., Ann. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 
1878, t. vii., p. 225. 

Maugé's Humming Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 
P- 349- 

Le Sporadin de M auge, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
vol. ii., p. 78. 

Habitat. — Porto Rico. 

Male.— Entire plumage bright green, the feathers showing 
a golden tinge when held in the light. Throat dark blue, 
golden-green in some lights. Tail dark blue. Wings dark 
brown. 

Female. — Underpart dull white, the central feathers of the 
tail green, the rest grayish-green with a band of blue near the 
tip, outer feathers tipped with grayish white. 

Length, 3-35. Wing, 2. Tail, 1-25, Bill, 55. 

The above descriptions were taken from the fine work, 
Birds of the West Indies, by Cory, 1889, p. 154. 

It is a very rare species and one of my desiderata. 

It was discovered at Porto Rico by Mr. Maugé, and 
dedicated to him, by Vieillot. The types are in the Paris 

Museum. 

Mr. Mulsant in his work, Hist. Nat. des Ois. Mouches, has 
described a fourth species under the name of S. inccrtus; but 
it is the same as S. elogans. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 119 

Genus LIV. Chlorostilbon, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, 

P- J 75- 
CHLORESTES, Reich., Aufz. der Colib., 1853, p. 10. 
CHLOROLAMPIS, Cab. and Hein., Mus., Hein., i860, t. iii., p. 47. 
MERION, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, t. iii. p. 92. 

TYPE. — T. pucherani, Bourcier. 

Bill about the length of the head, straight, rather broad and 
flat at base, terminating in a sharp point, flesh colour, with 
black tips, or all black. Wings long, reaching nearly the 
end of tail. Tail forked. Feet small. Tarsi clothed. Sexes 
unlike. 

Habitat. — Mexico, to Argentine Republic. 

164. Chlorostilbon pucherani, Bourc and Muls., Rev. 

Zool., 1848, p. 271. 

Trochilus nitidis simus, Licht, Mus. Bérol. 
Hylocharis pucherani, Bp., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
P- 255- 

Chlorestes pucherani, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, P- 7- 
Chlorostilbon igneus, Gould, Int. Troch., p. 176. 
Chlorostilbon insula ris, Lavvr. Ann. Lye, N.Y., t. 7, p. 457. 
Hylocharis flav if rons j Pelz, Orn. Bras., p. 33. 

Chlorostilbon bicolor, Reich., Videusk, Medd. For. Kjob., 
1870, p. 113. 

Chlorostilbon prasinus, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 355. 

Brazilian Eînerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 355. 

Le Chlorostilbon de Pucheran. 

Habitat. — South Eastern Brazil. 

Male. — Crown golden-green. Upperside dark shining 
green. Throat metallic bluish-green. Underside metallic 
golden-green. Wings purple-brown. Tail blue-black. Bill 
red at base, with black tip. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, i-i-. Tail, i-|. Culmen, y 7 ^-. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside gray, tinged 
with bronze feathers on sides of breast and flanks. Median 
rectrices shining green, lateral bluish-black, with white tips. 
Same size as male. 



120 Genera of Humming Birds. 

This species was dedicated by Mess. Bourcier and Mulsant 
to Doctor Pucheran. 

It is abundant in Brazil. 



T65. Chlorostilbon wiedi, N. Sp. 

Wied's Emerald. 

r Emerande de Wied. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Crown metallic-gold. Upperside golden-green. 
Throat metallic emerald-green. Breast, abdomen, flanks, and 
undertail-coverts metallic golden-green. Wings purplish- 
brown. Tail steel-blue. Maxilla, half of it, flesh colour, rest 
black. Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, i{. Tail, if. Culmen, T 7 -g. 

Female. — Exactly like the preceding species. 

I have several specimens of this new species, collected in 
Brazil, by Delattre, with the name of Wiedi on the label, 
so I thought very appropriate to keep it, in memory of Prince 
Maximilian de Wied. 

*i66. Chlorostilbon egregius, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith, 

1863, p. 198. 

Hylocharis bicolor ) Burm., S.Ueb., ii, p. 348. 
Hylocharis flavifrons, Pelz., Orn. Bras. p. 33. 
Trochilus audeberti, Var, Wied, Beitr. Nat. Gesch. Bras, 
t. iv., p. 69. 

Taquara 's Emerald. 

E Emeraude de Taquara. 

Habitat. — Taquara, Brazil. 

Intermedius quasi statura rostrique longitudine ac vigore 
inter C. phaethontem, et C. pucherani ; hoc vero omnino 
similior splendore smaragdineo-virente potius quam flavido- 
aurescente, gutture splendidissime secundum quandam solis 
lucem in colorem sapphirino-smaragdineum nonnihil vergente. 

Long tot, 3 " 7 "\ al, 1 » 9^ "\ caud, 1 " 3 "'. Culm., 8 "". 

Type in Berlin Museum. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 121 

167. Chlorostilbon SPLENDIDUS, Vieill., Diet. Hist. Nat., 

1817, t. vii., p. 361. 

Ornismya anreiventris, D'Orb and Laf., Syn. Av. 1838, 
t. ii, p. 28. 

Trochilus phœton, Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1848, p. 274. 
Clorestes phseton, Reich., Aufz. der Colib., 1853, p. 7. 
Hylocharis phœton, Bon. Rev. and Mag., Zool., 1854, 

P- 255- 

Chlorolampis phœthon, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 48. 

Glittering Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch. vol. v., p. 354. 

Le Chlorostilbon splendide, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 94. 

Habitat. — Bolivia and Argentine Republic. 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Throat metallic emerald 
green. Breast and abdomen metallic golden-green, greenish 
on breast. Undertail-coverts, black at base, then shiningf 
green. Wings purplish-brown. Tail steel-blue. Maxilla 
flesh colour for half its length, rest black. Mandible flesh 
colour, with black tip. A tuft of white feathers beneath the 
vent. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, -j-i-. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green. Underside gray. Flanks 
bronzy. Tail bluish-black, two lateral feathers tipped with 
grayish-white. 

I have several specimens of this rare species collected by 
Mess. Buckley in Bolivia, Flamand at Corrientes, Argentine 
Republic, and Laglaize at San Salvador, High Paraguay. 

168. Chlorostilbon chrysogaster, Bourc, Rev. Zool., 

1843, P- I01 - 
Hylocharis chrysogaster, Bon. Consp., Gen. Av., 1850, vol. 
i., p. 74. 

Chlorestes chrysogastra, Reich., Aufz. der Colib., 1853, 
p. 7. 

Chlorolampis haeberlini, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 48. 

Chlorostilbon nitens, Lawr, Ann. N.Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., 
1861, p. 305. 



122 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Ruddy-Breasted Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 
1886, p. 98. 

Le Chlorostilbon de la Colombie. 

Habitat.— Columbia, Panama. 

Male. — Crown metallic golden-green. Upperside dark 
golden-green. Underside metallic emerald-green, golden on 
flank, abdomen, and undertail-coverts. Wing purplish-blue. 
Tail steel-blue, deeply forked. Maxilla black. Mandible 
flesh colour, with black tip. A tuft of white feathers on 
lower part of vent. 

This species was discovered at Sta Marta, Columbia, by 
Delattre. 

Type of Bourcier in my Collection. 

169. Chlorostilbon inespectata, Berlespch Ornith. 

Centralbl, 1879, p. 63. 

Panychlora inexpectata, Berl. Ornith. Centralbl, 1879, 
p. 63. 

Unexpected Emerald. 

Le Chlorostilbon inattendu. 

Habitat. — Bogota, Columbia. 

P. haeberlini Cab. and Hein., subsimilis, mandibulae basi 
(eodem modo), carnea, differt rectricibus omnibus obscure 
(sed splendide) viridibus (nee chalybeis), canda minus quam 
in P. haeberlini furcata, rostro longiore, fronte prasino-viridi. 

Long lat, 74-5, cauda, 27, ala, 47.5, rostro, 17.75. 

170. Chlorostilbon speciosus, Boucard, Hum. Bird, 1892, 

p. 79. 

Precious Emerald. 

Le Chlorastilbon précieux. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside dark olive-green. Tail steel-blue. Wings 
purplish-brown. Underside, including tail-coverts, shining 
olive-green. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with 
black tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2. Tail, \\. Culmen, -^. 

Eemale. — Unknown, but probably like the preceding 
species. 

Type : Unique in my collection. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 123 

171. Chlorostilbon angustipennis, Fraz., P.Z.S., 1840, 

p. 18. 

Hylocharis angustipennis, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 114. 

P- 75- 

Chrysuronia phseopyga, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 

Prasites phseopyga, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. 
iii., p. 47. 

Chrysomirus angustipennis, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 102. 

Columbian Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 353. 

Le Chrysomire angustipemie, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. 11, p. 103. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Throat metallic emerald 
green, sometimes golden. Undertail-coverts shining grass- 
green. Wings purplish-blue. Tail blue-black, deeply 
forked. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 3§in. Wing, 2. Tail, i^. Culmen, -~. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green, greener on upper tail- 
coverts. Underside gray washed, with green on flanks. 
Median rectrices green at base, rest blue-black, lateral green 
at base, then blue-black tipped gray, external one gray at 
base, then crossed by a broad steel-blue band, and tipped 
gray. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour at base, the rest 
black. 

Common in Columbia. 

172. Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus, Gould, P.Z.S., i860, 

p. 308. 

Chlorostilbon comptus, Berlepsch, Ibis, 1887, p. 296. 

Golden Green Emerald. 

Emeraude vert-doré. 

Habitat. — Ecuador and Columbia. 

Male. — Crown metallic-golden. Upperside shining bronze- 
green. Throat and upper part of breast metallic emerald- 
green. Rest of underside golden-green. A tuft of white 
feathers on each side of lower part of vent. Tail steel-blue, 
deeply forked. Rectrices narrow. Win^s purplish-brown. 
Bill black. 
O 



124 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Total length, 3|ift. Wing, if. Tail, if. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green, duller on head. Under- 
tail-coverts shining green. Underside whitish-gray, speckled 
with bronze-green on sides of breast and flanks. Median 
rectrices green, with bluish tips, lateral green at base, then 
steel-blue with white tips. Bill black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, if. Tail, ij. Culmen, \±. 

I have not been able to see any difference between the 
specimens which I have from Columbia, collected at Antioquia, 
Columbia, by Mr. Salmon, and those collected by Buckley at 
Ecuador. Therefore I think that Chlo ro stilbon melanorhynchus, 
comptas, Berlepsch is not a valid species. 

173. CHLOROSTILBON ASSIMILIS, Lawr., Ann., N.Y., Lye. 
Nat. His., i860, p. 292. 

Chlorolampis assimilis, Heine., Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, 
p. 202. 

Veragua Emerald. 

Emeraude de Veragua. 

Habitat. — Veragua and Colon (Panama). 

Male. — Upperside shining golden-green. Throat metallic 
golden-green with greenish reflections, rest of underside 
metallic golden. Undertail-coverts shining green. Tail purple- 
blue. Wings purplish-black. Bill black. A tuft of white 
feathers under vent. 

Total length, 2-Jin. Wing, if. Tail, i-|. Culmen, T 9 g-. 

Female. — Like the preceding species, but much smaller. 

This species is closely allied to the preceding, but much 
smaller, easily to be distinguished by the golden-reddish 
colour of the upperside, and the colour of its tail. 

The specimens in my collection were collected by Arcé in 
Veragua, and by me at Colon. 

I have another male specimen collected by me, at Panama 
in December, 1876, which is of the same size, with all the 
upperside shining green, and all the underside metallic 
emerald-green. I propose the name of Chlorostilbon 
panamensis for it, if it should prove new. 

174. Chlorostilbon atala, Less, Hist. Nat. Troch., 1831, 

p. 118. 
Hylocharis atala, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1844-49, v °l- L > P- 115 



Genera of Humming Birds. 125 

Chlorostilbon atala, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 356. 

Saucerottia atala, Bon. Consp., Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 

P- 77- 

Chlorestes atala, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Chlorostilbon caribacus, Lawr., Ann., N.Y., Lye, Nat. Hist., 
vol. x., p. 2. 

Atala's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p, 356. 

Le Chrysomire atala, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou.. 1875, 

t. ii., p. 105. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Venezuela, and Columbia. 

Male. — Crown metallic-golden. Upperside golden-green. 
Uppertail-coverts shining green. Underside metallic emerald- 
green, golden on flanks and abdomen. Wings purplish-brown. 
Tail steel-black. Bill black. White tuft of feathers on each 
side under the vent. 

Total length, 3-J-in. Wing, i-J-J-. Tail, i-i Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green, brownish on head. 
Underside grayish-white, washed with a few green feathers 
on flanks. Median rectrices bluish-green, lateral bluish-green 
at base, then steel-blue with white tips. Bill black. 

My Venezuelan specimens were collected, by Doctor Carlos 
Rojas, of Caracas. 

Genus LV. Smaragdochrysis, Gould. 

Smaragdochrysis, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 180. 

Type : C. iridescens, Gould. 

Bill longer than the head, straight and slender. Wings 
small, primaries narrow and rigid. Tail of moderate size 
and deeply forked Tarsi clothed. Feet small ; hind toe and 
nail nearly as long as the middle one (Gould, loc. cit.) 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

*i75- Smaragdochrysis iridescens, Gould, Mon. Troch., 

vol. v., p. 159. 

Iridescent Humming-bird \ Gould, Mon. Troch, vol. v., p. 
359- 

l Emeraude irisé. 



I2Ô Genera of Humming Birds. 

Habitat. — Novo-Friburgo (Brazil.) 

• Male. — ? The whole of the body, including the upper 
and undertail-coverts, iridescent pale green, and light coppery 
red, most brilliant on the throat ; the deeply-forked tail steely 
dark brown, each feather tipped with a more bronzy or 
purplish hue, which is seen only in certain lights ; upper 
mandible and the tip of the lower one black, the remainder 
of the latter apparent reddish flesh-colour (Gould, loc. cit.) 

Total length, 3çin. Wing, i-^-. Tail, \\. Bill, f. 

Female. — Unknown. 

It is a very rare species, and one of my desiderata. It has 

been discovered by Mr. Reeves, at Novo-Friburgo. 



Genus LVI. Ptochoptera, Elliot, Ibis, 1874, p. 261. 

Type : T. iolaema, Pelzen. 

Bill moderately long, straight, sharply pointed. Wings 
extremely short, a little over one-third the entire length of 
the bird. Tail long, deeply forked. Feathers narrow, outer 
ones curving slightly inwards. Tail-coverts very long, reaching 
to the fork of the tail. (Elliot, loc. cit.) 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

^176. Ptochoptera iolaema, Reich, Aufz. der Col., 1853, 

p. 8. 

Thalurania iolaema, Yon Pelz., Ornith. Braz., p. 57. 

Natterer's Wood Nymph, Gould, Mon. Troch. Suppl., p. 48. 

Le Ptochoptère à gorge verte, Muls., Hist. Nat Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 89. 

Habitat — Brazil. 

Male. — Top of head and nape dull dark green, entire upper 
parts grass-green, only slightly metallic. The tail-coverts are 
a lighter green than the back, and reach to the fork of the tail. 
Throat pale metallic grass-green. Rest of underparts pale 
smokv-brown, with some of the flank feathers tipped with 
grass-green. Undertail-coverts long, same colour as the 
abdomen, with a slight metallic greenish lustre on the centre 
of feathers. Tail long, deeply forked, dark purplish-brown. 
Feathers very narrow. Wings purplish-brown. Bill and feet 
black. 



Geneia of Humming Birds. 127 

Total length, 4|in. Wing, if. Tail, 2. Culmen, \. 
Female. — Unknown. 

Type unique in the Vienna Zoological Museum. 
It has been discovered by Mr. Natterer. 

GENUS LVII. Prasitis, Cab., and Heine, Mus. Hein., 

i860, t. iii., p. 49. 

TYPE : O. prasina, Lesson. 

Bill slightly longer than the head, straight and acutely 
pointed, all black. Wings narrow and long. Tail short, very 
slightly forked or even. Rectrices wide. Feet small. Tarsi 
clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Veragua, Panama, Columbia, Venezuela, Guiana, 
Trinidad, Ecuador and Peru. 

177. Prasitis prasina, Less, Ois. Mou., pp. 35- 188, pi. 65. 

Hylocharis prasinus, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 74. 

Chlorestes prasina, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 7. 

Prasitis prasina, Cab. and Heine., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., 
p. 49. 

Chlorostilbon prasinus, Elliot, Ibis., 1875, p. 163. 

Chrysomirus prasinus, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 108. 

Chlorostilbon subfurcatus, Salv. Berl., Ibis., 1887, p. 297. 

Guiana Emerald. 

Le Chrysomire Orvert, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 109. 

Habitat. — Guiana. 

Male. — Crown metallic golden-green. Rest of upperside 
bronze-green. Uppertail-coverts green. Throat and upper 
part of breast metallic emerald - green, with bluish hue. 
Abdomen and flanks metallic golden-green. Wings purplish- 
brown. Tail blue-black, nearly even. Bill black. 

Total length, 3iin. Wing, i-|. Tail, 1. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside shining green, bronzy on head. Under- 
side gray, washed with a few green feathers on sides of 



128 Genera of Humming Birds. 

breast and flanks. Tail steel -black, nearly even, lateral 
rectrices tipped with gray. Bill black. 

Several of my specimens of this species were collected by 
Mr. H. Whitely, at Roraima, British Guiana. 

I have placed Chlorostilbon subfurcatus, Berlepsch, as a 
synonym of Prasitis prasinus, because I have not been able 
to see any difference between the specimens from Cayenne 
and those of Roraima. 

*i78. Prasitis stuebeli, Mey., Z., Gen. Ornith., 1884, p. 206. 

Stuebel's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 99. 

/' Emeraude de Stuebel. 

Habitat. — Yungas, Bolivia. 

Male. — Upper surface bronzy-green, head coppery ; below 
golden-green, the breast bluish. Wings purplish-brown. Tail 
black, tinged with violet-purple. Bill black. 

Total length, 3 Jin. Wing, 1 y^-. Tail, 1. Culmen, j. 

This species belongs to the genus Prasitis, on account 

of the form of its tail, which is slightly emarginated, the 

rectrices being rather broad. It resembles more C. atala 
than any other species. 

This rare species was discovered in Bolivia, by Doctor 
Stùebel, and dedicated to him, by Doctor Adolf Meyer, of 
Dresden. 

The type is at the Museum of Dresden. 

179. Prasitis daphne, Bon. Rev. Zool., 1854, p. 255. 

Trochilus phaeopygos, Tsch. Faun. Per., p. 247,. 

Metallura phaeopygos, Reich., Aufz. der Col., p. 8. 

Chlorostilbon napensis, Gould, Intr. Troch., 186 1, p. 177. 

Chlorostilbon peruanus, Gould, Intr. Troch., 1861, p. 177. 

Chlorostilbon brevicaudatus, Gould, Intr. Troch, 1861, p. 178. 

Peruvian Emerald. 

V Emeraude du Pérou. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Guiana, Peru. 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Uppertail-coverts shining 
green. Throat metallic green, with bluish reflections. Breast, 
sides of neck, and abdomen metallic golden. A patch of 



Genera of Humming Birds. 129 

white on lower part of vent on each side. Rectrices steel- 
blue, short, of same length. Wings purplish-black. Bill 
black. 

Total length, 3in. Wing, i-|. Tail, -J. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside shining green. Throat and centre of 
abdomen gray. Rest of underside shining green. Ear coverts 
brownish-green. A spot of gray behind the eyes. Tail steel- 
blue, outermost rectrice tipped gray. 

It is a rare species. My specimens were collected by Mr. 
Hauxwell at Nauta (Pérou). I have some others, which I 
believe to be from Trinidad. 

Genus LVIII. Panychlora, Cab. and Heine, Mus. Hein., 

i860, t. iii., p. 49. 

Type : T. aliciae Bourcier. 

Bill as long as the head, straight. Feathers of forehead 
projecting on culmen. Nostrils hidden. Wings long, reaching 
the end of tail. Tail short, slightly forked. Rectrices narrow. 
Feet small. Tarsi partly clothed. Underside brilliantly coloured 
in males. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Venezuela and Columbia. 

180. Panychlora Alicia, Boure. and Muls., Rev. Zool. r 

1848, p. 274. 

Chlorostilbon aliciae, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
p. 239. 

Smaragditis aliciae, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 7. 

Chlorestes alice, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Alice's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 357. 

Le Panychlore d'Alice, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 1 16. 

Habitat. — Venezuela and Columbia. 

Male. — Crown golden. Upperside shining golden-green. 
Underside metallic dark golden-green. Tail dark green with 
blackish reflections. Rectrices narrow, nearly even. Wings 
purplish brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 2|in. Wing, i\. Tail, 1. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside grayish- 
white. Median rectrices green, lateral green at base, then 
black, tipped with gray. 



130 Genera of Humming Birds. 

My specimens of this uncommon species were collected by 
my friend, Doctor Carlos Rojas, in Venezuela. 

*i8i. PANYCHLORA MICANS, Salv., Ann. and Mag., Nat. Hist., 

1891, p- 375- 
Brillant Emerald. 

le Panychlore brillant. 

Habitat. — ? 

Male. — Similar to that of P. aliciae, and about the same 
size. The whole plumage is of a rich reddish-golden hue, 
brighter and redder on the crown. The tail is very dark, and 
of more bronzy tint than in all the allied species ; but the 
outer rectrices are distinctly green, and not coppery-bronze as 
in P. russata ; moreover, the tail is slightly forked. 

Possibly a variety of P. aliciae. 

Unique in the British Museum, " Ex Gould Collection/' 

182. PANYCHLORA, EUCHLORIS, Reich., Aufz der Col, 1853, 

pp. 7-23. 

P any Mora poortmani major } Beriepsch, Journ fur Ornith., 
1884, p. 313. 

Panychlora aurata, Cab. and Heine., Mus. Hein., vol. iii., 
p. 49. 

Golden Emerald 
V Emeraude doré. 
Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Crown metallic yellowish-green. Upperside bronze- 
green. Underside yellowish luminous green. A tuft of 
white feathers under vent, on each side. Tail shining bronze- 
green. Bill black, longer than in the preceding species. 
Wings purplish-brown. 

Total length, 3gin. Wing, if. Tail, 1. Culmen, -§-. 

Female. — Exactly like the preceding species, with crown 
golden. 

Common in Columbia. 

183. PANYCHLORA POORTMANI, Bourcier, Rev. Zool, 1843, 

p. 2. 

Hylocharis poortmani, Gray, Gen. Birds., vol. i., p. 115. 
Chlorestes poortmani, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 7. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 131 

Sma? agditis esmeralda, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 7. 

Panychlora maculicollis, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 1860, 
t. iii., p. 49. 

Poortman's Emerald. Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 358. 

le Panychlore de Poortman, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, vol. ii., p. 1 12. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside shining green, metallic on crown. 
Underside metallic orrass-srreen. A tuft of white feathers 
under vent, on each side. Tail slightly forked, bronzy-green. 
Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3Jin. Wing, i-|. Tail, 1. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside dull golden-green, with brownish 
orange tint on crown. Underside gray. Median rectrices 
green, lateral green at base, then black tipped grayish-white. 
Very common in Columbia. Dedicated to Mr. Théodore 
Poortman, by Bourcier. 

*i84- Panychlora russata, Salv. and Godm., Ibis, 188 1, 

P- 597- 
Coppery Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 101. 

le Panychlore à queue cuivrée. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Very closely allied to P. poortmani, from which it 
differs only by the russet coppery hue of the tail, and wing- 
coverts. The tail feathers are wide, and rounded at their 
ends, rather longer than in other species of this genus. 

It was discovered in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, by 
Mr. F. Simons. The type " Ex. Salv. and Godm. Coll." is in 
the British Muse um. 



185. PANYCHLORA STENURA, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 
i860, t. iii, p. 50. 

Chlorostilbon acusticandus, Gould, i860, P.Z.S., p. 308. 

Panychlora aliciae, Wyatt, Ibis, 187 1, p. 379. 

Venezuelan Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 
p. 100. 
P 



132 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Le Panychlore à queue étroite, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 1 [8. 

Habitat — Merida, Venezuela. 

Male. — Crown metallic green. Upperside shining golden- 
green. Underside metallic emerald-green. Undertail- 
coverts shining green. Tail bronze-green with blackish 
reflections. Median rectrices long with round tips, lateral 
very narrow, pointed, slightly longer, outermost ones ex- 
cessively narrow and longer still. Wings purplish-brown. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, i|-. Tail, i-J. Culmen, J-. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Uppertail-coverts 
shining green. Underside gray. Ear-coverts brownish- 
black. A white line behind the eyes. Wings dark brown. 
Median rectrices green, lateral green, then bluish-black with 
gray tips, outermost ones grav at base, then steel-blue with a 
large gray spot at tip. Bill black. 

Total length, 3-fin. Wing, i|-. Tail, i|-. Culmen, |-. 

It is a rare species. All my specimens were collected at 
Merida, Venezuela. 



FAMILY VIII. AMAZILIIDAB, 

or Family of Large Emeralds and Sapphires. 

Bill usually flesh colour with black tips ; in some genera 
the maxilla and tip of mandible are black, in others it is all 
black, about the same length as the head, straight, rather 
wide at base, terminating to a sharp point. Body small or of 
medium size Wings long and narrow. Rectrices of tail 
narrow, of medium length, and more or less rounded, forked 
in some genera, in others the outermost rectrices are slightly 
shorter than the others, as in the genera Lêucippus, Leucoch- 
loris, Aithurus, Eupherusa, etc. Sexes unlike. All the 
undersides of males are more or less brilliantly coloured 
emerald green or sapphirine blue. Tarsi more or less clothed. 
In the genera Saucerottia and Amazilia the tarsi are very 
clothed. 

Type: Amazilia Reich, Av. Syst. Nat., 1849, P L 39- 

Range. — Mexico, Central and South America, to Argen- 
tine Republic. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 133 

This is a large family, containing many distinct genera ; 
all of them closely allied to one another. 



Genus LIX. Damophila, Reich, Aufz. der Col., 1853, 

p. 7. 
JULIAMYIA, Bp. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 255. 
TYPE : J. Juliae, Bourcier. 

Bill as long as the head, straight and pointed. Tail 
cuneate, feathers narrow, and slightly pointed, outermost 
narrower, and much shorter than the others. Wings moderate, 
feathers very narrow. Tarsi bare. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Columbia and Ecuador. 

186. Damophila Typica, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 

P- 255- 
Omismyia Juliae, Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 373. 

Ornismya feliciana, Leis, Rev. Zool., 1844, p. 433. 

Hylocharis Juliae, Gray, Gen. Bird, vol. 1., p. 114. 

Damophila Julia, Reich, Aufz. der Col. 1853, p. 7. 

Juliamya typica, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v, p. 337. 

Felicia s Humming Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886. 

P- 95- 

Le Damophile de Julie, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii, p. 57. 

Habitat. — Columbia, Ecuador. 

Male. — Forehead and throat, glittering metallic grass-green, 
sometimes with golden reflections. Rest of upperside dark 
shining green, passing into bronze on the lower part of back. 
Tail steel-black. Breast, abdomen, and flanks shining Prussian 
blue. Undertail-coverts blue-black. Wings purplish-brown. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 3m. Wing, if. Tail i\. Culmen, -^-. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green. Underside gray washed 
with green feathers on sides of breast and on flank. Centre 
of abdomen and tuft under vent, white. Lateral tail feathers 
tipped white. 

This beautiful species was dedicated by Bourcier, to Miss 
Anne Julie Roncheval, afterwards Mrs. Mulsant. 



134 • Genera of Humming Birds. 

I have put D. feliciana as a synonym of this species, as 
there is no difference at all between the specimens from 
Ecuador and Columbia. The colour of the crown of the head 
exists, exactly the same, in adult male specimens from 
Columbia, as in those from Ecuador. I have a good series of 
this species from Ecuador and Columbia. 

187. DAMOPHILA PANAMENSIS, Berl. Journ. for Ornith., 1884, 

P- 3I3- 
Juliamyia typica, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N.Y., t. vi, p. 202. 
Damophila juliae, Sclat and Salv., P.Z.S., 1864, p. 365. 
Panama Humming Bird, 
le Damophile de Panama. 
Habitat. — Panama. 

Male. — Very similar to that of D. juliae, but with the crown 
shining green like the back ; not glittering like the throat. 

Genus LX. Cyanophaia, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, 

p. 10. 
Hylocharis, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 255. 

Lepidopyga, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 7. 

Emilia j Muls. and Verr. Troch., 1865, p. 41. 

TYPE : T. coeruleigularis, Gould. 

Bill a little longer than the head, slightly curved. Tail 
forked, feathers narrow and pointed. Wings long and narrow. 
Tarsi covered. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Veragua, Panama, Columbia. 

188. Cyanophaia caeruleigularis, Gould, P.Z.S., 1850, 

p. 163. 

Trochilus duchaissingi, Bourc. Compt. Rend., xxxii, p. 163., 
1851. 

Cyanochloris caeruleigularis, Reich., Aufz. der Col., p. ro. 

Lepidopyga coeruleigularis, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, 
p. 7. 

Sapphironia dnchaissaingi, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
p. 256. 

Thalurania coelina, Bourc, Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1856, 
P- 552. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 135 

Blue-throated Sapphironia, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 
p. 346. 

Le Lepidopyge à gorge bleue, Muls., Hist. Nat, Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. xi, p. 69. 

Habitat. — Veragua and Panama. 

Maie. — Upperside shining bronze-green, reddish on upper 
tail-coverts. Median rectrices bronze-green, lateral bluish- 
black. Throat and chest metallic violet-blue. Flanks and 
abdomen shining grass-green. A tuft of white feathers on 
each side of anal region. Undertail-coverts shining green, 
margined with gray. Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2 \. Tail, if. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green, darker on forehead. 
Central rectrices bronze-green, lateral bluish-black, tipped 
white. Underside white, washed with shining green feathers 
on sides and middle of breast, and on flanks. Undertail- 
coverts white. Same size as male. 

I collected several specimens of this fine and rare species 
at Colon (Panama). 

189. Cyanophaia GOUDOTI, Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 100. 

Polytmus goudoti, Gray, Gen. Birds, Vol. 1, p. 77. 

Saucerottia goudoti, Bon. Consp., Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 79. 

Chalybura goudoti, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 10. 

Hylocharis goudoti, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 255. 

Agyrtria goudoti, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 7. 

Sapphironia goudoti, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 345. 

Lepidopyga goudoti, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 40. 

Emilia goudoti, Muls., Hist. Nat., Ois. Mou., 1875, t. ii.; 
p. 64. 

Sapphironia luminosa, Lawr. Ann., N.Y., Lye. Nat. Hist., 
1862, vol. vii., p. 458. 

Green-breasted Sapphironia, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 
P- 345- 

L'Emilie de Goudot, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 65. 



136 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside shining grass-green. Underside glitter- 
ing bluish-green in some specimens; in others, glittering 
yellowish-green. Median rectrices bronzy-green, lateral pur- 
plish-black. Undertail-coverts shining green, narrowly edged 
with grayish-white. A tuft of white feathers on sides of anal 
region. Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible 
flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, -J--J-. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green. Underside grayish- 
white washed with green feathers on sides of breast, abdomen 
and flanks. Median rectrices bronzy-green, lateral purplish- 
black, tipped gray. 

Very abundant in Columbia, where it was discovered by 
the naturalist Goudot, who explored Columbia during many 
years. He died in that country. It is probable that many of 
the Columbian species of Humming Birds were sent first to 
Europe, by him, and by Boissoneau. 

I have put C. luminosa, Lawr as a synonym of C. goudoti ; 
because I have many specimens which correspond exactly to 
his description of that species, and I consider them all, as C. 
goudoti. 



Genus LXI. Arinia, Muls., Ann., Soc, Linn., 1877. 

TYPE: A. boucardi, Mulsant. 

Bill subcylindrical, until near the point, when it is slightly 
swollen, shorter than half the body. Tail slightly forked. 
Rectrices narrow and pointed. Wings narrow, reaching for 
three fourths, the length of median rectrices. The external 
rectrices are slightly shorter than the next ones. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica. 

190. Arinia BOUCARDI, Muls., Ann. Soc, Linn., Lyon., 1877. 

Sapphironia boucardi, Boucard, P.Z.S., 1878, p. 70. 

Boucard 's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch.,Suppl., 1886, p. 81. 

L'Arène de Boucard, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1878, t. 
iv., p. 194. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 137 

Male. — Upperside shining bronzy-green. Median rectrices 
shining bronze-green, next bronze-green with black tip, 
remaining lateral feathers bronze-green at base, rest purplish 
black, with a very slight gray margin at tips. Throat and 
breast shining green. Abdomen and undertail-coverts white. 
Flanks white, washed with green feathers. Wings purple- 
brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2. Tail, iy 9 ^. Culmen, J-. 

Female. — Differs only from the male by the underside, which 
is grayish-white, washed with green feathers on sides of neck, 
breast and flanks, and the lateral feathers of tail, which are 
slightly tipped gray. Size same as male. 

Types in my collection. 

I discovered this new genus, and new species in May 1877, 
at Punta Arenas (Costa Rica), during the two days that I had 
to wait for the steamer, in which I was pursuing my voyage to 
Guatemala. They were searching for food in some flowers of 
a species of Magnolia, and I consider that I w 7 as very fortunate, 
because, although I collected some great rarities in birds 
during my stay in Costa Rica, this was the only new species 
of Humming Bird which I found, with the exception of 
Oreopyra pectoralis, Salv., which at that time we thought to 
be the same as O. calolaema, but in fact, I was the discoverer 
of that species also. 

Genus LXII. Chrysuronia, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, 

vol. i., p. 75. 

Chrysurus, Bon. Compt. Rendus. 1850. p. 382. 

Chrysurisca, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii. p. 42.. 

Type : O. Aeno?ie, Lesson. 

Bill slightly longer than the head, broad at base, and rather 
flat, graduating rapidly to a sharp point. Nostrils exposed. 
Wings long, reaching the end of tail. Tail forked in some 
species, in others slightly rounded. Rectrices narrow. Feet 
large. Tarsi clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Central America to Argentine Republic. 

191. CHRYSURONIA AENONE, Less, Ois. Mou, Suppl., p. 157. 

Polytmus aenone, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 109. 

Chrysurisca aenone, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., 
p. 42. 



138 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Oenone Humming Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 325. 

La Chrysuronie Oenone, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 7. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana. 

Male. — Head and throat deep shining blue. Upperside 
shining grass-green, golden on rump. Upper tail-coverts fiery 
golden-bronze. Underside metallic yellowish-green. Under- 
tail-coverts bronze edged with gray. Tail metallic golden- 
bronze. Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible 
flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2 \, Tail, i\. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside shining green. Uppertail-coverts 
bronze. Median rectrices bronze, lateral bronze at base, then 
black, tipped with grayish-white. Underside white, tinged 
with green feathers on sides of breast and flanks. Undertail- 
coverts greenish-gray. Slightly smaller than male. 

192. Chrysuronia LONGIROSTRIS, Berlepsch, Krit. Neb., 

1888, p. 20. 

Habitat. — Columbia, Ecuador. 

The only difference between this species and the preceding 
one is the length of the bill, which is one eighth of an inch 
longer. I hardly think it is sufficient to consider it as a species. 

I possess two specimens collected by Buckley in Ecuador, 
one has the tail greenish-bronze instead of reddish-bronze, 
the other has all the underside, excepting the throat, metallic 
gold. 

^193. Chrysuronia humboldti, Bourc. and Muls., Ann. 
Soc. Phys. Lyon, 1852, p. 142. 

Chrysurisca hmnboldti, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii, p. 42. 

Thaumatias viridicaudus, Lawr. Ann. Lye, Nat. Hist. N.Y., 
1866, p. 403. 

Humboldt's Humming Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 
P- 3 2 7- 

La Chrysuronie de Humboldt, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1878, t. iv., p. 187. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 139 

Male. — Top of head and throat dark purple-blue. Upper 
surface golden-green, bronzy on the rump. Wings purplish- 
brown. Undersurface shining light bronzy-green with a 
white streak in the centre of the abdomen. Tail dark bronzy- 
green with a bluish shade on the central feathers. Under- 
tail-coverts white. Bill flesh colour or red, (?) tip black. 
Feet brown. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2§. Tail, 1^-. Culmen, -J. 

Female. — Upperparts coppery-bronze. Undersurface dull 
"white spangled with green. Central tail feathers dark green, 
lateral ones bronzy-green, graduating into dark brown, and 
tipped with white. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2f. Tail, \\. Culmen, J. (Elliot 
loc. cit.) 

Typical specimens in Elliot and British Museum Collections. 

194. CHRYSURONIA NEERA, Less and Del., Rev. Zool., 1839, 

p. 18. 

Ornismya josephinae, Bourc. and Muls., Rev. Zool., 1848, 

P I 2 - 

Trochilus josephinae, Gray, Gen. Birds, Suppl., vol. iii., 30a. 

Chrysurisca josephinae, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein, i860, 
t. iii., p. 10. 

Avyrtria caeruleiceps, Gould, P.Z.S., i860, p 307. 

Josephine* s Humming Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 
p. 326. 

La Chrysuronie de Josephine, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 11. 

Habitat. — Upper Amazons, Ecuador and Peru. 

Male. — Crown of the head and chin deep shining blue. 
Upperside shining green. Tail and uppertail-coverts golden- 
bronze. Underside metallic grass-green. Undertail-coverts 
golden-bronze fringed with gray. Wings purplish-brown. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour, tip black. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2 J. Tail, \\. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside whitewashed 
with green on sides of neck, breast and flanks. Rest of 
plumage like the male, but not so brilliant. 

In my opinion the type of Agyrtria caeruleiceps, Gould, 
which I have examined, is only C. neera, male junior. 

Q 



140 Genera of Humming Birds. 

195. CHRYSURONIA BUCKLEYI, Boucard, Hum. Bird, 1893, 

vol. iii., p. 9. 

Buckley's Humming Bird. 

La Chrysuronie de Buckley. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Male. — Head dark shining blue. Upperside golden-green. 
Tail and uppertail-coverts shining coppery-red. Underside 
metallic emerald-green, golden on abdomen and flanks. Under- 
tail-coverts golden fringed with gray. Wings purplish-brown, 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 23-. Tail, 1^. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Unknown. 

This species is easily distinguished from the preceding one 
in not having any blue on the chin, the colour of its tail, its 
smaller size, and bill shorter. 

It was discovered in Bolivia, by the late Buckley, in 1876. 

Type in Boucard's Museum. 

196. CHRYSURONIA ELICIAE, Bourc. and Muls., Ann. Soc. Agr. 

Lyon., 1846, t. ix., p. 314. 

Polytmus eliciae, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 109. 

Chrysurisca eliciae -, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., 
p. 42. 

Elicits Golden Tail, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p 328. 

La Chrysuronie d'Elicia, Muls., Hist. Nat., Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. Li., p. 13. 

Habitat. — Guatemala, Nicaragua, Veragua. 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Uppertail-coverts coppery- 
red. Tail golden-bronze with coppery tinge at tips. Throat 
shining blue with purplish reflections. Breast bluish-green. 
Abdomen and flanks dull golden-green, with buff on centre 
of abdomen. Undertail-coverts pale buff with bronze reflec- 
tions. Tuft of white feathers on each side of anal region. 
Wings purplish-brown. Bill flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2. Tail, i-|. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upperside like that of male. Underside grayish- 
buff tinged with green on breast and flanks. Throat gray, 



Genera of Humming Birds. 141 

speckled with shining purplish-blue feathers. Undertail-coverts 
fawn. Size as that of male. 

I think this species was discovered by Delattre in Guatemala. 
It was dedicated to Madame Elicia Alain, by MM. Bourcier 
and Mulsant. 

197. Chrysuronia chrysura, Less. Ois. Mou. Suppl., 1831, 

p. 107. 

Polytmus chyrsurus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 100. 

Ramphodon chrysurus, Reich., Aufz. der Col., p. 15. 

Golden Tail, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 329. 

La Chrysuronie à qneue d'or, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 5. 

Habitat. — Brazil. (?) 

Male. — Upperside, including the tail, shining golden-bronze. 
Throat, breast, upper part of abdomen, and flanks, metallic 
golden-red. Rest of abdomen reddish-gray. A tuft of white 
feathers on each side of anal region. Undertail-ooverts golden 
with gray edges. Wings purplish-brown. Bill flesh colour, 
with black tips. 

Total length, ^\\w. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside golden-bronze. Underside, like that 
of male, but less brilliant. Same size as male. 

It is a very rare species. 

198. Chrysuronia ruficollis, Veill., N. Diet. Hist. Nat., 

vol. vii., p. 362. 

Ornisymia ruficollis, d' Orb. and Laf., Syn. Av., 1838, p. 30. 

Rufous- Throated Golden- Tail. 

la Chrysuronie à gorge rousse. 

Habitat. — Bolivia, Paraguay. 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Tail bronze. Throat-rufous. 
Breast, sides of abdomen and flanks shining golden-green. 
Centre of abdomen grayish-buff. Undertail-coverts golden- 
rufous with gray edges. Wings purple-brown. Bill flesh 
colour with black tips. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2 J. Tail, \\. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Tail bronze, with gray 
tips on lateral feathers. Rest as male. 



142 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Young Male. — Chin buff. Abdomen, flanks and undertail- 
coverts buff-gray, tinged on flanks with golden-green feathers. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour at base, rest black. 

A very rare species. 

Genus LXIII. Polyerata, Heine, Journ. fur On., 1863, 

p. 194. 

Coeligena and Damophila, Reich., Aufz. der Col., p. 7. 
Type : P. amabilis, Gould. 

Bill longer than the head, straight, terminating in a sharp 
point. Nostrils exposed. Tail very slightly forked. Wings 
long, reaching nearly the end of tail. Feet small. Tarsi 
clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Costa-Rica, Veragua, Columbia. 

199. Polyerata amabilis, Gould, P.Z.S., 1851, p. 115. 

Juliamya amabilis, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 53. 

Polyerata amabilis, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith, 1863, p. 194. 

Polyerata decora, Salv., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1891^.394. 

Blue breasted Polyerata. 

La Polyerate aimable, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 53. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica, Columbia. 

Male. — Forehead shining metallic green. Upperside bronze- 
green. Uppertail-coverts and median rectrices reddish- 
bronze in some specimens, in others greenish-bronze, lateral 
rectrices bronze at base, then bluish-black, outermost ones 
nearly black for all their length. Chin shining greenish-bronze, 
with black reflections in centre. Throat and upperpart of 
breast metallic violet-blue in some specimens, in others 
metallic blue with scarcely any purple reflections. Lower 
part of breast and flanks greenish-bronze. Abdomen and 
undertail-coverts gray. A tuft of white feathers on each side 
of vent. Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible 
flesh-colour, tip black. 

Total length, 3fin. W^ing, 2. Tail, 1^. Culmen, -§-. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green, reddish on uppertail- 
coverts. Median rectrices bronzy-green, with black tips, 
lateral, bronze at base, then black with grayish tips. Chin 



Genera of Humming Birds. 143 

gray, spotted with bronze feathers. A few shining blue spots 
on breast. Rest of underside plumage, like the male. 
Dimension slightly smaller than the male. 

It is a rare species. I have several specimens from Colum- 
bia, and Chiriqui (Veragua). Others I killed at San Carlos 
(Costa Rica), thinking at the time that I had discovered a 
new species. Lately Mr. Salvin have described specimens 
from Chiriqui under the name of Polyerata decora ; but I 
am of opinion that they are all one and same species, having 
some specimens from Columbia, coloured exactly as those 
from Costa Rica and Chiriqui. In my specimens, the central 
rectrices have a reddish shade as in the others, the only 
difference that I can see is that the throat of my specimens 
from Costa Rica and Chiriqui is more bluish than in those 
from Columbia and Ecuador. 

Genus LXIV. Hylocharis, Boié, Isis, 1831, p. 546. 

Sapphironia, Bon., Rev. et Mag. Zool, 1854. P- 2 5^- 

Type : T. sapphirinus, Gmelin. 

Bill longer than the head, straight, broad, and flat at base. 
Wings long, pointed, nearly reaching the end of tail. Rectrices 
narrow, of even size. Tarsi clothed. Males brilliantly coloured 
on breast, and sometimes on forehead also. Females plain. 

Habitat. — Guiana, Brazil, Peru. 

200. Hylocharis sapphirina, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 1788, t. i., 

p. 496. 

Trochilus fulvifrous, Lath. Ind. Ornit. Suppl., 1790, vol. ii., 
p. 172. 

Ornismya sapphirina, Less. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 172. 
Sapphironia sapphirina, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854. 
p. 256. 

Red-throated Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 342. 

L Hylocare à poitrine de saphir, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. 
Mou., 1875, vol. ii., p. 17. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Upperside dark shining green. Uppertail-coverts 
reddish-bronze. Middle rectrices reddish-bronze, lateral chest- 
nut, edged with blackish purple. Chin rufous. Throat and 



144 Genera of Humming Birds. 

breast dark sapphirine-blue. Bill flesh colour with black tips. 
It differs in size according to specimens. Wings purple. A 
tuft of white feathers on each side of lower part of vent. 
Total length, 3-fin. Wing, 2-J. Tail, i^. Culmen, J-. 

Female. — Underside grayish-white. Chin rufous. Breast 
speckled, with a few bright blue feathers. Rectrices purple- 
bronze, lateral tipped with white. Rest of plumage like that 
of male. 

201. HYLOCHARIS GUIANENSIS, Boucard, H. Bird, vol. i., p. 52. 
Guiana Sapphire. 

I ' Hylochare de Guyane. 

Habitat. — Guiana. 

Differing from the preceding species by the darker colour 
of upperside, and the median rectrices which are coppery- 
green, instead of reddish-bronze. 

Total length, 3-g-in. Wing, 2. Tail, \\. Culmen, J-. 

This species was discovered by Henry Whitely, in British 
Guiana. Types in my Collection. 

202. HYLOCHARIS BRAZILIENSIS, Boucard, Hum. Bird, 1893, 

vol. iii., p. 7. 

Brazilian Sapphire. 
V Hylochare du Brésil. 
Habitat. — Rio, Brazil. 

Male. — Upperside shining green, golden on back. Median 
rectrices bronze with purplish reflections, lateral chestnut, 
edged with purplish-black. Chin rufous. Throat and breast 
metallic greenish-blue. Flanks and abdomen golden-green. 
W T ings purple. Bill flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 3iin. Wing, 2. Tail, i-|-. Culmen, -§-. 

I have only one fine adult male specimen of this new 
species, which differs considerably from the two preceding 
ones by the colour of throat and breast, and the golden 
colour of general plumage. 

Type in Boucard's Museum. 

203. Hylocharis CYANEA, Vieill., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 

t. xxiii., p. 426. 

Ornismya bicolor f Less., Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 161. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 145 

Thaumatias cyaneus, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 

P . 78. 

White-throated Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. 5, p. 344. 

l'Hylochare à front bleu, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 20. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Head, throat and breast shining dark blue. Upper- 
side bronzy-green passing into reddish-bronze on rump. Upper- 
tail-coverts dark reddish-bronze. Underside green with gray 
tinge. A tuft of white feathers on each side of the anal 
region. Undertail-coverts bluish-black with grayish or bronzy 
edges. Tail blue-black. Wings purple. Bill flesh colour 
with black tips. 

Total length, 3èin. Wing, 2\. Tail, \\. Culmen, -§-. 

Female. — Upperside like that of male, dark green on fore- 
head. Underside grayish-white tinged with green on sides 
of throat and breast. Lateral rectrices tipped grayish-white. 
Young males have the chin and breast shining pale blue. 



204. Hylocharis viridiventris, Berlepsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 1 13. 
Green-vented Sapphire. 

l'Hylochare a ventre vert. 

Habitat. — Venezuela, Trinidad, British Guiana and Orinoco. 

This is a northern form of H. cyanea, from which it 
differs in its somewhat more splendid and vivid colouration. 
In particular, I find the belly to be never mixed with gray, as 
in Brazilian specimens, but of a dark and splendid green 
colour. 

205. Hylocharis bartletti, Gould, P.Z.S., 1866, p. 194. 

Agyrtria Bartletti, Elliot, Class and Syn. Troch., 1879, 
p. 205. 

Bartlett's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch. Suppl., 1886, 
P- 74- 

Le Thumatias de Bartlett, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 255. 

l'Hylocare de Bartlett. 

Habitat. — Peru. 



146 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Throat and breast shining 
purplish-blue. Abdomen and flanks dark green, washed with 
gray. Centre of abdomen, sides of flanks, and tuft on each 
side of lower part of vent jDure white. Undertail-coverts pale 
gray, with green in centre. Median rectrices bronze, with 
bluish-black tips, lateral bluish-black. Wings purple-brown. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour. 

Total length, 4§in. Wing, 2-J-. Tail, i-§. Culmen, \. 

This rare species was discovered by Bartlett in Peru, and 
it was dedicated to him, by John Gould. 

My specimens were collected in Peru, by Garlepp in 1887. 

It is very closely allied to H. lactea, from which it differs 
only by the lighter bronze colour of its general plumage, and 
the bill, which is longer. 

206. HYLOCHARIS LACTEA, Less., Ind. Gen. Syn. Ois., 1831, 

P . 38. 

Cyanochlaris lactea, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 10. 
Sapphironia lactea, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 256. 

Blue breasted Sapphire, Gould, Mon.Troch. vol. v., p. 343. 

I' Hylochare à ventre blanc, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 23. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Upperside shining grass-green, bronzv on crown, 
and uppertail-coverts. Throat and breast metallic sapphirine- 
blue. Middle of the abdomen white, and tuft on each side of 
vent, pure white. Flanks shining green. Undertail-coverts 
white with dark disks. Median rectrices blackish with bronze 
margin, lateral bluish-black with olive margin. Maxilla black, 
mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2-|. Tail, i-|. Culmen, f . 

Female. — Same colouring as the male, with throat and 
breast of a paler blue. Lateral rectrices tipped with gray. 

It is a rare species, and only represented by one male 
specimen in the collection of the British Museum. I possess 
several fine specimens from Brazil. 

Genus LXV. Agyrtria, Reich., Troch., Enum., 1855, p. 7. 
Thaumantias, Bon., Rev. and Mag., Zool., 1854, p. 255. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 147 

THAUMATIAS, Gould, Mon. Troch., Intr., 1861, p. 151. 

Type : Agyrtria leucogastra Reichenback. 

Bill longer than the head, straight, broad at base, and 
acutely pointed. Feathers of the forehead not extending 
upon the culmen. Nostrils exposed. Wings long and narrow. 
Median rectrices slightly shorter than the next two, these also 
shorter than the two outermost ones, no subterminal baron 
the lateral rectrices of the large species, which are generally 
bronze at base, with the remainder black. A subterminal 
bar on lateral rectrices of the small species. Tarsi clothed. 
Sexes alike. 

Habitat. — Guiana, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. 

207. Agyrtria leucogaster, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 1788, vol. i., 

P- 495- 
Ornysmia albirostris, Less. Ois, Mou., 1829, p. 212 

Thaumantias leucogaster, Bon., Rev. and Mag., Zool., 1854, 
P- 255- 

Agyrtria, leucogastra, Reich, Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 10. 

White-throated Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 
294. 

La Leucolie leucogastre, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 232. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Head and sides of neck metallic green. Upperside 
shining grass-green. Median rectrices bronze-green, lateral 
steel-black with tips slightly margined with gray. Throat, 
centre of the abdomen, and undertail-coverts pure white. 
Breast and sides of flanks shining bronze-green. Wings 
purple-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with 
black tip. 

Total length, 3§in. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, \. 

208. Agyrtria, viridicauda, Berlepsch, Ibis, 1883, p. 493. 
Leucippus viridicauda, Berlepsch, Ibis, 1883, p. 493. 
Berlepsch's White-throat, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 

P- 73- 

La Leucolie de Berlepsch. 
Habitat. — Huiro, Peru. 



148 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Differs only from L. leucogaster } by reason of its uniform 
tail feathers, these never being margined with white, as well 
as by its shorter bill. 

This species was discovered in Peru, by Mr. H. Whitely. 

^209. Agyrtria alleni, Elliott, Auk., 1888, p. 263. 
Allen's Emerald, 
le Thaumatias d'Allen. 
Habitat. — Yungas, Bolivia. 

Top of head and occiput dark greenish-blue, not metallic ; 
nape, back, and shoulders, shining grass-green ; rump and 
uppertail-coverts glittering bronze. Tail shining bronze, with 
the tips- of feathers pale gray, widest on the outermost rectrices, 
and diminishing to the central ones, which have a mere indica- 
tion of gray at the tip. Wings purplish-brown. Sides of neck 
shining bluish-green. Throat and centre of breast white, 
speckled with shining green ; sides of breast and flanks 
metallic grass-green. Abdomen whitish. Undertail-coverts 
pale brown, edged with white. Maxilla black. Mandible 
flesh colour, tip black. Feet black. 

Total length, 3iin. Wing, if, Tail, i t 7 q. Bill, f. 

" Elliot's loc. cit." 

Type unique in the New York American Museum of 
Natural History. 

It was brought from Bolivia, by Doctor H. Rusby. 

210. AGYRTRIA COMPSA, Hein., Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 185. 

Agyrtria mellisuga, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., 

P- 34- 

Thaumatias compsa, Elliot, Ibis, 1878, p. 45. 

Heine's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch. Suppl., 1886, p. 75, 

Le Thaumatias de Heine. 

Habitat. — Guiana, Brazil. 

Male. — Forehead, sides of neck and breast metallic 
golden-green. Upperside golden-green. Median rectrices 
dark bronze, lateral purple-blue. Throat, centre of breast, 
abdomen, and undertail-coverts white. Flanks golden-green. 
Wings purple-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh-colour 
with black tip. 

Total length, 3iin. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, J. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 149 

*2II. Agyrtria nitidifrons, Gould, P.Z.S., i860, p. 308. 

Thazimatias nitidifrons, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., page 238. 

Brilliant fronted Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 
p. 297. 

le Thaumatias à front brillant , Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 239. 

Habitat. — Venezuela (?) 

Adult. — Crown of the head, face, chest, and neck glittering 
green ; abdomen and flanks golden-green ; back, shoulders, 
and rump bronzy-green ; tail pale bronzy green, with a zone 
of purplish-brown crossing the four lateral feathers on each 
side, near their tips ; undertail-coverts gray with a patch of 
bronzy-green in the centre of each ; tarsi grayish-brown ; 
upper mandible black ; under mandible yellow, black at tip. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 1^. Culmen, f . " Gould loc cit." 

Gould's type, presented to him by Mr. Lawrence of New 
York, is still unique, and is now in the collection of the 
British Museum. 



212. Agyrtria tephrocephala, Vieill., Nouv. Diet. Hist. 

Nat., t. xxiii., p. 430. 

Ornysmia tephrocephala, Less. Ois. Mou., 1892, p. 182. 

Ornysmia albiventris, Less. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 209. 

Polytmus thaumatias, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. 1., p. 108. 

Thaumatias albiventris, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 70. 

Coeligena tephrocephala, Reich., Aufz. der Colib., 1853, P- 7- 

White bellied Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 301. 

Le Thaumatias à ventre blanc, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 245. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Upperside dark bronzy-green, deeper in the middle 
of back. Median rectrices bronze-green, lateral bronze at 
base, passing into black with gray tips. Throat and breast 
grass-green. Abdomen and undertail-coverts white. Flanks 



150 Genera of Humming Birds. 

white, washed with green. Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla 
black. Mandible flesh-colour, tip black. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Slightly smaller, and less brilliant than the male. 

213. Agyrtria tobaci, Gmel. Syst. Av., 1788, p. 498. 

Trochilus tobagensis, Lath., Ind. Ornith., 1790, vol. i., p. 316. 

Trochilus maculatus, Vieill., Ois. Dor., 1802, t. i., p. 87. 

Ornysmia viridissima, Less., Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 207. 

Saucerottia viridipectus, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 7, 

Agyrtria maculata, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., 
P- 33- 

Thaumatias linnaei, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 302. 

Linnaeus Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 302. 

Le Thaumatias de Linné, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 248. 

Habitat. — Tobago, Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Median rectrices bronze- 
green, lateral bronze at base passing into black, with pale 
bronze tips. Throat and breast metallic emerald-green. 
Centre of abdomen white. Flanks bronze-green. Under- 
tail coverts pale greenish-bronze, margined white. Wings 
purplish-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour, with 
black tip. 

Total length, 3|-in. Wing, 2. Tail, 1^. Çulmen, \. 

Female. — Same colouring as male, but not so bright. 
Lateral feathers of tail largely tipped, with pale green-bronze. 
Slightly smaller than the male. 

My specimens from Trinidad and Venezuela, have scarcely 
any black on the lateral feathers of tail, and the bill is flesh 
colour, with black tips. 

214 Agyrtria apicalis, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 154. 

Agyrtria terpna, Heine, Journ., fur Ornith., 1863, p. 184. 

Black-tipped Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 
P- 77- 

Habitat. — Columbia. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 151 

Male. — This species is very much like the preceding one. 
The only difference which 1 can perceive is its larger size, and 
the centre of breast which is white. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, 1. 

*2i5. Agyrtria MACULICAUDA, Gould, Int. Troch., i86i r 

P- J 54- 

Guiana Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 77. 

LeThaumatias â queue tachée, Muls., Hist., Nat. Ois., Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 251. 

Habitat. — Guiana. 

Male. — This is a very small species with a long thin 
bill, its breast is green as in the others. Centre of the abdomen 
white ; undertail-coverts white except in the centre, where 
they are dark brown ; two central tail feathers bronzy-green, 
except at the extreme tip, which is greenish-black, the next 
one on each side, bronze for half its length, then black, the 
three outer ones, on each side, bronzy-green at base, then 
broadly zoned with black, next to which, they are green, and 
lastly white. 

Total length, 3Jin. Bill,|. Wing, 2. Tail. ij. " Gould, loc. cit." 

216. Agyrtria nigricauda, Elliot, Ibis, 1878, p. 47. 

Black-tailed Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 
p. 80. 

Le Thaumatias à queue noire. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Guiana, Brazil. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green, darkest on the head, and 
shading into purple on the uppertail-coverts. Tail steel-black 
excepting the median rectrices which are purplish-bronze at 
base, the two outermost feathers are greenish-gray at tips. 
Throat and breast shining metallic grass-green. Flanks dark 
green. Middle of abdomen, vent, and undertail-coverts white. 
Wings purple. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour, with 
black tip. 

Total length, 3Jin. Wing, 2\. Tail, i^. Culmen, f. 

I have some specimens of this species from Brazil and 
Trinidad, in which the median rectrices, and the one next ta 
them are purplish-bronze with blackish tips. 



1^2 Genera of Humming Birds. 

217. Agyrtria niticauda, Elliot, Ibis, 1878, p. 48. 
Bright-tailed Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 

p. 80. 

Thaumatias niticanda, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1878, 
t. iv., p. 177. 

le Thaumatias à quene brillante. 

Habitat. — Guiana. 

Male. — Upperside bronze-green, with a slight coppery 
tinge on the head. Chin white. Throat, breast, and sides of 
neck bright metallic green. Flanks and abdomen bronze- 
green. Middle of abdomen, vent, and undertail-coverts white. 
Median rectrices bronze-green, lateral purplish-black, edges 
and tips of outermost bronze green. Wings purplish-brown. 
Bill flesh colour with dark tips. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2\. Tail, \\. Bill, f. 

Type in the Museum of New York " Ex. Elliot's Coll." 

By the description and my specimens, which agrees with it, 
and were collected by Whitely in Guiana, I should not be 
surprised if this species, and A. maculicauda, Gould, turn out 
to be only the well known species A. tobaci. 

218. Agyrtria fluviatilis, Gould, Int. Troch, 1861, p. 154. 
Riverine Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 76. 

Le Thaumatias fluviatile, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 254. 

Habitat. — Pelas (Peru.) 

Male. — Upperside shining golden-green. Median rectrices 
bronze-green largely tipped with bluish-black, lateral bronze 
at base of external web, then bluish-black, the two outer- 
most ones bluish-black, with a very slight gray margin at 
tips. Throat and breast luminous grass-green. Abdomen 
and flanks shining greenish-bronze. Vent white. Under- 
tail-coverts pale green, edged with gray. Wings purple. 
Bill flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Upperside shining grass-green, bronzy on fore- 
head and uppertail-coverts. Median rectrices, bronze-green, 
lateral bronze-green on external webs, then bluish-black, 
margined white at tips, outermost one bluish-black with 



Genera of Humming Birds. 153 

margin of tip white, underneath bluish-black with grayish 
tip. Throat and breast luminous green, lighter than in the 
male. Flanks and abdomen bronzy-green. Centre of breast 
abdomen, and vent white. Undertail-coverts greenish- 
brown edged white. Maxilla brownish-black. Mandible 
flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2J. Tail, if. Culmen, f . 

I think the discoverer of this species is Mr. Hauxwell, as 
my specimens, of both sexes, of this species, were collected 
by him at Pebas in 1866, and it is very probable that the 
tvpical specimen of Gould came also from him. 

It is a rare species in the Collections. 

*2ig. AGYRTRIA (?) LUCIAE, Lawr., Proceed., Acad., Nat., Sci., 

Philad., 1867, p. 233. 

Lucy's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 78. 

Le Thaumatias de Lucie, Musi., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 241. 

Habitat. — Honduras. 

Upper plumage dull bronzy dark green, crown duller; 
uppertail-coverts a lighter bronzy-green somewhat golden ; 
tail feathers dull bronzy-green, all except the two central ones 
broadley marked near their ends with dark purplish-bronze, 
the tips being ashy-gray ; the throat and breast are glittering 
bluish-green ; middle of the abdomen white ; wings brownish- 
purple. Upper mandible black, the under one yellow with 
the end blackish ; feet black. 

Length, 3}in. Wing, 2^-. Tail, if. Bill, -ff- " Lawr., loc. cit." 

This species was dedicated to Miss Lucie Brewster, daughter 
of Mr. Thomas Brewster, of Boston. 

*22o. Agyrtria NORRisii, Bourc, P.Z.S., 1847, p. 47. 

Polytmus norrisii, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Amazilia norrisii, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 10. 

Pyrrophaena norrisii, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860 
t. iii., p. 36. 

He?nistilbon norrisii, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 150. 

Leucodora norrisii, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i, 
p. 309. 



154 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Thaumatias norrisii, Elliott, Ibis., 1878, p. 44. 

Thaumatias lerdi, De Oca, la Naturaleza, 1874, t. iii, p. 24. 

Norris's Emerald. 

Le Leucodore de N orris, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. 1, p. 310. 

Habitat. — Mexico. 

Male. — Upper parts golden-green. Throat and sides of neck 
metallic golden-green. Breast white. Abdomen and flanks 
pale rufous. Uppertail-coverts light grayish-green. Under- 
tail-coverts grayish-white. Wings pale green. Tail shining 
grayish-green. Feet flesh colour. Bill flesh colour, black at 
the point. 

Wing, 55 mill. Tail, 35. Bill, 18. 

" Bourcier, P.Z.S., 1847, p. 47." 

221. Agyrtria brevirostris, Less., Ois. Mou., 1829, p.p. 

35-211. 
Basilinna brevirostris, Less., Ind. Gen., and Syn., Gen. 
Troch., 1831, p. 26. 

Polytmus brevirostris, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Thaumatias brevirostris, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, 
vol. i., p. 78. 

Agyrtria brevirostris, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 10. 

Short-billed Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 298. 

Le Thaumatias brévirostre, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 

1874, t. i., p. 242. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Upperside shining bronzy-green. Median rectrices 
shining olive-green, lateral olive-green, with a subterminal 
black bar near the tips, which are grayish-bronze. Sides of 
neck and breast metallic-green. Throat, centre of breast, 
and abdomen white. Flanks bronze-green. Undertail-coverts 
gray, margined with white. Wing purple-brown. Maxilla 
black. Mandible flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 2|-in. Wing, 2. Tail, i-|. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Like the male, less brightly coloured on sides of 
neck and breast. Lateral rectrices slightly tipped with gray. 

Abundant in Brazil. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 155 

222. Agyrtria VERSICOLOR, Nordm., Erm., Reise, 1835, pi. 1. 

Hylocharis -versicolor , Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i,p. 108. 

Agyrtria versicolor, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, P- I0 - 

Thaumatias versicolor, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 

P- 255- 

Thaumatias affinis, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 299. 

Agyrtria affinis, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., 
P- 33- 

Allied Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. 5, p. 299. 

Le Thaumatias tout vert. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male — Upperside bronzy-green. Median rectrices bronze, 
lateral pale olive-bronze with the subterminal bar pale brown. 
Throat, sides of neck, and breast glittering metallic green, 
showing the white base of feathers. Flanks and abdomen 
shining bronzy-green. Undertail-coverts olive-bronze, mar- 
gined with white. Wings purplish-black. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 3iin. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, \^. 

Female. — Coloured like the male, but less bright on sides of 
neck, with the centre of throat, breast and abdomen, white. 
Lateral rectrices margined with gray. 

223. Agyrtria Candida, Bourc. and Muls., Ann. Soc. Agri., 

Lyon, 1846. t. ix., p. 326. 

Ornysmya senex, Less., Rev. Zool., 1838, p. 315. 
Polytmus candidus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. 1, p. 108. 
Thaumatias candidus, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 

P . 78. 

Agyrtria margaritaceus, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 7. 

Leucolia Candida, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
P 233. 

White breasted Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v. 
p. 292. 

le Candide, 

Habitat. — Mexico to Nicaragua. 

Male. — Upperside bronze, greenish on back. Tail bronze, 
with a reddish tinge at tips, lateral with a brownish-black 
R 



156 Genera of Humming Birds. 

subterminal bar and pale bronze tips. Throat, breast, abdomen 
and undertail-coverts white. Sides of breast and flanks pale 
bronzy-green. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with 
black tip. Wings purplish. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Exactly like the male excepting the tail beneath, 
which is grayish-bronze with a subterminal blackish bar on 
lateral feathers and very pale bronzy-gray tips. 

I have collected this species in Mexico, where it was 
abundant. I think the typical specimen was collected by 
Delattre. 

Genus LXVI. Uranomitra, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, 

p. 10. 

Cyanomyia, Bon., Rev. and Mag., Zool., 1854, p. 254. 

Leucolia, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., p. 211. 

Type : T. franciae, Bourcier. 

Bill longer than the head, straight or slightly curved ; broad 
and flat at base. Nostrils exposed. Wings long. Tail slightly 
forked, median rectrices slightly shorter than the next, which 
are also slightly shorter than the other two ; these are of the 
same length. All the lateral rectrices have a subterminal bar 
more or less apparent. Tarsi partly clothed. Forehead bril- 
liantly coloured in both sexes, which are coloured alike. 

Habitat. — Mexico, Central America, Columbia, Ecuador, 
Peru. 

224. Uranomitra franciae, Bourc. and Muls., Ann. Soc. 
Agr., Lyon, 1846, t. ix., p. 324. 

Polytmus franciae, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 109. 

Agyrtria franciae, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 7. 

Cyanomyia franciae, Bon., Rev. and Mag., Zool., 1854, p. 
254- 

Leucolia franciae, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 217. 

Franciâs Azure Crown, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 287. 

La Leucolie de Francia, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 218. 

Habitat. — Columbia, 



Genera of Humming Birds. 157 

Male. — Head metallic blue. Neck brilliant green. Rest 
of upper parts bronzy-green, changing to coppery-red on 
rump and upper-tail coverts. Median rectrices bronze, lateral 
of same colour, with a blackish spot appearing as a sub- 
terminal bar near the tips. These spots on the lateral 
feathers, and the length of rectrices, are the principal differ- 
ences which distinguish this genus from Cyanomyia. Under- 
side pure white, excepting sides of neck and breast, which 
are metallic green. Sides of flanks washed with green. 
Wings purple-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour, 
with black tip. 

Total length, 4111. Wing, 2-|. Tail, if. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Head bluish. Upperside bronze-green, golden 
on lower part of back, and coppery-red on uppertail-coverts. 
Tail bronze, with the subterminal blackish bar more apparent 
than in the male, and the tips of lateral rectrices slightly 
margined with gray. Underside pure white, sides of neck 
metallic-green, flanks golden. Wings purple-brown. Bill 
black except base of mandible which is flesh colour. Same 
size as male. 

It is a common species. 

225. Uranomitra cyanicollis, Gould, P.Z.S., 1853, p. 61. 

Cyanomyia cyanicollis Bon., Rev. and Mag. Z00L, 1854, 
P- 254- 

Leucolia cyanicollis, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 212. 

Blue Necked Azure Crown, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol., v, 
p. 288. 

La Leucolie à cou bleu, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 212. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Male. — Crown of the head, nape, and sides of neck metallic 
blue with greenish reflections. Upperside bronzy-green pass- 
ing to golden on rump, and uppertail-coverts. Tail bronzy- 
green, all the laterals crossed near the tip with an obscure 
brown band. Underside pure white, flanks white washed 
sparingly with pale golden feathers. Wings purple-brown. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2-|, Tail, if. Culmen, \. 



158 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Female unknown; but probably like the male, less metallic 
on head and sides of neck. 

This very rare species was discovered in Peru, by the well- 
known traveller Warszewicz. 

*226 Uranomitra pelzeni, Tacz., P.Z.S., 1879, p. 239. 

Leucolia pelzeni, Tacz. P.Z.S., 1879, p. 239. .. 

La Leucolie de Pel zen. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Female. — Rostrum subarquatum, dimidia parte corporis 
sublongius; pileo viridi-nitido; corpore supra viridi-subcupreo; 
cauda subtruncata, vix emarginata ; rectricibus viridi-aeneis, 
externis in apice cinereiset macula longitudinali fusca notatis ; 
corpore subtus albo sericeo ; lateribus colli et capitis maculis 
splendidis viridi-caeruleis ornatis ; lateribus epigastri viridi 
maculatis ; ventris lateribus viridibus ; subcandalibus albis. 

Head shining green. Rest of upperside bronzy-green. 
Tail nearly truncate, median rectrices shortest shining green, 
slightly bronzy, lateral and outermost green, less brilliant with 
a subterminal black bar and gray tips. Wings purplish-brown. 
Underside pure white. Sides of neck, breast, and flanks 
spotted with shining bluish pale green. Undertail-coverts 
pure white. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh-colour, with 
black tip. Feet black. 

Length of wing, 53 mill. Tail, 33. Culmen, 22. 

This species, unique in Warsaw Museum, was discovered 
in May 1878, at Guajungo, Upper Maranon, by Mr. 
Stolzmann. 

I believe it to be the female of U. cyanicollis. 

^227. Uranomitra neglecta, Elliott, Ibis, 1877, p. 140. 

Ornismyia bicolor, d'Orb and Lafr., Syn. Av., 1838, t. ii., 
p. 30. 

Bar-tailed Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 

75- 

Le Thaumatias négligé, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1878, t. 
iv., p. 175. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Male. — Top of head, nape, and mantle green ; throat and 
upperpart of breast brilliant metallic blue, the white base of the 



Genera of Humming Birds. 159 

feathers showing amid the blue ; back, rump, and uppertail- 
coverts light greenish-bronze. Wings purplish. Undertail- 
coverts pale brown, margined with white. Tail pale greenish- 
bronze, with a subterminal black bar on lateral feathers. 
Maxilla black, mandible flesh colour. Feet black. " Elliot 
Synopsis, Troch., p. 205." 

Total length, 3ïin. Wing, 2. Tail, 1^. Bill, J. 

Female. — Upperparts, sides of throat, and flanks shining 
green. Centre of throat and underparts whitish, spotted 
with light metallic green. Tail like the male, tips of lateral 
feathers whitish. Undertail-coverts white. Wings purple. 
Bill like the male Feet black. 

Total length, 3 fin. Wing, 2. Tail, ij. Bill, f. "Elliot, toe. a" 

228. Uranomitra viRiDtCEPS, Gould, P.Z.S., i85o, p. 307. 

Green-headed Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v, p. 295. 

La Leitcolie à calotte verte, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 229. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — -Head and sides of neck metallic green. Upper- 
side shining bronzy-green, passing to reddish-golden on rump 
and uppertail-coverts. Median rectrices bronze, lateral pale 
bronze with a subterminal bar of brown near the tips, which 
are grayish-bronze. Throat, centre of breast, abdomen, and 
undertail-coverts white. Sides of breast and flanks, white 
washed with green. Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2J. Tail, if. Culmen, J. 

Female. — -Head shining green. Upperside dull bronzy- 
green. Tail greenish-bronze with subterminal blackish bar 
on lateral feathers. Underside white. Sides of breast and 
flanks sparingly washed with green. Wings purplish-brown. 
Same size as male. 

I have a male with the head and sides of neck metallic 
bluish-green. My specimens were collected in Ecuador, by 
Buckley. It is a rare species. 

*229. Uranomitra taczanowsku, Sclater, P.Z.S., 1879, 

p. 146. 

Leucolia taczanowskii, Deslongch, Cat. Descr. Troch., vol. i., 
p. 301. 



i6o Genera of Humining Birds. 

Taczanowskï s Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 
p. 79. 

La Leucolie de Taczanowski. 

Habitat. — Guayungo, Peru. 

Supra metallice viridis, in capitecupreo lavatus, plumis subtus 
cinereis ; alis fuscis, tectricibus dorso concoloribus ; cauda 
aequali, supra dorso concolori, versus apicem cupreo-tincta, 
subtus fusca, versus apicem cupreo-virescente ; corpore subtus 
albo, lateraliter et in crisso praecipue pallido cinereo perfuso ; 
gutture toto punctis minutis, cordiformibus, nitenti-viridibus 
obtecto; rostro forti, paulum incurvo. 

Total, length, 4m. Alae, 2-J. Candae, if. Rostri, -|. 

Obs. Sp. Th. viridicipiti, Gould, ut videtur, affinis rostro 
fortiusculo, canda aequali, et maculis gutturis minutis insignis. 
" Selat, loc. cit." 

This species was discovered at Guajungo, Peru, by Mess. 
Stolzmann and Jelski. 

230. URANOMITRA COLUMBIANA, Boucard, Hum. Bird, 1892, 

p. 82. 

Columbian Emerald. 

La Leucolie de Colombie. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — -Head and sides of neck metallic green. Upperside 
golden-green. Median rectrices bronze. Lateral purplish- 
bronze, with a wide subterminal brownish-black bar. Throat, 
centre of addomen, anal region, and undertail-coverts white. 
Flanks golden-green. Wings purple-brown. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3§-in. Wing, 2 J. Tail, if. Culmen, J. 

Female. — -Head and bajk bronzy-green, passing to reddish- 
golden on rump and uppertail-coverts. Tail bronze, lateral 
bronze with a subterminal brownish-black bar, and gray tips. 
Throat, centre of abdomen, lower part of vent and undertail- 
coverts white. Sides of neck and breast shining green. 
Flanks golden-green. Bill like the male. Same size as male. 

Types of both sexes in my collection. 

This species is closely allied to U. niveipectus, but can be 
easily distinguished by the colour of mandible. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 161 

231. Uranomitra MILLERI, Bourc. P.Z.S., 1847, p. 43. 
Poly t mus milleri, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 
Thaumatias milleri, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i, p. 

78. 

Agyrtria milleri, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, P- I0 - 

Leucolia milleri, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 225. 

Miller's Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol v., p. 296. 

La Leucolie de Miller, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 226. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Head and sides of neck metallic green. Upperside 
bronzy-green passing to golden on rump and uppertail-coverts. 
Median rectrices pale bronze, lateral grayish-bronze with a 
wide subterminal brownish-black bar. Underside white, 
washed with green on sides of breast, and on flanks. Wings 
purplish-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with 
black tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2. Tail, 1^. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Forehead dark shining green. Rest of upperside 
bronze-green slightly golden on rump and uppertail-coverts. 
Tail bronze with a wide subterminal blackish bar on lateral 
feathers, which have gray tips. Underside like the male with 
less green on flanks. Undertail-coverts whitish-gray. 

It resembles U. viridiceps, but is a much smaller species. 
According to Bourcier, it was discovered by Natterer, on Rio 
Negro. 

232. Uranomitra whitelyi, Boucard, Hum. Bird, 1893, 

vol. iii., p. 8. 

Whitely s Emerald. 
La Leucolie de Whitely. 
Habitat. — Annai (B. GuianaJ. 

Male. — Head and sides of neck metallic green. Upperside 
bronze-green. Median rectrices bronze, lateral bronze, with 
a subterminal blackish bar. Throat, breast, and abdomen 
pure white. Flanks golden-green. Undertail-coverts white, 
with centre pale gray. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3-fin. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, f . 



IÔ2 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Female. — Head and sides of neck shining green, but not so 
brilliant as in the male. Upperside bronze-green. Underside 
white. Flanks white, washed with green. Tail bronze, lateral 
with a brown subterminal bar and tips margined with gray. 

This new species, discovered by Mr. Henry Whitely in 
British Guiana, is closely allied to U. milleri, but can be 
distinguished easily from that species, by its black bill. 

Types in Boucard's Museum. 

233. URANOMITRA NlVElPECTUS,Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 

i860, t. iii., p. 33. 

Thaumatias chionopectus, Gould, Mon. Troch., 1859, P- 5- 

Polytmus chionopectus, Léotard, Ois. Trinid., 1866, p. 140. 

Snowy-throated Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 293. 

La Leucolie à poitrine d'un blanc de neige, Muls., Hist. 
Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., p. 228. 

Habitat. — Trinidad. 

Male. — Head and sides of neck metallic golden-green 
in some specimens, in others metallic green. Upperside 
shining coppery-green, more coppery on rump and uppertail- 
coverts. Tail purplish-bronze, with a wide subterminal 
purplish-brown bar on lateral feathers. Throat and centre of 
abdomen pure white. Bar in middle of breast and flanks 
golden-green. Undertail-coverts greyish with white margins. 
Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length 3fin. Wing, 2, Tail, if. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside shining bronze green. Uppertail- 
coverts coppery. Underside white, washed with green on sides 
of neck, on breast and flanks. Tail beneath bronze passing to 
brownish-black, with gray tips on lateral feathers. Bill black. 
Same size as male. 

Rather common in Trinidad. 

Genus LXVII. Cyanomyia, Bon., Rev. and Mag., Zool., 

1854, p. 254. 

Leucolia, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., p. 211. 

Type : T. cyanocephala, Lesson. 

Bill straight, acutely pointed, longer than the head, broad 
at base. Wings long, narrow, nearly reaching the end of tail. 



Genera of H it vim in g Birds. 163 

Tail slightly forked. Median rectrices slightly smaller than 
the next ones, which arc also slightly smaller than the three 
others. These of same length. Tarsi partly clothed. Sexes 
alike. 

Habitat . — Mexico and Central America. 

234. Cyanomyia cyanocephala, Lesson, Suppl.. Ois. Mou., 

1 83 1, p. 134. 

Polytmus verticah's, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 109. 

Uranomitra cyanocephala , Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, 
p. 10. 

Agyrtria faustinae, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, t. i., p. 7 

Cyanomyia guatemalensis, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 148. 

Uranomitra lesson i, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 41. 

Leucolia cyanocephala, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 219. 

Black-billed Azure Crown, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 
p. 286. 

La Leucolie à calotte d'azur, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 220. 

Habitat. — Mexico and Guatemala. 

Male. — Top of head metallic blue with greenish reflections 
in certain lights. Upperside bronzy-green, passing to bronzy- 
brown on lower part of back and uppertail-coverts. Tail 
pale green-bronze. Throat, middle of breast, and abdomen 
white. Sides of neck, breast and flanks pale bronzy-green. 
Undertail-coverts pale bronze, edged with grayish-white. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with black tip. Wings 
purplish-brown. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, |-. 

Female. — Exactly like the male, but the green on sides of 
breast and flanks, slightly paler. 

235. Cyanomyia quadricolor, Vieillot, Enc. Méth., t. iii., 

P- 573- 
Polytmus quadricolor, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i. p. 119. 

Trochilus verticalis, Licht. Preis. Verz., Thier., 1830. 

Uranomitra quadricolar, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 10. 



164 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Leucolia quadricolor, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 215. 

Uranomitra ellioti, Berl., P. U.S., Nat. Mus., vol. xi., p. 562. 

Red-billed Azure Crown, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 284. 

La Leucolie quadricolore, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois., Mou., 1874, 
t. i,, p, 216, 

Habitat. — Mexico. 

Male. — Top of head metallic blue. Upperside pale bronzy- 
brown. Tail shining bronzy-green. Underside pure white, 
tinged on sides of neck, breast, and flanks with some few 
bluish feathers. Wings purple-brown. Bill coral red, with 
black tips. 

Total length, 4§in. Wing, 2§. Tail, if. Culmen, |. 

236 Cyanomyia violiceps, Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1859, p. 97. 

Uranomitra violiceps, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 41. 

Leucolia viridiceps, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 213. 

Violet Crown, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 285. 

La Leucohe à calotte violette, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 214. 

Habitat. — S. Mexico. 

Maie. — Differs only from C. quadricolor by the colour of 
its tail, which is bronzy-red, and by the feathers on sides of 
neck, breast, and flanks, which are greenish. 

Total length, 4§in. Wing, 2§. Tail, 1^. Culmen, |. 

This species was discovered by me, in 1857, at Oaxaca, 
South Mexico, It is rare in the collections. 

*237. Cyanomyia viridifrons, Elliot, Ann. and Mag., Nat. 
Hist., 1871, vol. viii., p. 267. 

Green-fronted Crown, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 
p. 72. 

La Leucolie à front vert, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 224. 

Habitat. — Putla, (S. Mexico). 



Genera of Humming Birds. 165 

Male. — Differs only from C. violiccps by the colour of 
forehead, which is dark green, metallic in some lights. 

It was discovered by my traveller, Eugène Rebouch. 

The type is now in the New York Natural History Museum. 

238. Cyanomyia guerrerensis, Salv. and Godm., Biol, cent. 

ameri., 1892. 
Guerrero Green Crown. 
La Leucolie de Guerrero. 
Habitat. — Guerrero, Mexico. 

This new species is very nearly allied to C. viridifrons, 
so much so, in fact, that I am of opinion that both belongs to 
the same species ; I have one specimen, from Mazatlan, col- 
lected by Mr. Forrer, which I can only refer to that species. 
The type specimen of C. viridifrons, was collected at Putla, 
which is close to the state of Guerrero. It is therefore 
probable that it is found all over the Mexican west coast, 
from Tehuantepec to Mazatlan, and even more north. 

The specimens from which Mon. Salwin and Godm described 
the species, were collected by Mrs. Smith. 

^239. Cyanomyia microrhyncha, Elliot, Ibis, 1876, p. 316. 

Small-billed Azure Crown, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 
1886, p. 72. 

La Leucolie à petit bee. 

Habitat.— Honduras ? 

Adult. — Top of head and occiput dark metallic blue. Hind 
neck and mantle shining metallic green ; rest of upperparts 
bronzy-red. Throat, upper part of breast, and centre of 
abdomen white, with a few metallic green feathers scattered 
among the white ones. Flanks and undertail-coverts metallic 
bronzy-red. Wings deep brown, slightly shaded with purple. 
Tail brilliant metallic bronze. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2^. Tail, \\. Culmen,^. " Elliot, I.e. " 
Type in the New York Museum of Natural History. 

Genus LXVIII. Leucippus, Bon., Compt, Rend., 1850, 

p. 382. 

Talaphorus, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., t. i., p. 257. 
Type : T. chionogaster, Tschudi. 



i66 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Bill longer than the head, narrow and rounded at base, 
nostrils exposed. Wings long and pointed, reaching the end 
of tail. Tail rounded, all the retrices of same length. Tarsi 
clothed to the toes. Sexes alike, dull. 

Habitat. — Amazons, Peru, and Bolivia. 

240. Leucippus CHIONOGASTER, Tsch. Faun. Per., 1844, 

p. 247. 

Trochilus turneri, Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 113. 
Polytmus chionogaster, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Thaumatias leucogaster, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, 
vol. i., p. 78. 

Leucippus pallidus, Tacz., P.Z.S., 1874, p. 542. 

White-breasted Leucippus, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., 
p. 290. 

Le Leucippe à ventre blanc de neige, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. 
Mou., 1874, t. i., p. 259. 

Habitat. — Peru, and Bolivia. 

Male. — -Upperside pale bronzy-green. Tail feathers bronzy- 
green, with inner webs and shafts of lateral ones white. 
Underside pure white, sides of breast and flanks washed 
sparingly with pale green feathers edged with white. Maxilla 
black. Mandible flesh colour, with black tips. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2\. Tail, \\. Culmen, 1. 

It is a rare species. My specimens were collected by MM. 
Buckley and Garlepp. 

241. Leucippus chlorocercus, Gould, P.Z.S., 1866, p. 194. 
Spotted White-throat, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 

P- 73- 

Le Leucippe â queue verte , Muls., Hist., Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 258. 

Habitat. — Upper Amazons and Peru. 

This species resembles closely the preceding one. It differs 
in having the tail shining pale greenish-bronze with a faint 
subterminal bar of darker green, and gray tips. Bill shorter 
than in L. chionogaster, and all black. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2$. Tail, \\. Culmen, -|. 

I have only one specimen of this rare species collected by 
Hauxwell, at Nauta, in 1883. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 167 

Genus LXIX. Lefccochloris, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, 

p. 10. 

Type : T. albicollis, Vieillot. 

Bill straight, longer than the head, wide at base, feathers of 
the forehead projecting slightly on the culmen, hiding the 
nostrils. Wings long, reaching the end of tail. Tail rounded, 
rectrices, including the median, even, excepting the outermost 
ones, which are very narrow, reaching the third of white tip of 
next one. Tarsi clothed. Sexes alike. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

242. Leucochloris albicollis, Vieill., Nouv. Diet. Hist. 
Nat., 1818, t. xxiii., p. 426. 

Ornismyia albicollis, Less., Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 184. 

Colibri albogularis, Spix., Av. Bras., 1825, t. i., p. 81. 

Basilinna albicollis, Less., Ind. Gen. and Syn. Ois., 183 1, 

P- 2 5- 

Polytmus albicollis, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Thaumatias albicollis, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 

P . 78. 

Leucippus albicollis, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 8. 

Agyrtria albicollis, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 32. 

White-throat , Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 291. 

Le Leucochlore albicolle, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 262. 

Le Leucochlore à gorge blanche. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Upperside shining golden-green. Median rectrices 
bronze-green, lateral bluish-black with white tips, outermost 
one bluish-black for half its length, the rest white. Chin, 
breast, and flanks shining green. Throat, abdomen, and 
undertail-coverts pure white. Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla 
black. Mandible flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 4iin. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Median rectrices green- 
ish-bronze with blue reflections, rest bluish-black with white 
tips. Chin white, spotted with minute greenish feathers. 



1 68 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Throat, abdomen, and undertail-coverts white. Breast and 
flanks shining green. Slightly smaller than the male. 

GENUS LXX. Aithurus, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 

vol. iii., p. 50. 

PHAETHORNIS, Less., Tab. Esp., Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 18. 

POLYTHMUS, Less., Ind. Gen., Syn. Gen., Troch., 1832, p. 16. 

TROCHILUS, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1840, p. 14. 

Type : T. polytmus, Linné. 

Bill curved, wide at base, longer than the head. Rectrices 
narrow and pointed. Lateral, next the outermost one 
lengthened nearly three times that of the others. Tail deeply 
forked. Head crested, with elongated feathers on each side. 
Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Jamaica. 

243. Aithurus polytmus, Lin., Syst. Nat., 1766, vol. i., 

p. 189. 

Bourdonneur du Mango, à longue queue, Abin., t. iii., p. 20, 
p. 49, fig. a. 

Oiseau Mouche à longue queue noire, Sonn., Ed. de Buff., 
Hist. Nat., t. xvii., p. 215. 

Mellisuga Jamaicensis, Briss. Ois., t. iii., p. 729. 

Metlivora avis maxima, Sloane, Journ., vol. ii., p. 309, 
fig. 4. 

Trochilus polytmus, Lin. Syst. Nat., Edit. 10, t. i., p. 120. 

Black-capped Humming-bird , Lath., Gen. Syn., vol. ii., 
p. 748. 

Colibri à tête noire, Vieiil., Ois. Dor., t. i., p. 121, fl. 67. 
Ornismya cephalatra, Less., Ois. Mou., p. 78, p. 17. 

Long-tailed black-capped Humming-bird, Edwards' Birds, 
vol. i., p. 34. 

Trochilus maria, Hill., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1849, vol. iii., 
p. 258. 

Polytmus cephalatra, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, p. 72. 

Black-capped Humming-bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., 

P . 98. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 169 

I'Aithure a tête noire, Muls., Hist. Nat., Ois. Mou., 1874, 
vol. i., p. 336. 

Habitat. — Jamaica. 

Male. — Crown with elongated feathers, velvety-black. 
Upperside dark green. Throat and the whole of underside 
bright green. Undertail-coverts blue-black. Tail black. 
Wings brown. Bill red with black tips. 

Total length, çin. Wing, 2f. Tail, 6J. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Head brown. Upperside shining green. Under- 
side white, tinged with green on the sides and flanks. Median 
rectrices bronze-green, lateral bronze-green on outer web, 
remainder bluish-black, tipped white on the two outermost, 
ones. Upper mandible nearly all black. Lower mandible red 
with black tip. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2-|. Tail, i-|. Culmen, 



7 



Common in Jamaica. 

Genus LXXI. Eupherusa, Gould, Mon. Troch., 1857, 

part xiv. 
Type : — O. eximia, Delattre. 

Bill longer than the head, slightly curved. Wing long, 
reaching the end of tail. Tail even, with the exception of 
the outermost rectrice, which is slightly shorter than the others. 
Tarsi clothed. Hind toe shorter than the middle one. Sexes 
unlike. 

Habitat. — Mexico and Central America. 

244. Eupherusa eximia, Del., Echo du Monde, sav., 1843, 

p. 1069. 

Saucerottia eximia, Reich., Aufz. der Colib., 1853, P- &■ 

Amazilia eximia, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 8. 

Stripe-tail, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 324. 

V Euphéruse remarquable, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 272. 

Habitat. — Guatemala. 

Maie. — Upperside golden-green, darker on head. Median 
rectrices dark bronze-green, nearly black on edges and tips, 
the two outermost ones on each side of inner webs white tor 



170 Genera of Humming Birds. 

about two-thirds of their length, the rest bluish-black. Under- 
side luminous metallic, grass-green in some specimens, in 
others golden-green. Undertail-coverts white. Base of 
primaries and secondaries chestnut-red, rest purplish-black. 
Bill black. Feet flesh colour. 

Total length, 3-fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, \\. Culmen, \^. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Underside grayish- 
white, washed sparingly with green, on sides of breast and 
flanks. Outermost feathers white for nearly their whole 
length. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, -i-i. 

Very abundant in Guatemala, where it was discovered by 
Delattre. 

*245. EUPHERUSA POLIOCERCA, Elliot , Ann. and Mag., Nat. 

Hist., 1871, p. 266. 

Gray Stripe-tail, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 84. 

V Euphêruse à quene blanche, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 271. 

Habitat. — Putla, South Mexico. 

Male. — Exactly the same as the preceding species, from 
which it differs only in having the three outermost rectrices 
white, with purplish-gray on the edges of outer webs and 
tips. 

It w r as collected by my traveller, Eugène Reibouch, at Putla. 

I killed that species several years before in Chinantla, Oaxaca ; 
but I do not know what became of my specimens. Probably 
they were sold as E. eximia. 

246. EUPHERUSA EGREGIA, Sclat. and Salv., P.Z.S., 1868, 

p. 389. 

Panama Stripe-tail, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 

P . 85. 

V Euphêruse distinguée ', Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. i., p. 274. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica, Veragua. 

Maie. — Exactly the same as E. eximia, and probably the 
same species. The only difference which 1 can see in the 
specimens which I collected in Costa Rica, and others received 



Genera of Humming Birds. 171 

from Veragua, is that the two outermost rectrices on each side 
of tail are white, to a longer extent than in E. eximia, margined 
and tipped with bluish-black. 

Genus LXXII. Callipharus, Elliot, Syn. H. Birds, 

1879, p. 211. 

CLOTHO, Muls., Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 9, (name already 

employed). 

Type : — E. nigriventris, Lawrence. 

Bill about as long as the head, straight, wide at base, gradu- 
ating to a point at the tip. Frontal leathers not projecting 
on the culmen. Wings long and broad for their length. Tail 
moderate, slightly rounded. Undertail-coverts reaching half 
the length of the rectrices. Feet small. Tarsi partly clothed. 
Sexes entirely unlike. " Elliot, loc. cit." 

Habitat. — Costa Rica and Veragua. 

247 Callipharus nigriventris, Lawr., Proceed. Acad. Nat. 
Scien., Phil., 1867, p. 232. 

Eupherusa (Clotho) nigriventris, Muls., Cat. Ois. Mou. r 
1875, p. 9. 

Thaumatias nigriventris, Sclat and Salv., Nomencl., 1873, 
p. 92. 

Black-bellied Humming-bird , Gould, Mon. Troch., Supply 
1886, p. 83. 

V Euphéruse à ventre noir, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 270. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica and Veraorua. 

Male. — Forehead jet-black. Upperside golden-green Four 
central rectrices dark greenish-bronze, the rest pure white 
tipped with brownish-black. Wing-coverts golden-green. 
Secondaries chestnut with purple tips, rest purplish. Under- 
side jet-black. Flanks washed with bronze feathers. Vent 
and undertail coverts white. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 31'n. Wing, 2. Tail, i|. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Median rectrices dark 
greenish-bronze, tipped black, remainder white. Underside 
ashy-gray. Wing like that of male. Bill black. Same size 
as male. 



172 Genera of Humming Birds. 

This rare and peculiar species was discovered in Veragua. 
by Mr. Endrés. 

I have killed it at Naranjo, Costa Rica, in April, 1877. 

My other specimens were collected in Veragua by Arce. 

•GENUS LXXIII. Elvira, Muls. and Verr., Class, Troch., 

1865, p. 32. 

TYPE : T. chionurus, Gould. 

Bill shorter than the head, straight, with tip slightly curved. 
Nostrils slightly exposed. Wings narrow, pointed, longer 
than the tail. Tail slightly rounded. Tarsi clothed. Sexes 
unlike. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica and Veragua. 

248. Elvira chionura, Gould, P.Z.S., 1850, p. 162. 

Leucippus chionurus, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 11. 

Thaumantias chionura, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
P- 255- 

Elvira chionura, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 266. 

White-tailed Emerald, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 300. 

l'Elvire à queue d'un blanc de neige, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. 
Mou., 1874, t. i., p. 267. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica and Veragua. 

Male. — Upperside shining golden-green, sometimes dark 
green. Median rectrices bronzy-green, lateral white with 
black tips. Underside metallic emerald-green with golden 
reflections. Centre of abdomen and undertail-coverts pure 
white, some bronze feathers on undertail-coverts feathers in 
some specimens. Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3§in. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside shining-green. Median rectrices 
bronzy-green, the one next to it on each side, bronze-green 
with black tips, remainder white with subterminal black bar, 
and white tips. Underside grayish-white with green feathers 
on sides of breast and flanks. Wings purple-brown. Bill 
black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, i|-. Tail, if. Culmen, |-. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 173 

This species was discovered in Veragua, by Mr. 
Warszewicz. 

My specimens were collected in the same country, by 
Arce ; others I collected in Costa Rica. These appear to be 
slightly smaller than the specimens from Veragua, but I don't 
think they can be separated. 

Genus LXXIV. Lawrencius, n.g. 

Type : — P. cupreiceps, Lawrence. 

Bill about the length of the head, strongly curved, gradu- 
ating to a very acute point. Wings long, reaching the end of 
tail. Tail rounded. Median and outermost rectrices wide, 
slightly shorter than the others. Feet large for the size of 
the bird. Tarsi partly clothed. Nostrils partly exposed. 
Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica. 

249. Lawrencius cupreiceps, Lawr., Ann., N.Y., Lye. Nat. 
Hist., 1866, vol. viii., p. 348. 

Thaumatias cupreiceps, Sclat. and Salv., Nomencl, 1873, 
p. 92. 

Elvira cupreiceps, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 268. 

Copper Crown, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 82. 

V Elvire à tête cuivreuse, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 268. 

V Elvire de Lawrence. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica. 

Male. — Top of head metallic bronze at base of maxilla, 
then shining coppery. Upperside golden-green. Uppertail- 
coverts coppery-red. Median rectrices shining bronze with 
reddish reflections, lateral pure white with a tinge of grayish 
margin at tips. Underside luminous metallic emerald-green 
with golden reflections. Anal region and thighs white. 
Wings purplish-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh 
colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 3J-in. Wing, i|. Tail, if. Culmen, y 5 ¥ . 

Female. — Upperside shining green. Slightly coppery on 
head. Uppertail coverts coppery. Median rectrices shining 



174 Genera of Humming Birds. 

bronze. Lateral, white, with a slight blackish subterminal 
bar near the tips. Underside white with a grayish tint, and 
green feathers on sides of throat, neck, breast, abdomen, and 
flanks. Rest like the male. 

Total length, 3-|in. Wing, i|. Tail, i-|. Culmen, T 5 -g. 

This beautiful and rare species was discovered in Costa 
Rica, by M. Carmiol. The type is in the National Museum 
of Washington. 

I found this species at Naranjo, Costa Rica, on the Atlantic 
slope. 

It is very rare. 

I have made a new genus with this remarkable species, 
which I dedicate to Mr. Lawrence, the celebrated American 
Ornithologist. 

Genus LXXV. Polytmus, Brisson., Ornith., 1760. 

Thaumatias, Bon., Compt. Rend., 1850, p. 382. 

Chrysobronchus , Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 252. 

Type : T. thaumantias , Linné. 

Bill much longer than the head, slightly curved, wide at 
base, and graduating to a point. Nostrils exposed. Wings 
long, reaching nearly the end of the tail. Rectrices narrow, 
of unequal length, rounded at tip. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana, Columbia and 
Brazil. 

250. Polytmus thaumantias, Linné, Syst. Nat., 1766, vol. i., 

p. 489. 

Trochilus virescens, Dumont, Diet., Sc. Nat., 18 18, p. 49. 

Ornismya viridis, Less., Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 178. 

Leucippus chrysobronchus, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, 
p. 11. 

Thaumantias linnei, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 

P- 255- 

Chrysobronchus virescens, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 
1854, p. 252. 

Golden-throated Humming-bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., 
vol. iv.. p. 230. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 175 

Le Chrysobronche à queue blanche and verte, Muls., Hist. 
Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, vol. i., p. 277. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Columbia, Venezuela, Guiana and 
Brazil. 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Underside metallic yellow- 
ish-green. In some specimens from Bahia, the underside is 
of the most brilliant golden. A tuft of white feathers on each 
side of anal region. Undertail-coverts shining green, edged 
with white. Median rectrices shining green with the internal 
edges whitish for about half their length, lateral ones having a 
stripe of white on the outer web and tips white, outermost 
ones green for about two-thirds of their length on inner web, 
rest white. In some specimens the outer webs and tips are 
white, the rest is shining green. Maxilla sometimes black, 
sometimes light brown. Mandible flesh colour with black tips. 
Wings purplish-brown. 

Total length, 4|-in. Wing, 2\. Tail, i-|. Culmen, J. 

Female. — I am not certain that the . female is of the same 
colouration as the male. I have several specimens which I 
consider as females. Here is the description : — Upperside 
golden-green. Throat and breast whitish, speckled with many 
metallic golden-green feathers. Abdomen and flanks pale 
rufous. Undertail-coverts white. Median rectrices bronze- 
green, slightly tipped white, lateral bronze-green for about 
two-thirds of their length, the rest white. 

251. Polytmus viridissimus, Vieill., Ois. Dor., t. i., p. 84. 

Ornisfnya viridis, Less. Troch., 183 1, p. 96. 

Trochilus theresiœ, Da Silva., Mai. Min. Bras., 1843, p. 2. 

Amazilia viridissima, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
P- 77- 

Smaragditisviridissima, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, P- 7- 

Chrysobronchus viridissimus, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Z00L, 
1854, p. 252. 

Chlorestes viridissimus, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Thaumatias chrysurus, Burm., Th. Bras., 1856, t. ii., p. 345. 

Green-tailed Humming-bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iv., 
p. 231. 

Le Chrysobronche tout vert, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 280. 



176 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Habitat. — Guiana and Venezuela. 

Male. — Upperside bronze-green. Underside shining grass- 
green in some, and metallic golden-green in others. Tail 
and undertail-coverts metallic grass-green. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour at base, the rest black. Wings purplish- 
black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2§. Tail, if. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside golden- 
green washed with whitish gray. Lateral feathers of tail 
tipped white. Undertail-coverts shining green edged with 
white. Rest of plumage like that of male. 

252. Polytmus leucorrhous, Sclat.and Salv.,P.Z.S., 1867^.584. 
Polytmus leucoproctus, Gray, Handl. Birds, p. 128. 
Chroysobronchus leucorhous, Sclat and Salv., Nomenclator, 

P . 89. 

White-vented Golden-throat, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 
p. 86. 

Le Chrysobronche â sous caudales blanches, Muls.,Hist. Nat. 
Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., p. 281. 

Habitat. — Rio Negro (Brazil) and Peru. 

Male. — Exactly like the preceding species from which it 
differs only by the forehead, which is brown, and the undertail- 
coverts pure white. 

Female. — Differs by the outertail feathers tipped white. 
This rare species was discovered by the celebrated Naturalist, 
Mr. A. Wallace. 

Genus LXXVI. Doleromyia, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool. r 

1854, p. 249. 

Dolerisca,Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iii., p. 6. 

Type: T.fallax, Bourcier. 

Bill longer than the head, straight, broad, and flat at base. 
Wings long, primaries rather broad, the first slightly pointed. 
Tail even, feathers broad and very slightly pointed. Feet 
jarge, tarsi partly feathered. Sexes alike. 

Habitat. — Venezuela. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 177 

253. DOLEROMYIA FALLAX, Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 103. 
Lampornis fulviventris, Gould, P.Z.S., 1846, p. 88. 
Polytmus fallax, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 
Leucippus fallax, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, p. 73. 

Dolerisca fallax, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, t. iiL 
p. 6. 

Dolerisca cervina, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 56. 
Buff-breasted Leucippus, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., p. 56- 

La Doleromye trompeuse, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 206. 

Habitat. — Venezuela. 

Male. — Upperside olive-green tinged with gray. Median 
rectrices bronzy-green, lateral bronze green at base with a 
subterminal brownish-black bar and largely tipped with white. 
Throat, breast, and abdomen pale reddish-buff. A tuft on 
each side of anal region, and undertail-coverts white. Wings 
purplish-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with 
black tip. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2%. Tail, \\. Culmen, |. 

It is a rare species. 

Genus LXXVII. Basilinna, Boié, Isis, 1831, p. 546. 

Heliopedica, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 60. 

Type : T. leucotis, Vieillot. 

Bill straight, about the length of the head. Wings long, 
reaching the end of tail. Tail nearly even, slightly forked, 
rectrices broad. Tarsi clothed, hind toe shorter than the 
middle one. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — California, Mexico, and Guatemala. 

254. Basilinna leucotis, Vieill., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., t. xxii. 

p. 428. 

Trochilus melanotis, Sw., Phil. Mag., 1827, p. 441. 
Ornismya arsenii, Less., Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 60. 
Hylocharis leucotis, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 114. 
Heliopoedica melanotis, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., p. 64. 
Thaumatias leucotis, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, p. 78. 



178 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Sapphironia lucida, Sclat., P.Z.S., 1858, p. 207. 

Coeligena leucotis, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., t. i., p. 187. 

Black-eared Humming-birdj Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., 
p. 65. 

Le Coeligène à oreilles blanches, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. 
Mou., t. i., p. 188. 

Habitat. — Mexico and Guatemala. 

Male. — Forehead and chin dark metallic sapphire-blue 
Upperside bronzy-green, reddish and darker on neck. Feathers 
on rump tinged with rufous. Throat and breast metallic 
emerald-green. Abdomen and flanks shining-green washed 
with gray. Undertail-coverts grayish-brown with centre 
greenish-brown. Wings purple. Median rectrices bronze- 
green, lateral black with external edges and tips bronze. Bill 
flesh colour with black tips, more conspicuous on maxilla. A 
tuft of white feathers on each side of anal region. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green, slightly rufous on fore- 
head. Underside pale gray, washed with green feathers on 
throat, sides of breast and flanks. Rectrices like that of 
male, lateral ones tipped with grayish-white. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour with black tip. Ear-coverts black. 
A white line above and behind the eye. 

This species is rather abundant in Mexico, where I have 
collected many specimens of both sexes. I have also one 
specimen from Guatemala, where it is a rare species. 

^255. BASILINNA XANTHUSI, Lawr., Ann. Lye, Nat. Hist. 

N. Y., i860, p. 109. 
Heliopaedica castaneo-cauda, Lawr., Ann. Lye, Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., i860, p. 145. 

Heliopoedica xanthusi, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., p. 64. 
Coeligena xanthusi, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., t. i., p. 190. 
Xanthus Huinming-bird , Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. ii., p. 65. 
Le Coeligène de Xanthus, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., t. i., 
p. 190. 

Habitat. — Cape St. Lucas (California). 

Male. — Differs from B. leucotis, in having the underside 
rufous. Throat pale grass-green. Tail dark chestnut, tipped 
with bronze. Bill flesh colour, with black tips. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 179 

Total length, 3§in. Wing, 2J. Tail, if. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upperside shining green. Front and entire 
underside rufous. Median rectrices green, lateral rufous, with 
black spots on the webs near the tips. 

This extremely rare species was discovered in California by 
Mr. John Xanthus. It was dedicated to him by Mr. Lawrence, 
of New York. The type is in the collection of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 



Genus LXXVIII. Timolia, Muls., Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875^.23. 

Type : T. lerchl, Mulsant and Verreaux. 

Allied to the genus Eucephala. Bill longer than the head, 
curved. Feathers of forehead projecting on the culmen. 
Nostrils hidden. Tail forked. Tarsi clothed. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

^256. TlMOLlA LERCHI, Muls. and Verr., Aun. Linn. Soc, 

Lyon., 1868. 

Eucephala lerchl, Muls. and Verr., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1878, 
t. iv., p. 191. 

Lerch's Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 94. 

L' Eucêphale de Lerch, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1878, 
t. iv., p. 192. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Fore part of head and a spot on the chin shining 
deep blue. Upper parts dark grass-green, passing into 
reddish-bronze on the upper tail-coverts. Entire underparts 
grass-green. Undertail-coverts olive-green. Wings purplish- 
brown. Tail steel-black. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh 
colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 4^in. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, -j-f. 
"Elliot, loc. cit." 

Type unique in the collection of the Museum of Natural 
History of New York. " Ex. Elliot's Collection." 

This remarkable species was discovered in Columbia by 
Doctor Lerch, to whom it was dedicated by MM. Mulsant and 
Verreaux. 



i8o Genera of Humming Birds. 

Genus LXXIX. Eucephala, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, 

p. 10. 

Ulysses, Muls., Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 12. 

Type : T. grayi, Delattre and Bourcier. 

Bill longer than the head, rather broad at base, sharply 
pointed at tip, nostrils exposed. Wings long and pointed, 
reaching the end of tail. Tail slightly forked, rectrices broad. 
Tarsi clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Ecuador, Columbia. 

257. Eucephala grayi, Delatt. and Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1846, 

P- 3°7- 

Hylocharis grayi, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 115. 

Sapphironia grayi, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 256. 

Ulysses grayi, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, t. ii., p. 41. 

Blue-headed Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 330. 

l'Ulysse de Gray, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois., Mou., 1875, t. ii., 
p. 42. 

Habitat. — Ecuador and Columbia. 

Male. — Head and chin deep metallic prussian-blue. Upper- 
side shining green, golden in some specimens. Tail steel-blue. 
Throat, breast, abdomen and flanks metallic emerald green. 
Undertail-coverts shining green, edged with grayish-white. 
Wings purple-brown. A tuft of white feathers on each side 
of anal region. Maxilla flesh colour at base, rest black. Man- 
dible flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 4§in. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Tail bronzy-green at 
base with bluish edges. Tips spotted with grayish-white. 
Underside grayish-white, speckled with bronzy-green feathers 
on throat, breast, and flanks. Undertail-coverts shining 
green, edged with gray. Bill flesh colour at base, rest black. 
Mandible flesh colour with black tip. Same size as male. 

This beautiful species was discovered by Delattre, at 
Popayan (Columbia), and was dedicated to the late Mr. John 
Gray, who was, for a long time, Curator of the Zoological 
Department of the British Museum. 

I have in my collection three typical specimens, male and 



Genera of Humming Birds. 181 

female, collected by Delattre (Ex Collection Bourcier), and 
several specimens collected by Buckley in Ecuador. 

Genus LXXX. Chlorestes, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, 

p. 7. 

HALIA, Muls. and Verr., Cat. Ois. Mou. 1875, p. 12. 

Type : Tcyanogenys, Wied. 

Bill straight, about the length of the head ; rather broad at 
base, sharply pointed. Nostrils exposed. Wings long and 
pointed, reaching nearly the end of tail. Tail rounded, 
rectrices narrow, outermost one slightly shorter than the 
others. Feet small. Tarsi clothed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador, 
and Peru. 

*258. Chlorestes cyanogenys, Max Wied, Beit. (1825-33), 

t. iv., p. 10. 

Ornismya wiedi, Less., Suppl. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 150. 

Hylocharis cyanogenys, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i, p. 115. 

Saucerottia cyanogenys, Reich., Aufz. der Col. 1853, p. 7. 

Eucephala cyanogenys, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 167. 

Blue-faced Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl. 1886, p. 93. 

V Encéphale de Wied, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1878, 
t. iv., p. 190. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Maxilla and feet black, the mandible flesh colour 
with black tips. Upperpart golden-green with reddish-bronze 
reflections. Primaries purplish-brown. Tail dark steel-blue 
with blue and golden reflections. Chin beautiful blue as in 
E. caerulea. Anal region white. 

Total length about 3m. Wing, \\\. Tail, \. Bill, f. 

Female. — Differs in having the under part grayish-white 
(Pr. Max. I.e.) 

I have several specimens from Bahia, which correspond 
exactly to the above description, excepting the blue and 
golden reflections of tail. The bill is shorter by § inch from 
the ordinary specimens of Chlorestes caerulea; but I am not 
certain at all that it should be kept as a separate species, as I 



1 82 Genera of Humming Birds. 

have specimens from Trinidad and Venezuela with the golden 
colour of back. I have also one male specimen from 
Venezuela with the whole of the underside, excepting the chin 
of the most brilliant golden-green. 

259. Chlorestes caerulea, Vieil!., Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat. 

1817, p. 361. 

Ornismya audeberti, Less., Ois. Mou., 1839, p.p. 30-164. 

Trochilus audeberti, Wied. Betr., t. iv., p. 67. 

Hylocharis caerulea, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 114. 

Thaumatias caeruleus, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 

P . 78. 

Encephala caerulea, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 335. 

Blue-chinned Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 335. 

l' Encéphale à gorge bleue, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 32. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana, Brazil, and Peru. 

Male. — Upperside dark grass-green in some specimens, in 
others golden-green. Tail steel-blue. Chin shining blue. 
Rest of underside luminous yellowish-green in some specimens, 
in others metallic emerald-green. Undertail-coverts shining 
green. Anal region white. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh 
colour with black tip. Wings purple. 

Total length, 3-g-in. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside like that of male. Underside grayish 
white more or less tipped with green on sides of neck, breast, 
abdomen, and flanks. 

It is very abundant in Trinidad and Guiana, and it varies 
very much in the colouring of its plumage. 

*26o Chlorestes chlorocephala, Bourcier, Rev. and Mag. 

Zool., 1854, p. 457. 

Agyrtria chlorocephala, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 7. 

Leupidopygia chlorocephala, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 
i860, t. iii., p. 40. 

Hylocharis chlorocephalus, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 
1854, p. 255. 

Green-headed Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 332. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 183 

V Eucephalë a tête verte, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 30. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — Top of head greenish-blue. Upperside bronzy- 
green. Uppertail-coverts coppery-bronze. Chin, throat, and 
abdomen, shining grass-green. Thighs white. Undertail- 
coverts dark olive margined with white. Tail steel-blue. 
Bill black, base of mandible flesh colour. 

Length of bill, 33 mill. Wing, 55 mill. Tail, 38 mill, middle 
feathers, 30 mill. " Bourcier." 

Female. — U n k n o w n . 

Type in British Museum. '* Ex. Gould's Collection." 

*26i CHLORESTES SMARAGDO-CAERULEA, Gould, Mon. Troch., 

vol. v., p. 331. 

Eucephala smaragdinea, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 37. 

Green and blue Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 331. 

r Encéphale émeraude, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou. 1875, 
vol. ii., p. 38. 

Habitat. — Novo-Friburgo, " Brazil." 

Male. — Crown of the head and throat glittering greenish- 
blue, imperceptibly passing into the glittering green of the 
breast ; back of the neck and uppersurface golden-green ; 
undertail-coverts green inclining to purple on some of the 
feathers; thighs brown ; tail bluish-black, the two outer feathers 
on each side slightly tipped with white ; bill black, w T ith the 
exception of the basal half of the under mandible which is 
flesh-colour. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Bill, }. 
" Gould loc. cit." 

Female unknown. 

This is a very rare species. The type is in the British 
Museum. " Ex. Coll. Gould." 

^262. CHLORESTES CAERULEO-LAVATA, Gould, P.Z.S., i860, 

p. 306. 

Reeve 1 s Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 333. 

V Encéphale à poitrine bleue, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875. t. ii., p. 40. 



184 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Habitat. — San Paolo, Brazil. 

Male. — Crown of the head greenish-blue, not very brilliant, 
but having a few conspicuous small bright blue feathers 
intermingled ; throat and breast bright greenish-blue, passing 
into purer green on the flanks ; back of the neck and back 
deep grass-green ; wings purplish-brown ; uppertail-coverts 
bronzy-orange ; undertail-coverts bronzy purplish-brown ; two 
middle tail feathers deep purplish-bronze, the next on each 
side is washed with bronze on its outer margin, the remaining 
feathers purplish-black ; thighs grayish-white ; the bill appears 
to have been reddish flesh-colour at the base of both mandibles 
and black at the tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, \\. Bill, J. 
" Gould, loc. cit." 

I think it is still unique in the British Museum. " Type Ex. 
Gould's Collection. " 

^■263. Chlorestes hypocyanea, Gould, P.Z.S., i860, p. 306. 

Blue-breasted Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 334. 

V Encéphale à poitrine bleue, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1875, t. ii., p. 36. 

Habitat. — Brazil ? 

Male. — Crown of the head, back of the neck, back, and 
flanks somewhat dull green. Throat and breast brilliant blue, 
passing into glittering green on the centre of the abdomen. 
Wings purplish-brown. Uppertail-covers reddish-bronze. 
Undertail-coverts brownish-black with bronzy tips. Tail 
steel-black. Thighs brown. Upper mandible black. Basal 
two-thirds of the lower mandible flesh colour, the apical third 
black. 

Total length, 3Jin. Bill, |. Wing, 2. Tail, if. u Gould,loc.cit." 

Type of species now in the British Museum. They have 
also a female, which resembles the female of C. caerulea. 

It looks very much the same as E. caeruleo-lavata. — Edit. 

^264. Chlorestes pyropygia, Salv. and Godm., Ibis., 189 1, 

p. 596. 

Eire rumped Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 
p. 92. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 185 

V Encéphale à croupion couleur de feu. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Closely allied to the preceding species from which it is 
distinguished by the metallic colour of the crown, which is 
bluish-green. Underside shining bluish-green, the whole of 
the middle of the throat washed with brighter blue. Lower 
part of back russet, with the uppertail-coverts coppery- 
reddish. Wings dusky. Tail steel-black, slightly rounded. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, i T 9 -g-. Centre tail feathers, \\. 
Outer ones, 1. Bill, T 9 6 . 

Type of species in British Museum. 

^265. Chlorestes subcaerulea, Elliot, His., 1874, p. 87. 

Blue-breasted Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 
p. 92. 

V Encéphale à gorge et cou bleus, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. 
Mou., 1875, t. ii., p. 35. 

Habitat. — Brazil ? 

Male. — Upperpart of head and back dull green, rest of 
back and upper-tail coverts dark green, with a rufous tinge 
dispersed all over these parts ; throat, breast, and centre of 
abdomen beautiful metallic caerulean-blue ; flanks shining 
grass-green. Lower part of abdomen covered by fluffy-white 
feathers. Undertail-coverts metallic green. Wings purple. 
Tail bluish-black. Maxilla black ; mandible yellow (in life 
possibly red), for its entire length, save the tip which is black. 
Feet brownish black. Thighs buffy-white. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, f. 
u Elliot, loc. cit." 

Type unique in Elliot's Collection, now the property of 
the New York Museum of Natural History. 

*266. Chlorestes (?) scapulata, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, 

p. 166. 

Black-bellied Sapphire, Gould, Mon. Troch. Suppl., p. 91. 

r Encéphale à epaulettes, Muls. Hist. Ois. Mou., 1875, 
t. ii., p. 34. 

Habitat. — Guiana ? 

Male. — Crown of the head, back of the neck, and lower 



1 86 Genera of Humming Birds. 

part of the back very deep dull green ; throat and chest 
glittering greenish-blue, imperceptibly passing into the dull 
brownish-black of the abdomen ; undertail-coverts brown with 
a wash of dull blue in the centre of each feather ; a mark of 
blue on each side at the insertion of the wing, forming an 
indistinct band across the back ; uppertail-coverts bronzy- 
green ; tail steel-black, rather short for the size of the bird 
and slightly forked ; wings deep purplish-brown ; tarsi clothed 
with intermingled grayish-white and brown feathers ; upper 
mandible black ; basal half of the under mandible fleshy, the 
apical half black. 

Total length, jfin. Bill, J. Wing, 2 T 1 B -. Tail, if. 
" Gould, loc. cit." 

Type, Ex. Gould's Collection, still unique in the British 

Museum. 

Genus LXXXI. Saucerottia, Bon., Compt. Rend., 1850, 

p. 381. 

Erythronota, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 169. 

Eratopis, Heine., Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 191. 

Erasuria, Hein., Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 191. 

Lisoria, Muls., Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 11. 

TYPE : O. erythronota, Lesson. 

Bill longer than the head, straight, broad at base, graduating 
to an acute point. Wings narrow and long, reaching the end 
of tail. Tail slightly forked. Rectrices narrow, middle ones 
shorter than the next one, which is also shorter than the third 
one, the two outermost ones of same length and longest of all, 
always steel-blue or greenish-black. Nostrils exposed. Feet 
small. Tarsi clothed. Sexes nearly similar. 

Habitat. — Central America, Guiana, Venezuela, Columbia, 
Trinidad, and West Indies Islands. 

267. Saucerottia erythronota, Less., Ois. Mou., 1829, 

p. 181. 

Ornismya erythronotus, Less., Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 19. 
Polytmus erythronotus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 
Chlorestes erythronotus, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 
Hemithylaca erythronota, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 
i860, t. iii. p. 37. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 187 

Erythronota antiqua, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 316. 

Ariana erythronota, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 

P- 323- 

Erythronote, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 316. 

I Ariane erythronote, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 323. 

Habitat. — Trinidad. 

Male. — Forehead metallic green. Neck and upper part of 
back shining golden-green. Lower part of back and rump 
coppery-red. Uppertail-coverts purplish-bronze. Tail steel- 
blue. Underside brilliant metallic grass-green. Thighs and 
patch on the flanks white. Undertail-coverts sometimes rufous 
or purplish-gray edged with rufous. Wings purple. Maxilla 
black. Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2. Tail, i\. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside like the male, excepting the uppertail- 
coverts which are rufous-bronze. All the reccrices of tail 
tipped with reddish-bronze. Underside like that of male but 
less brilliant. 

Very common species in Trinidad. 

268. Saucerottia feliciae, Less., Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 72. 

Ornismya feliciana, Less., Rev. Zool., 1844, p. 433. 

Chlorestes feliciae, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Hemithylaca feliciae, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 38. 

Erythronota feliciae, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 317. 

Felicia's Erythronote, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 317. 

V Ariane de Fêlicie, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 320. 

Habitat.—- Venezuela. 

Male. — The only difference which I can see between this 
species and S. erythronota is the colour of the top of the head 
which is metallic golden-green. I have one fine male specimen 
which has the whole of the underside metallic golden-green r 
but this variety of colour exists also in S. erythronota. 

Female. — Less brilliantly coloured than the male, with the 
central parts of abdomen and lower parts of flank grayish. 



1 88 Genera of Humming Birds. 

In one of my specimens the tips of outermost rectrices are 
bronzy-red. 

My specimens were collected in Caracas, by Doctor Carlos 
Rojas. 

269. SAUCEROTTIA WELLSI, Boucard, Hum. Bird, 1893, v °l- iii-, 

p. 8. 
Wells' Erythronote. 
I' Erythronote de Wells. 
Habitat. — Grenada, " British West Indies." 

Male. — Forehead metallic grass-green. Upperside dark 
shining green, passing to bronze on lower part of back, rump, 
and uppertail-coverts. Tail shining dark purplish-blue. 
Underside metallic grass-green. A tuft on flanks, anal region, 
and thighs white. Undertail-coverts bronze margined with, 
gray. Wings purple-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh 
colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2 J. Tail, 1^. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Exactly like the male, but slightly less brilliant. 
Centre of anal region grayish. 

This species is closely allied to S. erythronota, but can be 
easily distinguished from that species by the colour of the 
upperside and tail. 

It was sent to me, from Grenada, by Mr. Wells. 

Types in Boucard' s Museum. 

270. SAUCEROTTIA HOFFMANNI, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 

i860, t. iii., p. 60. 

Hemithylaca hoffmanni, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 60. 

Hoffmann's Erythronote. 
la Saucêrotte d'Hoffmann. 
Habitat. — Costa Rica. 

Male. — Upperside dark shining green, passing to bronze on 
rump, with a bar of purplish-red close to the uppertail-coverts. 
Uppertail-coverts and tail shining deep blue. Underside 
metallic grass-green. Undertail-coverts shining blue, fringed 
with gray. Wings purplish. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh 
colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2 J. Tail, i\. Culmen, f. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 189 

Female. — Exactly like the male, but less brilliant. Abdomen 
and flanks green tinged with gray. Tips of lateral rectrices 
reddish-bronze. Same size as male. 

I collected several specimens of both sexes of this species 
at San Jose, Costa Rica, from January to April, 1877. 

It was discovered in Costa Rica, by Doctor Hoffmann. 

271. SAUCEROTTIA SOPHIAE, Bour. and Muls., Ann. Soc. Agr., 
Lyon., 1846, t. ix., p. 318. 

Trochilus caligatus, Gould, P.Z.S., 1848, p. 14. 

Poly t mus sophiae, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i. p. 109. 

Amazilius sophiae, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, p. 78. 

Chlorestes sophiae, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Saucerottia warszewiczi, Cab. and Heine, Mus. Hein., 
i860, t. iii., p. 38. 

Hemithyiaca warszewiczi, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 38. 

Hemithyiaca braccata, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 

193- 

Ariana Sophiae, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., p. 
328. 

Sophia's Erythronote, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 322 

l'Ariane de Sophie, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 329. 

Ariana warszewiczi, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t.i., 

P- 327- 

Warszewicz's Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 

P . 89. 

l'Ariane de Warszewicz, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 327. 

Habitat. — Columbia and Venezuela. 

Maie. — The only difference between this species and S. 
hoffmanni consists in the general colour of the upperside, 
which is darker green, the rump of the same colour, with only 
a few purplish-red feathers near the uppertail-coverts, the 
wing-coverts are shining green. In S. sophiae they are 
reddish bronze. Both species are of the same size. The 
female is less brilliant, and has no spots on the rectrices. 



igo Genera of Humming Birds. 

My specimens of this species were collected at Valencia and 
Baranquilla (Columbia), and I have also a large series from. 
Merida, Venezuela. There is no difference whatever between 
them, and the name of H. braccata Heine is not valid. 

This species was discovered by Delattre, in Columbia. 

This is certainly the species described by Messrs. Mulsant 
and Bourcier, and figured by Gould, in volume 5 of his 
Monograph, page 322. Hence the priority of S. hoffmanni 
for the Costa Rican species. 

■^272. SAUCEROTTIA SAUCEROTTEI, Delattre and Bourc, Rev. 

Zool., 1046, p. 311. 

Polytmus saucerottei, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 

Saucerottia typica, Bon., Consp. Gen Av., vol. i., p. 77. 

Chlorestes typica, Reich., Troch. Enum., p. 4. 

Erythronota saucerottei, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 321. 

Hemithylaca saucerottei, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., t. iii., 

p. 38. 

Ariana saucerottei, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 321. 

Saucerotte's Erythronote, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v. 
p. 321. 

l'Ariane de Saucerotte, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 331. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Top of head and upper surface dark grass-green ; 
under surface luminous green, much lighter than the upper- 
parts. Vent white. Undertail-coverts dark bronzy-brown 
edged with grayish-white. Wings purple. Uppertail-coverts 
and tail steel-black. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour, 
tip black. 

Total length, 3Jin. Wing, if. Tail, if. Oilmen, f. 

Female. — Like the male, but not so bright. 

This species was discovered in Columbia, by Delattre. 

273. Saucerottia cyanifrons, Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1843,. 

p. 100. 

Polytmus cyanifrons, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1844-49, v °ï- I r 
p. 108. 



Genera of II it mining Birds. 191 

Tlial ura nia cyanifrons, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, p. 77. 

Chlorestes cyanifrons, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Hemithylaca cyanifrons, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, 
p. 191. 

Ariana cyanifrons, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
P- 332. 

Blue-capped Saucerottia, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 223. 
la Saucêrotte à tête bleue. 
Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — -Head deep shining blue. Upperside bronzy-green, 
passing to dull bronze on rump. Uppertail-coverts bluish- 
bronze. Tail bluish-black. Underside brilliant metallic 
grass-green, golden on centre of abdomen in some specimens. 
Sides of flanks and thighs white. Undertail-coverts, purplish- 
bronze margined with white. Wings purple. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2 J. Tail, \\. Culmen, -|. 

Female. — Upperside like that of male, but less brilliant. 
Underside metallic grass-green with the centre of abdomen 
and sides of flanks gray. Undertail-coverts pale olive 
margined with gray. 

Total length, 3Jin. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, -§. 

This species is very common in Columbia, where it was 
discovered by M. Rieffer. 

I have one male specimen with white feathers on head, 
neck and throat, as if passing to albinism. 

274. Saucerottia nunezi, Boucard, Hum. Bird, 1892, p. 81. 

Nunez's Saucerottia. 

la Saucêrotte de Nunez. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside black with purplish reflections. Upper- 
tail-coverts purplish, each feather margined with grayish-green. 
Tail dark steel-blue. Wings bluish-purple. Throat shining 
dark purple, each feather with a white band above the purple, 
giving a scaly appearance to that part. Abdomen and flanks 
purplish, margined with gray. A patch on each side of flanks, 
vent, and tarsal tuft pure white. Undertail-coverts dark 



ig2 Genera of Hu7nming Birds. 

brownish-green with white margin. Maxilla black. Mandible 
flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2. Tail, if. Culmen, |-. 

Female. — Unknown. 

Type of species in my collection. 

Genus LXXXII. Amazilia, Reichenback, Av. Syst. Nat., 

1849, pi. 39. 

Amazilis, Lesson, Ind. Gen. et Syn. Genr. Troch., 1822, 

p. 27. 

Amazilia, Reich., Avium. Syst. Nat., 1849, p. 39. 

Amazilius, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., p. 77. 

Pyrrhophaena, Cab.andHein.,Mus. Hein.,i86o,t. iii.,p. 35. 

HEMYTHILACA, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i86o,t. iii., p.37. 

HEMISTILBON, Gould, Int. Troch., i860, p. 149. 

Eranna, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 187. 

ERATINA, Hein., Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. p. 190-191. 

ARIANA, Muls. and Verr., Class. Troch., 1865, p. 36. 

MYLETES, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., p. 284. 

Type. — O. amazili. Lesson. 

Bill longer than the head, slightly curved, broad at base, 
graduating to an acute point. Feathers of forehead not 
projecting on the culmen. Nostrils exposed. Wings long 
and pointed. Tail slightly forked, outermost rectrice of the 
same length as the middle one, the other three nearly even, 
and longer. Tarsi clothed. Sexes nearly alike. 

Habitat. — Mexico, Central America, Très Marias Islands, 
Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru. 

275. Amazilia amazili, Less., Voy. Coq., 1826, pi. 31. 

Ornismya amazili, Less., Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 27. 
Trochilus (Lampornis) amazilia, Tschud. Consp. Av., p. 37. 
Polytmus amazili, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 108. 
Amazilia latirostris, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 

P- 77- 

Amazilia pristina, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 303. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 193 

Pyrrhophaena amazilia, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 35. 

Amazilia lessoni, Mais., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 293. 

Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 303. 

l' Amazili de Lesson, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 293. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Tail pale chestnut, glossed 
on the edges and tips of central feathers with greenish-bronze. 
Throat and sides of breast metallic emerald-green. Breast 
white. Abdomen and flanks rufous. Wings purplish-brown. 
Bill flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2-|. Tail, if. Culmen, -|. 

It is a rare species. It was discovered by Lesson in the 
neighbourhood of Lima. My specimens of this species were 
also collected near Lima. 

276. Amazilia forreri, Boucard, Hum. Bird, 1893, vol. iii., 

p. 7. 
Forrer's Amazili. 

r A?nazili de Forrer. 

Habitat. — Mazatlan. 

Male. — Upperside shining golden-green, brownish on head. 
Rump and uppertail-coverts chestnut. Median rectrices 
purplish-chestnut, passing to reddish bronze at tips, lateral 
purplish-chestnut with dark reddish-black edges near the tips, 
outermost one chestnut. Throat and sides of neck golden- 
green. Breast, abdomen, and vent white. Flanks pale rufous. 
Undertail-coverts pale chestnut margined with white. Wings 
brown, passing to purple on shoulders. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2 J. Tail, i\. Culmen, -|. 

I have only one specimen of this new species, which I 
bought in San Francisco (California). It was sold to me with 
some other birds, as having been collected in Mazatlan, by Mr. 
Forrer. 

Type in Boucard's Museum. 



194 Genera of Humming Birds. 

277. AMAZILIA LEUCOPHAEA, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, 

p.p. 10-24. 

Pyrrhophaena leucophaea, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., 
i860, t. iii., p. 35. 

White-breasted Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 306. 

V Amazili à poitrine blanche, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1874, t. i., p. 291. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Rump and undertail- 
coverts rufous. Tail rufous, median feathers edged and tipped 
bronze. Throat and sides of neck golden-green. Breast white. 
Rest of underside rufous. Wings pale brown. Bill flesh 
colour with black tips. 

Total length, 3Jin. Wing, 2\. Tail, 1^. Culmen, f. 

It is a rare species. 

^278. Amazilia alticola, Gould, P.Z.S., i860, p. 309. 

Mountain's Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 304. 

V Amazili alticole, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. i., 
p. 289. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Adult. — Upperparts bronzy-green, darkest on the head. 
Upperparts of throat and sides of neck metallic golden-green. 
Rest of underparts white, except flanks which are buff. The 
white undertail-coverts are washed with buff. Uppertail- 
■coverts and tail chestnut, median rectrices tipped with bronzy- 
green. Wings purplish-brown. Bill flesh colour, with black 
tip. Feet black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, |. 

" Gould, loc. cit." 

According to Elliot, specimens vary in their colouration, 
and some are almost entirely white beneath, with just a few 
feathers of the throat tipped with golden-green. 

This rare species was discovered in Ecuador, by Bourcier. 

279. Amazilia dumerili, Less., Ois. Mou., Suppl., 1831, 

p. 172. 

Polytmus dumerili, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 109. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 195 

Pyrrhophaena du mer Hi, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 36. 

DumeriVs Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 305. 

VAmazili de Dumêril, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 288. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — This species is closely allied to the preceding one, 
but it has the uppertail-coverts and tail bronzy-green. The 
breast is pure white, encircled by metallic green feathers. 
Abdomen and flanks rufous. Undertail-coverts white, washed 
with pale rufous. Bill flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, 2\. Tail, \\. Culmen, -g. 

Female. — Differs by having the green feathers of throat and 
sides of breast much less bright than the male, the middle of 
the abdomen white, and pale rufous tips on lateral rectrices. 

It is a rare species. It was dedicated by Lesson to Dumeril, 
Member of the French Institute, and a well-known Scientist. 

280. Amazilia GRAYSONI, Lawr., Ann. N.Y., Lye, Nat. Hist., 

1867, p. 404. 

Grayson's Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 

P . 87. 

VAmazili de Grayson, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, 
t. i., p. 286. 

Habitat. — Très Marias Islands, Mexico. 

Maie. — Upperside dark shining golden-green, brownish on 
forehead. Uppertail-coverts and tail cinnamon, all the rectrices 
tipped with dark bronze, appearing nearly black in certain 
lights ; the outermost ones are also edged with bronze on 
their external webs, excepting the base. Wings purplish. 
Underside cinnamon. Bill flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 4-fin. Wing, 2J. Tail, 2J. Culmen, iy 1 -^. 

Female. — Slightly smaller and paler, otherwise like the 
male. 

This rare species was discovered by Mr. Grayson, and 
dedicated to him by Mr. Lawrence. 

My specimen, from which the above description is taken, 
was collected by Mr. Forrer, in Très Marias Islands. 



196 Genera of Humming Birds. 

281. Amazilia cinnamomea, Less. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 175 

Ornysmia rutila, Delatt., Echo du monde savant, 1843, P 
1069. 

Trochilus corallirostris, Bourc. and Muls., Ann. Soc. Agr 
Lyon, 1846, t. ix., p. 328. 

Amazilius erythrorhynchus, Bon. Compt. Rend., 1850 
p. 382. 

Amazilius corallirostris, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol 
i., p. 77. 

Pyrrhophaena corallirostris, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein. 
i860, t. iii., p. 35. 

Eranna cinnamomea, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 187 

Coral-billed Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 307. 

V Amazili à poitrine rousse ) Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou. 
1874, t. i., p. 285. 

Habitat. — Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. 

Male. — The only difference between this species and A. 
graysoni is in its much smaller size, the tips of rectrices which 
are metallic bronze or metallic bronze-green, and the forehead 
of the same colour as the rest of the upperside. 

The female is slightly paler than the male. 

Total length, 3-fin. Wing, 2-|. Tail, \\. Culmen, |. 

I think that the discoverer of this species is Delattre, who 
communicated it to Lesson. 

I have some specimens of this species collected by 
Sumichrast, at Tehuantepec, Mexico, and others which I 
collected at Punta-Arenas, Costa Rica. 

282. Amazilia yucatanensis, Cabot., Proceed. Nat. Hist., 

Boston, 1845, p. 74. 

Pyrrhophaena yucatanensis, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, 

P- 157- 

Err ana yucatanensis, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, 
p. 187. 

Yucatan Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v. p. 308. 

l'Amazili du Yucatan, Muls., His. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874, t. 
i., p. 295. 

Habitat. — Yucatan, Mexico. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 197 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Tail chestnut with bronze 
tips, which are scarcely visible on the two outermost feathers. 
Throat and breast metallic green, with golden reflections. 
Abdomen and under-tail coverts cinnamon. Wings purplish- 
brown. Bill flesh colour with black tips. 

Total length, 4m. Wing, 2-|. Tail, i-|. Culmen, \\. 

It is a rare species. My specimens were collected by 
Gaumer, in Yucatan. 

I have also one specimen sent by the same collector, at the 
same time, which 1 consider as the female of that species. 
It is exactly coloured as the male, but all the underside is 
cinnamon as A. cinnamomea ; the tail is exactly like that of 
the male with greenish bronze spots at tips of outermost 
rectrices ; the external webs of these rectrices are also bronzy- 
green. 

283. Amazilia cerviniventris, Gould, P.Z.S., 1856, p. 150 

Pyrrhophaena cerviniventris, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein. 
i860, t. iii., p. 36. 

Err ana cerviniventris, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith., 1863 
p. 187. 

Fawn-breasted Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 309 

V Amazili à ventre de biche, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou. 
1874, t. i., p. 297. 

Habitat. — Mexico. 

Male. — Upperside golden-green. Median rectrices dark 
rufous margined, and tipped bronze, lateral rufous with ex- 
ternal webs and tips bronze. Underside metallic green, 
golden on breast and sides of neck. Abdomen pale rufous. 
Flanks pale rufous, washed with golden feathers. Undertail- 
coverts pale rufous. Wings purplish brown. Bill flesh colour 
with black tips. 

Total length, 3§in. Wing, 2§". Tail, i|. Culmen, \\. 

This species was discovered by Mr. Salle and myself, at 
Tospam, near Cordoba, Mexico. It is closely allied to 
A. yucatanensis, but easily distinguished from that species 
by the colour of the abdomen, undertail-coverts, and flanks, 
and the tail. In A. yucatanensis, the lateral rectrices are 
much narrower, with small bronzy-black tips, instead of large 
bronze tips. 



198 Genera of Humming Birds. 

^284. Amazilia castaneiventris, Gould, P.Z.S., 1856, p. 150. 

Chestnut-bellied Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch.,vol.v.,p.3io. 

I'Amazili a ventre marron. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Crown of the head, upper part of the back and shoulders 
reddish-bronze ; rump and uppertail-coverts grayish, with a 
bronzy lustre ; wings purplish-brown with the exception of 
the basal portion of the primaries and secondaries, which are 
rufous ; tail dark chestnut tipped with a bronzy lustre, of 
great extent and most conspicuous on the centre feathers; 
throat, forepart of the neck, breast, and upperpart of the 
abdomen shining golden-green ; undersurface of the shoulders, 
lower part of the abdomen and undertail-coverts fine chest- 
nut-red ; thighs white ; upper mandible brownish-black, under 
mandible flesh colour, except the tip, which is brownish-black. 

Total length, 3^in. Bill, J. Wing, 2^. Tail, ij. 

" Gould, loc. cit." 

This species differs from A cerviniventris, in the much 
greater depth of the chestnut colouring of the abdomen, 
undertail-coverts and tail, in size it is considerably less than 
in that species, being even smaller than A. beryllina, to which 
it offers an alliance in the colouring of the wings ; but from 
which it differs in the colouring of its abdomen ; the white 
feathers of the thighs are much developed and very conspicuous. 

285. Amazilia fuscicaudata, Fras., P.Z.S., 1840, p. 17. 

Trochilus riefferi, Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 103. 

Trochilus aglaiae, Bourc. and Muls., Ann. Soc. Phys. and 
Se. Lyon, 1846, p. 329. 

Hylocharis fuscicaudatus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i. p. 114. 

Amazilius, aglaiae, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., p-7i" 

Trochilus dubusi, Bourc, Soc. Agr. Lyon, 1852, p. 141. 

Polytmus aglaiae, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1844-49, vol. L, p. 109. 

Saucerottia aglaiae, Reich., Aufz. der Colib., 1853, P- I0 - 

Chlorestes aglaiae, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Pyrrhophaena riefferi, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 36. 

Pyrrhophaena suavis, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 36. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 199 

Hemithylaca aglaiae, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. hi., p. 36. 

Errana jacunda, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 188. 

Rieffer's Amaziti, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 311. 

VArianne de Rieffer, Muls., Hist. Xat. Ois. Mou.. 1874, 
t. i-, p- 3I7- 
Habitat. — Mexico, Central, America, Columbia, and Ecuador. 

Male. — Upperside shining bronze-green, with golden re- 
flections. Uppertail-coverts reddish-chestnut. Tail chestnut, 
all the rectrices more or less margined and tipped bronze. In 
some specimens, especially from Costa Rica, and Guatemala, 
the margins and tips of rectrices are purplish-black bronze. 
Throat and breast brilliant metallic grass-green, golden in some 
specimens. Abdomen and flanks pale brown, washed with 
green feathers. Undertail-coverts rufous. Wings purplish. 
Bill flesh colour with black tips. Thighs, and a tuft on each 
side of vent white. 

Total length, 4111. Wing, 2§. Tail, 1^-. Culmen, -|. 
Female. — Less brightly coloured than the male. 

This is one of the most common species, and with the 
widest range. I have collected many specimens in Guatemala, 
Costa Rica, and Panama, and I cannot see the least difference 
between these and the specimens which I have from Columbia 
and Ecuador. Therefore, I think as Mr. Elliot, that all of 
them belong to the same species. 

*286. Amazilia lawrencei, Elliot, Auk., 1889, pp. 209-210. 

Amazilia aeneobrnnnea, Chap., Journ. fur Ornith., 1889, 
P- 3^9- 

Laic rence's Amazili. 

V A ma 2 Hi de Laurence. 

Habitat. — Columbia ? 

Crown of head, neck, back, upperwing-coverts, and upper- 
tail coverts dull bronzy-green. Wings purple, base of primaries 
and secondaries blackish. Throat, sides of neck, and breast 
glittering grass-green; lower part of flanks and abdomen very 
dark chestnut-brown; undertail-coverts cinnamon. Tail bright 
chestnut, tips and edges of both webs bluish-black, most 
extensive on lateral feathers, reaching on outer webs nearly 



2oo Genera of Humming Birds. 

to their base. Maxilla black, mandible black with a slight 
indication of flesh-colour at the base. Feet black. 

Length of wing, 2 T 1 2-in. Tail, \. Culmen, ~^. "Elliot loc cit." 

This species is easily distinguished from all the others by 
its black bill, differently coloured abdomen, and undertail- 
coverts. 

It was dedicated by Mr. Elliot to the well-known American 
Ornithologist, Mr. George N. Lawrence. 

The type is in the American Museum of Natural History of 
New York. 

287. Amazilia VIRIDIGASTER, Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1843, P- I0 5 

Hylocharis viridigaster, Bon., Consp. Gen. Av., 1850 
vol. i., p. 74. 

Saucerottia viridiventris, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, P- 8 

Hemithylaca viridiventris, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein 
i860, t. iii., p. 38. 

Pyrrhophaena viridigaster ) Gould, Int. Troch, 1861, p. 159 

Ariana viridigaster, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874 
t. i., p. 320. 

Green bellied Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 314 

l'Ariane à ventre vert, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874 
t. i., p. 321. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Forehead metallic green. Neck and back shining 
green. Lower part of back and rump, grayish bronzy-brown, 
passing into purple on the uppertail-coverts. Tail shining 
violet with blue reflections. Underside metallic grass-green, 
passing into smoky-brown on lower part of abdomen. Thigh 
and tuft on anal region white. Undertail-coverts pale green- 
ish-bronze, margined with light buff on some specimens, on 
others margined with white. Wings purplish. Maxilla black. 
Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2§. Tail, if. Culmen, ■§-. 

Female. — Upperside like the male, but less bright. Flanks 
and abdomen smoky-brown, washed with green. Rufous tips 
on lateral rectrices. 

Bourcier's type is in my collection. 

This species was discovered in Columbia, by Mr. Rieffer. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 201 

*288. Amazilia iodura, Saucerotte, M.S. 

Saucerottia iodura, Reich., Aufz. der Colib., 1853, p. 8. 

Chlorestes iodurus, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Hemithylaca iodura, Cab. and Hein., Mus. Hein., i860, 
t. iii., p. 39. 

Pyrrhophaena iodura, Gould, Int. Troch., 1861, p. 59. 

Eratiua iodura, Heine, Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 190. 

White-vented Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, 
p. 88. 

V Amazili à ventre blanc. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

" Capite, collo, pectore, dorso superiore, tectricibusque 
alarum splendide virescentibus, gula paululum albo intermixta ; 
alis coeruleo-virescentibus latissime pallide fulvescente-lim- 
batis ; cauda splendide purpureo-violaceo ; abdomine fulves- 
cente ; crisso albido." 

Length, 3" 3". Wing, 2". Tail, 1" 2". C u lmen, 9". 
" Cab. and Hein., loc. cit." 

From some specimens compared with the type, and kindly 
sent to me by Count Berlepseh, I am of opinion that this 
species is not valid, and is the same as the preceding one, 
A. viridip aster. 

*289- Amazilia lucida, Elliot, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1877, 

p. 404. 

Elliot' s Amazili, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., 1886, p. 89. 

Le Pyrrliophène brillant, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1878, 
t. iv., p. 183. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Adult. — Crown of the head dark metallic green; upper- 
surface shining grass-green, lighter than the head. Upper- 
tail-coverts golden-bronze. Throat, breast, abdomen, and 
flanks metallic grass-green, a light mouse coloured spot on the 
lower part of the abdomen. Thighs white, feathers fluffy. 
Undertail-coverts dark bronzy-brown, edged with white. 
Wings dark purple. Tail reddish-bronze, darkest in the centre 
of the feathers along the shafts, with the tips of the lateral 
rectrices bluish-black, their edges reddish-bronze. This bluish- 
black colour, almost resolves itself into a subterminal bar, 



202 Genera of Humming Birds. 

and is especially conspicuous on the underside of the taiL 
Bill brownish red, flesh colour in life, tip blackish. 

Total length, 3^in. Wing, 2J-. Tail, i^. Culmen, f. 
" Elliot's Synopsis Hum. Birds, p. 223." 

Type in Elliot's Museum, now in the Museum of Natural 
History, New York. 

290. Amazilia edwardi, Delatt. and Bourc, Rev. Zool. r 

1846, p. 308. 

Poly t mus edwardsi, Gray, Gen. Birds, 1844-49, v °l- h P- I0 9- 

Saucerottia edwardsi, Reich., Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 8. 

Thaumantias edward, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854,. 
P- 255- 

Erythronota edwardi, Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. York, t. vii. r 
p. 292. 

Wilson's Erythronota, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. v., p. 318. 

Le Leucodore d'Edouard, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1874,, 
t. i., p. 312. 

Habitat. — Panama, Veragua. 

Male. — Top of head shining green, bronzy on neck. Back 
bronzy-green passing to shining reddish-bronze on rump and 
uppertail coverts. Tail bronzy-purple. Throat, breast, and 
flanks metallic grass -green passing to golden on flanks. 
Abdomen pure white. A tuft of w r hite feathers on sides of 
flanks. Thighs white. Undertail-coverts pale rufous bordered 
with grayish-white. Wings purple. Maxilla black. Mandible 
flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, 2\. Tail, if. Culmen, j-. 

This fine species was discovered in Panama, by Delattre. 
He and Bourcier described and dedicated it to Mr. Edward 
Wilson, of Lydstip, near Tenby. Mr. Wilson made a very 
fine Ornithological collection during his life, and was a liberal 
patron of science. 

291. Amazilia niveiventris, Gould, P.Z.S., 1850, p. 164. 

Saucerottia niveiventer, Reich., Aufz. der Colib., 1853, P- 8". 

Chlorestes niveiventris, Reich., Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 4. 

Thaumantias niveiventer, Bon., Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
P- 255- 




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